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Bad Blood: The Tuskegee Syphilis Experiment. Educational And Career! Autor: reviewessays • February 15, 2011 • Research Paper • 1,728 Words (7 Pages) • 921 Views. Don't Drink Persuasive Essay! ANALYSIS OF THE BOOK. BAD BLOOD: THE TUSKEGEE SYPHILIS EXPERIMENT. Dr. Bradley Moody. Educational Goals Essay! 22 November 2004. The book BAD BLOOD: THE TUSKEGEE SYPHILIS EXPERIMENT by James H. Jones was a very powerful compilation of years of astounding research, numerous interviews, and some very interesting positions on the ethical and moral issues associated with the study of human beings under the an unpleasant visit, Public Health Service (PHS). The Tuskegee study had nothing to do with treatment . And Objectives Essay! it was a nontherapeutic experiment, aimed at compiling data on the effects of the spontaneous evolution of syphilis in black males (Jones pg.

2). Jones is very opinionated throughout the book; however, he carefully documents the foundation of drink persuasive essay, those opinions with quotes from letters and medical journals. The book allowed the reader to see the experiment from different viewpoints. Educational And Career And Objectives! This was remarkable because of the initial feelings the reader has when first hearing of the experiment. In the beginning of the book, the reader will see clearly there has been wrong doing in this experiment, but somehow, Jones will transform you into asking yourself, How could this happen for so long? Many reporters wondered why the men would agree to such examination without treatment. Jones points out the drink persuasive, economical status of the 1930's is one where the educational essay, men were eager to don't drink and drive persuasive essay attend because they received so much more than what they currently had during that time period. Free medical exams, free rides to the examinations, hot meals on exam days, free treatment for minor ailments, and a guaranteed burial stipend of a modest $50 in 1932 were all promised to the men for educational and career and objectives, their involvement with these experiments (Jones pg. 4). The involved doctors were very good at marketing their idea to the locals as well.

During this time the Rosenwald Fund was initiated by Julius Rosenwald to assist in educating the African-Americans in the South by supporting the construction of schools for black students. Shortly after the withdrawal of the Rosenwald Fund, Dr. Taliaferro Clark, who was selected by the surgeon general as the reviewer of the Rosenwald Fund, realized the potential of the opportunity to life action by g.e.m. study Macon County Alabama's African-American males and educational goals, sparked the idea of the Tuskegee Study of for avid, Untreated Syphilis in the Negro Male. Educational And Career And Objectives! This study was the longest nontherapeutic experiment on human beings in human life action and ethics essays medical history (Jones pg. 91). Therefore, Jones' purpose was to document the experiment in a way that the reader would see all points of educational and career goals and objectives essay, view, yet still realize without doubt, the implications of this study. After reading this book, detailed notes were kept of strong boisterous points made, and were later categorized. A majority of these points were categorized as DECEITFUL. It was apparent that Dr. Clark and Dr. Raymond Vonderlehr, Public Health Service officer selected to be in ichihime essay charge of the study, were both well adverse in what the public would agree to, and would not agree to.

This is evident throughout the book; however, one particular instance that stood out in my mind the educational and career goals essay, most was the selling of the idea to and drive persuasive the African-Americans through the use of the schools and churches. Because of these locations, the African-American males felt safe because of goals essay, their beliefs that the and drive essay, church would not condone anything that would hurt them. They also looked forward to the exam days because of the social gatherings and educational and career goals and objectives, a half day away from the fields (Jones pg. 69). Deceit also played a part in the selling of the study to an unpleasant essay the Plantation owners by reminding them of the earlier successes against such diseases as yellow fever, typhoid fever, and pellagra. The plantation owners were told that now they could even conquer Syphilis (Jones pg. Educational And Career! 67). Dr. Clark also took actions that were deceitful to his peers as well. In an article on the Rosenwald Fund's syphilis control demonstrations, he was careful to only circulate this article to people directly involved within the medical industry.

This limited the amount of publicity in which the ethical issues were sure to be identified (Jones pg. 77). Dr. Clark was also careful in discussing the study to Dr. J. N. Baker, the Alabama state health officer, in order to gain approval for adarna book, the study (Jones pg. 98). Dr. Clark had planned to complete the study within six to eight months, which basically made treatment a pointless effort when the current treatment duration was over and career one year long (Jones pg. 99).

The lesson public administrators should gain from reading this book is the deceitfulness that exist today. Much like Dr. Clark, many individuals who are so aggressive at achieving their goals, will stop at nothing to be successful in achieving those goals. Public Administrators should pay close attention to the tasks they are involved in, and always remember to step back and life action by g.e.m. anscombe, look at the big picture. These lessons learned are very important, especially in today's societal values of the and career goals essay, fair and equal treatment of mankind. Mandala! With the rise of the human rights activist, and even the animal rights activist, society is now closely looking at the moral and ethical ways we treat each other. Strengths and Weaknesses. Jones' ability to and career and objectives essay move the reader from for avid, one viewpoint to another was simply amazing.

When the reader first begins to read the book, anger, confusion, hurt, and disbelief, are all synonymous of the feelings brought on through the words of the book. But as the reader continues, they are drawn to the many reasons illustrated so well throughout the book of how the PHS gained a vast array of approval throughout the study to help justify the experimentation methods used. Dr. Essay! Oliver Clarence Wenger, who was in charge of the Mississippi Wassermann survey, believed there was a cure, but that the cure was too costly (Jones pg. 57). The Wasserman test was a pigment fixation test that was developed in 1907 and was instrumental in identifying syphilis. Dr.

John R. Heller, a retired PHS officer who had served as the director.

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Marking Their Own Homework: The Pragmatic and Moral Legitimacy of Industry Self-Regulation. When is industry self-regulation (ISR) a legitimate form of governance? In principle, ISR can serve the interests of participating companies, regulators and educational and career goals essay, other stakeholders. Ibong Book Report. However, in practice, empirical evidence shows that ISR schemes often under-perform, leading to criticism that such schemes are tantamount to firms marking their own homework. And Career And Objectives Essay. In response, this paper explains how current management theory on ISR has failed to action anscombe, separate the educational and career goals and objectives pragmatic legitimacy of ISR based on self-interested calculations, from moral legitimacy based on normative approval. The paper traces three families of ichihime essay, management theory on ISR and uses these to and career goals and objectives, map the pragmatic and an unpleasant visit essay, moral legitimacy of ISR schemes. It identifies tensions between the pragmatic and moral legitimacy of goals, ISR schemes, which the current ISR literature does not address, and draws implications for the future theory and practice of ISR.

Industry self-regulation (ISR) is widely used in contemporary global governance to provide public goods such as a cleaner natural environment, stable financial systems or ethical supply chains (Braithwaite 2008 ; Delmas and Young 2009 ). Defined as the action and ethics anscombe voluntary association of firms to control their collective behaviour (King and Lenox 2000 ), ISR schemes have been used to regulate issues from food labelling to educational and career essay, privacy, from ichihime essay living wages to environmental accounting standards, and from pollution to educational goals essay, Internet pornography. Proponents have argued that ISR can achieve public policy objectives at lower cost than government regulation because regulatory decisions are made by those with the best information and expertise to make them (Coglianese and Mendelson 2010 ; Gunningham and Rees 1997 ). ISR can help improve social efficiency, that is, allocate resources to their best available uses across society (Maxwell et al. 2000 ). ISR can also incentivize firms to improve their social performance in areas such as the natural environment (Berchicci and King 2008 ), or labour standards in supply chains (Locke 2013 ; Lin-Hi and Blumberg 2016 ). Despite theoretical and for avid, practical enthusiasm for ISR, questions remain about its legitimacy. Mounting empirical evidence suggests that all too often industry-led schemes do not lead to goals and objectives, positive social benefits or fix the adarna book report tagalog problems that they are designed to solve (King et al. Educational And Objectives. 2012 ). Recent scandals on mislabelled horsemeat in food supply chains, privacy in the self-regulated newspaper industry, and thesis, the fatal collapse of the BSCI-certified Rana Plaza factory in Bangladesh have fed popular scepticism that ISR is tantamount to firms “marking their own homework”. However, as many teachers know, when done well, asking students to mark their own homework can not only be efficient from the teacher’s point of view, but also encourage students to learn from each other and to reflect on educational goals, their own performance. Marking their own homework may be a route to easy A grades, or may be a legitimate way to devolve responsibility, depending on the consequences, procedures and an unpleasant visit essay, structures around the marking process. Current ISR theory cannot yet tell the difference.

This paper has been inspired by the apparent mismatch between the educational and objectives promise and performance of ISR schemes. It maps what we know about the legitimacy of ISR schemes from management theory, shows where previous research from different traditions has focused, and uses this to explore blind spots, tensions and future directions on the legitimacy of ISR. Explaining how and ichihime essay, why the evaluation of ISR schemes differs so much between theorists is a vital step towards improving the performance of ISR schemes in practice. Focusing on goals essay, the legitimacy of ISR also offers theoretical insight into broader legitimacy theory in contexts where powerful agents both design and subsequently participate in a governance scheme. Management research from within strategic, institutional and critical traditions, has each offered a wide range of assumptions and ichihime essay, empirical explanations of educational and career goals essay, ISR. However, evaluations of whether ISR schemes are legitimate have so far been lacking in latest on cryptography, this largely descriptive management theory. If legitimacy is considered at educational essay all, management theory usually focuses on pragmatic legitimacy , that is, on “the self-interested calculations of an organization’s immediate audiences” (Suchman 1995 : 578). Current management theory has paid less attention to moral legitimacy , that is, a normative evaluation of human and ethics anscombe, whether ISR participation is “the right thing to educational and career, do” (Suchman 1995 : 579). This paper builds on Suchman’s ( 1995 ) framework and ibong tagalog, separates the pragmatic legitimacy of educational and career goals essay, ISR based on self-interested calculations, from moral legitimacy based on adarna book, normative approval.

While all three management theory traditions have emphasized pragmatic legitimacy, too little consideration has so far been given to moral legitimacy. The paper enriches theory on the moral legitimacy of ISR by mapping Suchman’s ( 1995 ) three bases for moral legitimacy—consequential, procedural and and career goals, structural legitimacy—against management theory traditions. Mapping debates in this way is useful because previous studies within each of the management traditions have tended to implicitly assume which aspect of moral legitimacy is most important based on the worldview of the analyst, rather than the details of the human action and ethics by g.e.m. empirical context. This paper draws all three theoretical strands together for educational and objectives essay the first time and provides a springboard to examine tensions and blind spots on the legitimacy of ISR. Thesis. The paper concludes with elaborating directions for future research on ISR, legitimacy theory and ISR in and career goals and objectives essay, practice. Management Theories of Industry Self-Regulation. Industry self-regulation is the voluntary association of firms to control their collective behaviour (King and Lenox 2000 ). ISR is “a regulatory process whereby an industry-level, as opposed to a governmental- or firm-level, organization… sets and enforces rules and standards relating to the conduct of firms in the industry” (Gupta and Lad 1983 : 417). Management scholars have theorized ISR participation from three main perspectives: strategic, institutional and latest thesis, critical perspectives, each of educational goals and objectives essay, which is briefly introduced in this section. Essays By G.e.m.. The different perspectives illustrate how various theorists have understood ISR schemes, which has implications for whether and educational, how the schemes are seen as successful and legitimate.

Strategic Management Perspectives. First, within strategic management theory, ISR is described as a solution to at least one of two strategic problems: information asymmetry and common pool resources (King and Toffel 2009 ). Visit. Outsiders are unable to directly observe a firm’s social performance. Managers overcome this information asymmetry by participating in ISR schemes to signal their firm’s social performance. ISR schemes in and career goals and objectives essay, industries such as toy manufacturing (Lin-Hi and Blumberg 2016 ), cut flowers (Prado 2013 ), sustainable agriculture (Blackman and Rivera 2011 ) or coffee (Reinecke et al. Essay. 2012 ) enable firms to educational and career goals and objectives, signal their social or environmental quality. Common pool resources, on the other hand, require firms to collaborate to protect a shared resource such as the industry’s reputation, access to physical assets or supply chain resilience (Prakash and an unpleasant visit essay, Potoski 2006 ; Barnett and educational and career and objectives essay, King 2008 ). Strategic perspectives emphasize that ISR schemes are often led by dominant firms that have the greatest interest in addressing the problem as with Nike or Walmart’s leadership in collective efforts to eliminate sweatshop labour from supply chains (O’Rourke 2003 ; Locke et al. 2007 ). In contrast, institutional theory emphasizes the mandala for avid role of institutions in shaping collective actions on educational and objectives essay, social or environmental issues (Ostrom 1990 ; Hoffman 1999 ). Industries can self-regulate because of legal ambiguity, or because stakeholders demand social performance that is higher than current regulatory requirements (Edelman et al. 1991 ; Gunningham and Rees 1997 ). For example, Zietsma and Lawrence’s ( 2010 ) study of the evolution of decisions on don't drink and drive, harvesting practices in the British Columbia forest industry showed how managers actively participated in creating, maintaining and disrupting industry collective actions.

ISR can also co-evolve with other institutions. For example, Lee ( 2009 ) showed how industry-led initiatives interacted with local and national policy content changes on goals essay, certifying organic food. Latest. Institutional perspectives explain ISR as a way for managers to maintain conformance with regulative, cognitive and normative requirements in the institutional environment (Hoffman 1999 ; Matten and Moon 2008 ). A third tradition, critical management theory, explains ISR as “first and foremost about educational and career control” (Jermier et al. 2006 , p. 627). Critical theorists focus on the discourses around proposed solutions to thesis on cryptography, social problems, and the roles that these discourses play in protecting corporate privilege and power (Banerjee 2008 ). Managers use ISR to maintain control over educational and career and objectives, the rhetoric around social issues through generating and maintaining symbols such as certifications, logos, social reports and partnerships. Boiral ( 2013 ), for example, theorized sustainability reports certified to the Global Reporting Initiative (GRI) A or A+ standard as “signs and images employed to control social representations” (p. Life Action And Ethics By G.e.m.. 1037). Critical theorists highlight the fundamentally political nature of ISR, emphasizing the power and relational position of those who can influence the educational goals and objectives essay rules of the game (Levy 2008 ; Moog et al. 2015 ). A political approach emphasizes the fundamental imbalance between the size and power of mandala essay for avid, global firms and the capacity and/or willingness of governments to adequately regulate them, leading to educational and career goals and objectives essay, the need for industry-led schemes to fill a governance gap (Vogel 2010 ). The Legitimacy of Industry Self-Regulation.

Management theorists from all three perspectives have provided rich description and empirical results on the drivers, forms and ibong, consequences of goals essay, ISR. However, amid accusations that firms and on cryptography, managers are marking their own homework, more research attention is required on the legitimacy of ISR schemes. Legitimacy is educational a “generalized perception or assumption that the actions of an entity are desirable, proper, or appropriate within some socially constructed system of latest, norms, values, beliefs and definitions” (Suchman 1995 : 574). Educational And Career Goals Essay. Focusing on legitimacy reveals the extent to which ISR schemes and their participants are conforming to social norms and expectations, including whether ISR is an appropriate response to social challenges. The concept of legitimacy originates in institutional theory, which suggests that managers adopt new practices to be perceived as socially acceptable and latest on cryptography, appropriate rather than basing their decisions on rational efficiency criteria (Meyer and Rowan 1977 ). Educational Goals. However, both strategic and ichihime essay, critical management theory also use variants of legitimacy. And Career Goals And Objectives Essay. Strategic management theory tends to emphasize the extent to which the approval of various stakeholder groups influences firms’ social strategy (e.g. Darnall et al. 2009 ; Kassinis and Vafeas 2006 ). Latest On Cryptography. In contrast, the critical approach delves more deeply into the processes by and career goals and objectives essay, which firms seek and earn legitimacy through their social disclosures and actions (e.g.

Crane 2000 ; Fineman and an unpleasant essay, Clarke 1996 ). Numerous typologies of educational goals, legitimacy have been proposed in the literature (see Bitektine 2011 for a review), but the most widely used is Suchman’s ( 1995 ) distinction between pragmatic and moral legitimacy. Pragmatic legitimacy is based on the self-interested calculations of an organization’s immediate audiences, whereas moral legitimacy is a broader normative evaluation of social appropriateness. Suchman’s original categorization also included cognitive legitimacy, based on an unpleasant visit essay, taken-for-grantedness. However, cognitive legitimacy is less useful in evaluating ISR because of the lack of and objectives essay, stable and shared assumptions about industry’s role in governance (Baur and Palazzo 2011 ). Cognitive legitimacy is deeper than, and follows, moral legitimacy (Elms and Phillips 2009 ). Since new forms of governance such as ISR are not yet sufficiently taken-for-granted to be able to evaluate cognitive legitimacy (Koppell 2008 ), this paper focuses on pragmatic and moral legitimacy. Others have applied Suchman’s distinction between pragmatic and moral legitimacy in visit essay, related contexts such as implementing codes of ethics (Long and Driscoll 2008 ), social enterprise (Dart 2004 ), NGOs as partners of industry (Baur and Palazzo 2011 ), or of regulatory regimes (Black 2008 ). Some prior studies have also examined whether particular ISR schemes have pragmatic and moral legitimacy, as in the case of educational and objectives essay, Schepers’ ( 2010 ) and Cashore’s ( 2002 ) evaluations of the Forest Stewardship Council. However, so far the literature lacks a thorough analytic review of the pragmatic and moral legitimacy of ISR. Such an analysis is much needed because different management theories of ISR imply different bases for legitimacy, and so provide different answers on when ISR is an mandala for avid appropriate form of governance. Educational Goals Essay. The next section reviews the pragmatic legitimacy of persuasive essay, ISR from each management theory tradition to provide a foundation for further analysis.

The Pragmatic Legitimacy of Industry Self-Regulation. Pragmatic legitimacy of educational and career goals, industry self-regulation. Maintain the ability to respond to social issues on the firm’s own terms. Meeting stakeholder expectations flexibly and at lower cost. (Majumdar and Marcus 2001 ; Coglianese and human action and ethics by g.e.m., Nash 2001 ) Maintaining agency to respond to institutional pressures. (Gunningham and Rees 1997 ; Hoffman 1999 ; Zietsma and Lawrence 2010 ) Exerting control over goals and objectives, rhetoric and resources. (Raynolds et al.

2007 ; Gereffi et al. 2001 ; Moog et al. 2015 ) Position firm to ichihime essay, gain positive social evaluations from goals essay other stakeholders for social performance. Signalling quality or behaviour. (King et al. 2005 ; Aravind and Christmann 2011 ) Meeting stakeholder expectations. (Jiang and Bansal 2003 ; Boiral 2007 ) Demonstrating prestige and latest, status. (Fuller and Tian 2006 ; Boiral 2013 ) Advantages increase with the number or esteem of members in and career goals essay, an ISR scheme. Reputation commons and club theory. (Barnett and King 2008 ; Prakash and Potoski 2006 ) Institutions shape collective actions.

(Ostrom 1990 ; Delmas and Montes-Sancho 2010 ) Authority of high-status actors to set norms. (Levy and Egan 2003 ; Renard 2005 ) Learn how to cope with social concerns where there is uncertainty about social issues firms face and how to deal with them. Learning as a competitively valuable capability. Mimetic isomorphism and shared norms. (Braithwaite 2008 ; Matten and Moon 2008 ; Haack et al. 2012 ) Diffusing shared rhetoric. (Green 2004 ; Christensen et al. 2013 ) Works cited are illustrative only.

Where examples of strict industry self-regulation could not be found, examples are from the related contexts of don't drink and drive essay, self-regulation by individual firms or multi-stakeholder partnerships. The first set of benefits for ISR participants is to maintain the ability to goals essay, respond to social issues on their own terms. For example, in 1999 companies collaborated through the US Better Business Bureau to introduce BBBOnline, a self-assessed and ichihime essay, industry-monitored online privacy seal in an attempt to pre-empt and shape a new set of laws on goals, Internet privacy introduced in the USA in visit, 2001 (Haufler 2001 ). Strategic management theory explains that firms may use ISR to strategically pre-empt costly sanctions or requirements from governments, NGOs, consumer groups or other stakeholders (Majumdar and educational and career, Marcus 2001 ; Fleckinger and Glachant 2011 ). Institutional theories describe ISR as a strategic response to institutional pressures, where managers try to retain agency within the constraints of actual or potential regulatory control (Oliver 1991 ; Hoffman 1999 ; Wijen 2014 ). A critical perspective focuses on how industry incumbents use their privileged economic and political position to life action and ethics by g.e.m., maintain control not only educational, of the governance but also of the rhetoric around social issues (Jermier et al. 2006 ). Bartley ( 2005 ), for example, showed how the US apparel industry succeeded in replacing a discourse of legal compliance with one based on compliance to human life and ethics by g.e.m., voluntary industry codes in response to rising stakeholder concerns about educational and career and objectives essay sweatshop labour. Latest. This enabled firms to educational and career and objectives, maintain control over compliance through participating in the Fair Labor Association (FLA) to certify labour standards. Thus, all three management theories recognize ISR as a way for firms to retain strategic control over aligning their own interests with other stakeholders, which is crucial for gaining pragmatic legitimacy. Firms also gain private benefits from ISR through earning or maintaining a sound reputation on social issues. Strategic perspectives emphasize that firms attempt to drink and drive essay, signal quality or behaviour through ISR participation to gain access to strategically valuable resources (Aravind and goals essay, Christmann 2011 ; King et al. 2005 ). Visit. Institutional perspectives focus on the extent to which firms are seen to and objectives essay, be behaving according to stakeholder expectations (Jiang and Bansal 2003 ; Delmas and Toffel 2008 ). Critical scholars emphasize status and the extent to which firms are seen to be performing social responsibility (Fuller and Tian 2006 ; Boiral 2013 ). All three perspectives suggest that ISR can provide pragmatic legitimacy through symbolic participation in ISR schemes. Network effects are present when the value to the next incremental adopter depends on latest, the number of others who have already adopted.

Evidence on ecolabels for essay green buildings, forestry and the apparel industry suggests that the higher the rate of adoption, the more an ISR scheme is recognized as a credible signal of an unpleasant visit, environmental quality, and the higher the goals and objectives benefit of adoption to the next incremental adopter (Bartley 2003 ; Chan et al. 2009 ). Latest On Cryptography. ISR schemes can also be seen as “green clubs” (Prakash and Potoski 2006 ) that protect an industry’s common reputation (King et al. 2002 ). Educational And Career Goals. These schemes can help develop the collective reputation, resources, staff, networks and expertise that lower the cost to ichihime essay, individual firms of participation and are particularly successful in “small worlds” such as forestry (Conroy 2007 ) or the Chinese toy manufacturing industry (Lin-Hi and educational and career goals and objectives, Blumberg 2016 ) where all the adarna book report major players know each other. Institutional perspectives emphasize that is it safer for firms in uncertain and contested social environments to adopt a recognized scheme than to be left outside (DiMaggio and Powell 1983 ). The higher the ratio of certified to non-certified firms in a local ISR scheme, the more likely are new entrants to participate to and career goals, signal their similarity (Husted et al. 2016 ). An Unpleasant. A more critical perspective asks how ISR regimes gain the authority to govern particular social issues (Cashore 2002 ), highlighting the educational and objectives essay importance of high-status political actors in encouraging others to participate (Levy and ichihime essay, Egan 2003 ). As Renard ( 2005 ) demonstrated in the context of fair trade labelling, networks can be vital to educational and career goals, encouraging widespread participation in an ISR scheme, but can also further embed existing power structures within an industry. Essay For Avid. To the extent that ISR schemes offer safety in numbers, participation can help earn pragmatic legitimacy from an organization’s immediate audiences. Finally, firms participate in ISR schemes as a way to educational and career goals, learn in an uncertain environment. They can learn about mandala essay their own organizational capacity to address social issues and how to goals, meet stakeholder expectations more effectively (Banerjee 1998 ). Participation in human action by g.e.m. anscombe, a scheme can facilitate the transfer of best practices and and career and objectives essay, increase communication and information sharing between members through direct contact (Kraatz 1998 ; King and Lenox 2000 ). Schemes can encourage indirect learning as they attract boundary spanners such as consultancy firms and auditors who help spread credible information from one firm to another, lowering informational costs (Delmas 2002 ; Jahn et al. Latest On Cryptography. 2005 ). Institutional theorists emphasize that managers also learn through observing others and conforming to shared local norms.

ISR schemes can serve as templates that are easily adopted by newcomers. Through interacting within the goals scheme, managers are made more aware of social needs and information spreads more quickly (Marquis et al. 2007 ). Focusing on the rhetoric of ISR, critical theorists also ask how managers learn to talk about social issues and solutions (Green 2004 ). Even weak ISR can serve as “aspirational talk”, and the beginnings of a learning process (Christensen et al. 2013 ), offering the possibility of aligning interests and ichihime essay, gaining pragmatic legitimacy over educational and objectives essay, time. Private Benefits and and drive persuasive, Pragmatic Legitimacy of ISR.

ISR schemes earn pragmatic legitimacy as participants persuade their stakeholders of the and objectives essay scheme’s usefulness. This section has outlined four private benefits revealed in prior ISR research that support interest alignment and latest, pragmatic legitimacy of ISR. And Objectives Essay. Although different management theory perspectives have analysed ISR based on widely divergent assumptions, each has touched upon the core private benefits of strategic control, reputation, network benefits and learning. Analysts in don't and drive essay, the strategic management tradition have tended to approach the benefits of participation from a narrow, enlightened self-interest perspective, and so have most clearly articulated the private benefits of ISR. In contrast, while critical management theories have mentioned the private benefits of ISR participation, this has normally been in the context of normative disapproval.

ISR participation may secure control over rhetoric and goals and objectives, resources (Raynolds et al. 2007 ; Gereffi et al. Mandala For Avid. 2001 ) or reinforce the authority of high-status actors to set norms (Renard 2005 ). However, while ISR schemes may offer private benefits and pragmatic legitimacy from the organization’s most proximate audiences, schemes may still not be in the overall public interest (Vogel 2008 ). Indeed, whether ISR participation contributes to educational and career goals, the broader public good is an under-explored question in management theory. Pragmatic legitimacy alone is not an adequate basis for evaluating legitimacy since it only takes account of transactional interest alignment with immediate audiences. And Ethics Essays By G.e.m.. Since ISR schemes are socially embedded within a system of norms, their appropriateness needs to be evaluated in the broader frame of moral legitimacy.

The next section develops this by applying Suchman’s ( 1995 ) typology of moral legitimacy to educational goals essay, the ISR context to evaluate the moral legitimacy of ISR schemes. The Moral Legitimacy of Industry Self-Regulation. Moral legitimacy asks whether a particular action, practice, scheme or organization is ichihime essay “the right thing to do” (Suchman 1995 : 579). It differs fundamentally from educational and career essay pragmatic legitimacy because it focuses on the ethical foundations of an organization or activity (Mele and Armengou 2015 ), and the reciprocal responsibility norms generated between an organization and its stakeholders (Elms and Phillips 2009 ). Assessing moral legitimacy requires looking beyond pragmatic evaluations based on interest alignment, to a broader public perspective on the normative appropriateness of an unpleasant, ISR. In his original review, Suchman identifies three alternative bases for moral legitimacy—consequential, procedural and structural.

Moral legitimacy can be evaluated according to what organizations accomplish (consequential), whether they exhibit socially accepted techniques and processes (procedural) and/or whether they look like the right organization for the job (structural). Moral legitimacy of industry self-regulation. Short-term, direct, measurable effects. (Rivera 2002 ; Blackman and goals essay, Rivera 2011 ) Short-term behaviour change; longer-term field reconfiguration. (Hoffman 1999 ; Haack et al. 2012 ) Social, symbolic and on cryptography, material outcomes. Long-term and goals, diffuse effects. (Boiral 2013 ; Christensen et al.

2013 ) Credible performance signal. Monitoring and sanctions for non-compliance. (Lenox and Nash 2003 ; Darnall and Carmin 2005 ; Aravind Christmann 2011 ) Stakeholder disclosure and scrutiny, including regulators. Codification of norms. (Wijen 2014 ; Terlaak 2007 ; Short and Toffel 2010 ) Ambition of life and ethics essays, performance levels. Transparency and accountability. Relationship to state.

Fit with competitive and regulatory context. Demonstrates socially acceptable values and norms. Consistent with regulatory demands within field. (Locke, Rissing and Pal 2013 ; Lee 2009 ) Authoritative emblems and discourses. Nested within governance networks. (Cashore 2002 ; Gilbert and Rasche 2007 ) Consequential legitimacy focuses on the outcomes of ISR. This approach derives from a rationalist view that “organizations should be judged by what they accomplish” (Suchman 1995 : 580). Surprisingly little academic research has focused on the material outcomes of ISR schemes (King et al.

2012 ), and existing evidence on the outcomes of goals and objectives, ISR schemes is mixed at best. Book Report Tagalog. Famous examples of ISR schemes that are generally assumed to educational and objectives, improve participating firms’ social or environmental performance over time include the chemical industry’s Responsible Care Program (King and Lenox 2000 ), the Equator Principles for responsible project finance (Haack et al. Ibong Book Tagalog. 2012 ), the Forest Stewardship Council’s certification scheme (Moore et al. Educational And Objectives. 2012 ) and ISO 14001 (Prakash and essay, Potoski 2006 ). However, each of goals essay, these has also been questioned in terms of their effectiveness and consequential legitimacy (see, for example, Schepers 2010 ; Boiral 2007 ). An Unpleasant. Empirical studies show that the environmental performance of participating firms in the US chemical industry’s Responsible Care, the ISO 14001 standard and sustainable agriculture certification is no better and in educational essay, some cases is ichihime essay worse than that of educational and objectives, non-participants (Russo and Harrison 2005 ; Blackman and Rivera 2011 ; Gamper-Rabindran and Finger 2013 ). The consequences of ISR schemes are notoriously difficult to define and measure. Mandala For Avid. Indeed, one of the problems in evaluating ISR effectiveness is the different ideologically driven perspectives on ISR effectiveness from educational essay whose perspective, over ichihime essay, what time period and as compared to goals and objectives, what (Gupta and Lad 1983 ). Past studies have assessed the consequences of don't and drive, ISR schemes by examining the extent to which schemes fulfil the functional or governance functions they were designed to educational goals, serve (Hahn and Pinkse 2014 ; Wijen 2014 ), whether they encourage participation (Prado and and drive, Woodside 2015 ; Schuler and Christmann 2011 ), whether they trigger pro-social behaviour change in participating firms (Terlaak 2007 ; Schuler and and career goals and objectives, Christmann 2011 ), whether they improve allocative efficiency (Maxwell et al. 2000 ; Fleckinger and Glachant 2011 ) and ultimately whether they deliver material improvements in the social domains they are designed to mandala essay, address (Blackman and Rivera 2011 ; Darnall and Sides 2008 ; Aravind and Christmann 2011 ). Theorists have known that evaluating ISR effectiveness is controversial for a long time, but focusing on the different management perspectives brings shape to the debate. And Objectives Essay. Each management perspective tends to emphasize different aspects of consequential legitimacy, leading to arbitrary emphases on some measures and not others based on the worldview of the analyst, rather than the details of the phenomenon. Strategic perspectives on ISR tend to evaluate the consequences of ISR by ibong book report tagalog, firm-level outcomes (see Table 2 ). This includes whether participation in ISR schemes generates private benefits to the firm such as the and career goals ability to charge higher prices (Rivera 2002 ), or improves firm-level social or environmental performance (Blackman and human and ethics by g.e.m. anscombe, Rivera 2011 ). Given the goals and objectives essay focus on the firm level, strategic perspectives tend to emphasize short-term, direct and measurable effects of ISR participation. In contrast, institutional perspectives consider not only behaviour changes by individual social actors within a field (Terlaak 2007 ), but also the longer-term field reconfiguration as an ISR scheme becomes institutionalized (Hofman 1999 ; Haack et al.

2012 ). Critical perspectives examine longer-term and diffuse effects of ISR schemes, including how ISR alters symbolic representations of don't drink persuasive essay, reality (Boiral 2013 ) and the overall governance within a policy domain (Renard 2005 ). Educational And Career And Objectives. Thus, consequential legitimacy has been a significant concern within each of the management theory perspectives, but in fundamentally different, and sometimes incompatible, ways. Since it is so difficult to evaluate the consequences of ISR, for whom and when, an alternative is to drink and drive persuasive, instead rely on evaluating the design of the schemes. Goals And Objectives. Suchman’s procedural legitimacy reflects the extent to which organizations embrace socially accepted methods and processes. In the book report absence of unambiguous evidence that an ISR scheme has positive outcomes, firms instead demonstrate “sound practices [which] may serve to demonstrate that the organization is educational essay making a good-faith effort to achieve valued, albeit invisible, ends” (Suchman 1995 : 580). In the case of ISR, the procedural legitimacy of the scheme’s methods and processes is usually demonstrated through stringency of visit, ISR design. And Career And Objectives Essay. Schemes with strong monitoring, third-party auditing, government involvement and highly codified processes are usually assumed to provide the most procedural legitimacy (Delmas and report tagalog, Terlaak 2001 ; Christmann and Taylor 2006 ; Darnall and Sides 2008 ; Short and Toffel 2010 ). However, stringent ISR design is neither uni-dimensional nor unambiguously clearly socially beneficial.

ISR regimes vary along any of several different procedural dimensions. For example, Kolk and Van Tulder ( 2002 ) noticed that codes of conduct on child labour from US companies were both more tightly formulated and more loosely monitored than codes from European companies. Despite some exceptions, the various and sometimes contradictory dimensions of stringency are not usually recognized in the literature. This has led to ISR theorists from and objectives essay different traditions focusing on different aspects of stringency, and to talking past each other. Mandala. Different management theory traditions tend to emphasize different dimensions of procedural legitimacy and goals essay, downplay others, regardless of whether this is the most salient in ichihime essay, any given circumstance. Strategic perspectives usually prioritize monitoring and sanctions as a way to limit information asymmetry and free-riding (Lenox and educational and career goals and objectives, Nash 2003 ; Darnall and Carmin 2005 ). Human Essays Anscombe. In contrast, institutional perspectives emphasize codification and the flexibility provided by ambiguous norms in self-regulation (Edelman 1992 ; Wijen 2014 ), or interactions with the broader institutional context (Gunningham and educational, Rees 1997 ; Lee 2009 ; Short and Toffel 2010 ). Critical perspectives often question the ambition or transparency of ISR schemes (Cashore 2002 ; Gilbert and thesis, Rasche 2007 ; Moog et al.

2015 ) and educational and career essay, the potential for ISR to pre-empt stricter government regulation through altering power relations and diminishing the mandala for avid role of the state (Renard 2005 ; Jermier et al. 2006 ). Educational And Career Essay. Thus, each tradition has a distinctive, but usually implicit view on which aspects of procedural legitimacy are most useful in evaluating the adarna book report moral legitimacy of ISR schemes, with no one tradition addressing all aspects of and career goals and objectives, procedural legitimacy. Structural legitimacy asks whether an ISR scheme is “the right organization for the job” (Suchman 1995 : 581). Structural legitimacy is less about consequences and procedural actions, and more about the structural appearance of an ISR scheme and its place within the on cryptography broader governance system. Structural legitimacy is based on displays that the educational and career essay organizational form is appropriate.

However, as Suchman put it, “this sense of rightness has more to do with emblems of organizational identity than with demonstrations of organizational competence” (p. 581). Of the three bases of ichihime essay, moral legitimacy, structural legitimacy has been least explored in and career and objectives, ISR management theory. However, as with the other forms of moral legitimacy, different traditions emphasize different aspects of structural legitimacy. From a strategic perspective, structural legitimacy is about the fit between a firm’s ISR strategy and its competitive and regulatory environment (Rivera 2002 ). In addition to such coercive fit, institutional approaches assess whether ISR schemes are consistent with the values and norms within a field.

Credentials such as ISO certificates can serve as “organizational degrees” (Boiral 2012 ), or useful objects to signal credibility (Delmas and don't drink and drive, Montes-Sancho 2011 ). A more constructivist view emphasizes how ISR schemes themselves serve as a way of narrating new standards for educational and career goals and objectives essay social or environmental performance (Haack et al. Ichihime Essay. 2012 ). Essay. Critical perspectives claim that ISR schemes can serve as “organized exhibitions of authority” that demonstrate social appropriateness but without any real connection to and ethics essays, improving firms’ social performance (Bowen 2014 ; Boiral 2013 ). Management Theories of and career goals and objectives essay, ISR and Moral Legitimacy. The three management theory perspectives have evolved separately over the last two decades, resulting in parallel ISR literature talking past each other. Even when theorists from the different traditions examine the same ISR scheme, they can come to different conclusions about the report tagalog scheme’s moral legitimacy by prioritizing a consequential, procedural or structural approach. For example, consider the moral legitimacy of the American Chemistry Council’s Responsible Care Scheme, established back in 1988. Taking a strategic perspective, Gamper-Rabindran and Finger ( 2013 ) evaluated the consequential legitimacy of the Responsible Care scheme by focusing on the environmental performance outcomes of participating compared with non-participating firms. They found that participating firms actually increased their toxicity-weighted pollution compared with statistically equivalent non-participating firms, questioning the scheme’s consequential legitimacy. Gunningham’s ( 1995 ) institutional perspective focused on Responsible Care’s codes of practice and educational and objectives, community engagement processes as adopted in Australia, arguing based on procedural legitimacy that it is “the most significant and far-reaching self-regulatory scheme ever adopted in Australia, or arguably, elsewhere” (p.

61). Don't Drink Essay. In contrast, critical perspectives emphasize symbolic importance of Responsible Care as a response to the 1984 disaster that killed some 2500 people at educational and career goals and objectives essay the Union Carbide subsidiary in Bhopal, India (Gereffi et al. 2001 ). The chemical industry needed to take steps to regain public acceptance after Bhopal, and “a code of conduct, a certificate, even literally a ‘symbol’, was necessary to communicate those steps” (Matten 2003 : 224). Ibong Book Tagalog. Critical theorists explain this as an attempt by educational, the chemical industry to maintain the structural legitimacy of the action prevailing regulatory system and Responsible Care within it. Table 2 summarizes how moral legitimacy is evident within each perspective. Each theoretical tradition holds different implicit assumptions about the bases for educational and career goals essay moral legitimacy, although individual authors within each perspective do not usually make this explicit.

Mapping the bases for moral legitimacy across different perspectives reveals blind spots in ISR research within each tradition so far. For example, within the strategic management perspective with its focus on the comparative analysis of thesis, different outcomes in and objectives essay, different circumstances, there has been inadequate attention to mandala essay for avid, evaluating the long-term, indirect and educational and career goals and objectives essay, social consequences of ISR schemes (King et al. 2012 ). In contrast, while critical perspectives may raise valid concerns about the ambition or authority of non-state actors on social issues, they may also underplay the extent to which ISR schemes can lead to positive longer-term field reconfiguration (Haack et al. And Ethics By G.e.m.. 2012 ). Tensions Between Pragmatic and Moral Legitimacy. This paper has so far treated pragmatic and educational essay, moral legitimacy separately.

However, the pragmatic legitimacy that can provide the ibong basis for a social licence to operate is not the educational and career goals and objectives essay same as the more stable moral legitimacy based on ethical principles (Mele and Armengou 2015 ) and reciprocal responsibility (Elms and Phillips 2009 ). Each of the latest on cryptography bases of pragmatic legitimacy outlined above—strategic control, reputation, network effects and learning—can interact with moral legitimacy. Educational And Objectives Essay. This section identifies tensions between pragmatic and ibong book tagalog, moral legitimacy, and and objectives essay, the management theory perspectives in ichihime essay, which the tensions are based. This is and career goals useful to identify blind spots and to generate routes forward for future theory and practical evaluations of ISR. Strategic Control and Moral Legitimacy. Many ISR schemes offer participants options to decide whether to participate, and if so, how.

For example, ISR schemes may contain different levels of required performance so that participating firms can maximize their private benefits from joining. Latest. Discretionary schemes can offer the strategic control needed for managers to respond to stakeholder demands for social improvement, but to do so on their own terms. Educational Goals And Objectives Essay. However, pragmatic legitimacy based on strategic control can have a dark side. The strategic goal of ISR participation can be to limit the drink need to change behaviour, either in advance of regulation or later when the industry’s preferred approach may be subsequently adopted as a new regulatory standard (Ogus 1995 ; Fleckinger and Glachant 2011 ). The critical view also emphasizes regulatory capture and the potential for discretionary ISR schemes to manipulate or subvert stakeholder expectations without changes in firm behaviour (Banerjee 2008 ). Thus, while ISR schemes that offer strategic control can generate the flexibility needed to achieve pragmatic legitimacy, it can also threaten the consequential legitimacy of an goals ISR scheme. Take for example the ichihime essay US Green Building Council’s (USGBC) LEED standards, the leading green building standards in the USA. This points-based rating system certifies buildings as platinum, gold, silver or certified LEED green buildings. These may appear at first glance to goals and objectives essay, be impartial endorsements of life action essays anscombe, builders’ green performance. But a more critical look reveals that key industry players were heavily involved in the authorship of the schemes, which has largely displaced the more rigorous standards that were originally proposed (Parker 2009 ). The USGBC is often mistaken to be a government agency, but was originally a coalition of educational goals essay, builders, consultants and property developers who realized that they needed to respond to stakeholder demands for greener buildings. They designed a flexible scheme that offered firms control over ichihime essay, which technologies to implement to earn a green building label and therefore meet the and career and objectives pragmatic legitimacy expectations of their immediate stakeholders. This flexibility encouraged builders to strategically target the cheapest and latest thesis on cryptography, least environmentally impactful building features, or to and career goals, target the lowest acceptable tier of book report tagalog, LEED certification, which offers very little material improvement to the environment from the building (Corbett and Muthulingam 2007 ).

The LEED standards illustrate a broader tension between pragmatic and moral legitimacy. ISR schemes can help participants maintain strategic control, but in order for and objectives this to adarna book, be effective, participants’ interests must somehow dominate those of other stakeholders. Thus, strategic control may be incompatible with the co-created, reciprocal responsibility that Elms and Phillips ( 2009 ) identify as the foundation of moral legitimacy. This raises the educational goals and objectives essay serious question of whether ISR schemes that offer strategic control can also have moral legitimacy. Seeking reputation is a pragmatic motivation for ibong book tagalog establishing product-level certification schemes such as organic food or fair trade product labels, as well as company-level reporting and disclosure schemes. However, evidence on certification schemes suggests that they are not widely effective in improving firms’ social or environmental performance (King et al. 2012 ). This lack of effectiveness is at and career goals essay least partly because ISR schemes designed to confer reputation often emphasize persuasion to confer pragmatic legitimacy rather than the adarna report co-creation of norms and actions required for moral responsibility. The institutional perspective explains how managers may get caught up in larger structural pressures that require them to and objectives, implement, measure, monitor and report on social performance (Bromley and ichihime essay, Powell 2012 ). Managers may participate in ISR schemes because they have been swept up in ratings or rankings systems that evaluate their reputation (Chatterji and Toffel 2010 ). Signing up to an ISR scheme can help signal engagement with social or environmental issues. But certification schemes can also gloss over complexities in and career goals and objectives essay, the behaviours and practices needed to generate better social outcomes (Wijen 2014 ). ISR schemes that provide reputation and pragmatic interest alignment can hide considerable ambiguity on how the scheme is put into practice and whether it is the right organization for the job.

Consider the example of CarbonNeutral ® certification. Mandala Essay For Avid. Achieving certification is and career goals and objectives intended to help firms stand out from thesis on cryptography their competition and provide a “clear sign” that they are leading the way on climate change (Carbon Neutral Company 2016 ), that is, to offer pragmatic reputational benefits. To join this ISR scheme, participating firms need to meet a set of educational and career essay, highly codified criteria that are outlined in a “Carbon Neutral Protocol” (Carbon Neutral Company 2013 ). Prospective members must commit to five steps to achieve certification: definition, measurement, set target, reduce emissions and communicate. Crucially, the “reduce emissions” stage differs from life action and ethics essays by g.e.m. other definitions of carbon neutrality (Department of Energy and Climate Change 2009 ) because it allows all reductions to be made though offsetting and does not require individual firms to change their own internal emissions behaviours. Emphasizing the and career and objectives reputational benefits of joining an ISR scheme can lead to mandala, highlighting pragmatic and persuasive legitimacy rather than consequential actions.

Microsoft explained its adoption of the CarbonNeutral ® certificate because it found that it could not meet its previous 2009 commitment to reduce relative carbon emissions by essay, 30% by 2012. Microsoft’s new cloud computing business model was driving gross carbon emissions up, so in order to protect its environmental reputation the firm opted for the pragmatic legitimacy of visit, achieving certification rather than the consequential legitimacy of actually reducing its own internal emissions (Microsoft 2012 ). Educational Goals And Objectives. Certification schemes such as this illustrate the tension in ISR between the latest on cryptography pragmatic legitimacy gained through persuasion and the moral legitimacy of consequential changes in behaviours and performance. Network Effects and Moral Legitimacy. Some ISR schemes offer economies in educational and objectives, membership, or collective shelter from institutional pressures by following the book example of dominant firms in the field. This is particularly common when firms’ reputations are interdependent (Prakash and Potoski 2006 ; Barnett and King 2008 ). On the plus side, ISR schemes designed to educational goals, harness pragmatic legitimacy through network effects can lead to positive spillover and multiply positive impacts. For example, Reich et al. ( 2005 ) identified spillover effects from the ibong adarna voluntary adoption of a living wage, as other workers not directly covered by the scheme also experienced some increase in their level of pay.

In the UK, Wills and Linneker ( 2012 ) showed how participating in the Living Wage Foundation’s voluntary living wage scheme led to spillover benefits in related social domains such as improvements in health and well-being, improved family life, reduced welfare benefit costs and local positive externalities from better paid residents. ISR schemes with network benefits, such as the and objectives Living Wage Foundation, can trigger social multiplier effects if they are actively connected with complementary institutions, increasing their outcome effectiveness even further (Pollin et al. 2002 ; Freeman 2005 ). Ichihime Essay. Extensive cross-monitoring and dialogue can lead to networked legitimacy, where the ISR scheme draws together a nexus of interests and each participant gains its own pragmatic legitimacy (Mele and Schepers 2013 ). However, this positive interaction between network effects and consequential legitimacy crucially depends on whether participants do actually improve their social performance. Critical theorists describe how network effects can support shared discourses and goals essay, industry-led schemes that consolidate the power of large corporations without altering corporate behaviour (Banerjee 2008 ; Bowen 2014 ). Network benefits can promote the deliberately low standards of powerful incumbents (Raynolds et al. 2007 ). These firms may have strong incentives to embed low standards as acceptable norms of corporate behaviour (Dunlap and McCright 2011 ). Doing so may award ISR schemes pragmatic legitimacy from their immediate audiences, but threaten the development of responsible norms as a foundation for moral legitimacy. These challenges can be seen in comparing two ISRs in sustainable forestry: the FSC and SFI. Forestry companies face a shared reputational risk from environmental NGOs who cannot tell if their undifferentiated wood products are environmentally damaging (Bartley 2003 ; Winn et al. 2008 ). Both the FSC and SFI are voluntary ISR programmes that were initiated at visit essay the industry level: by the US forestry industry in the case of SFI, and by socially concerned retailers in the case of educational and career and objectives, FSC (Cashore 2002 ). In the early days of sustainable forestry certification, the US forestry industry actively resisted the FSC’s more ambitious standards, preferring instead to ichihime essay, start their own lighter touch, SFI scheme in order to attract more participants (Coglianese and Nash 2001 ; Meidinger 2006 ). The US forestry industry adopted the less ambitious SFI scheme, and the more ambitious FSC scheme failed to take off in the USA as it did in Canada, the UK and other countries (Cashore 2002 ; Conroy 2007 ). The lower environmental standards required within SFI compared with FSC became entrenched as the SFI standard spread.

Worse, because forestry certification is interlinked with other schemes, such as for green buildings, this consequential legitimacy loss spilled over into goals other US industries when the USGBC controversially decided to award LEED points for ichihime essay using SFI-certified wood in their buildings. In this example, responsibility norms were co-created by scheme participants and their surrounding stakeholders. However, the performance level for SFI was established at a lower performance level than for FSC. More generally, the moral legitimacy of ISR schemes with potent network effects crucially depends on the ethical foundations of the emerging shared norms (Mele and Armengou 2015 ). Without firm ethical foundations, networked ISR schemes may be awarded pragmatic legitimacy by their immediate audiences, but lack deeper moral legitimacy. ISR schemes vary in their potential scope for learning opportunities and the extent to which these learning exchanges are actually realized (Coglianese and goals essay, Nash 2001 ). ISR can provide spaces for experimentation and innovative solutions to social problems, leading to opportunities for wider learning, conversation and interest alignment between participating firms and their immediate audiences.

ISR schemes designed for learning can improve both pragmatic and consequential legitimacy. For example, firms were more likely to change their waste management practices when managers said they joined EPA’s awareness-raising WasteWise programme to promote their relations with the EPA and to learn about waste (Delmas and Keller 2005 ). Similarly, Locke’s ( 2013 ) study of labour standards in apparel, electronics and metalworking supply chains showed the potential of learning through sharing best practices and capability-building in ISR to provide cleaner and safer workplaces for workers than other scheme designs. ISR on labour standards in an unpleasant visit essay, global supply chains has helped managers incorporate and educational and objectives, learn from the voices of traditionally excluded groups of workers such as women export workers (Pearson and Seyfang 2001 ) and has also stimulated learning among activists about latest thesis on cryptography what worked in affecting change in previous campaigns (Freeman 2005 ). However, as with network effects, the consequential legitimacy of and career and objectives essay, ISR schemes designed for learning depends on an unpleasant visit, what is learned and educational and career goals essay, shared within the scheme. Outcomes depend on the performance of the leading firms and the expectations they share with later joiners.

The primary motivation to participate may be to learn how to avoid, deflect or pre-empt more ambitious regulatory requirements (Ogus 1995 ), or to co-opt or deflect stakeholder interests (Parker 2002 ; Raynolds et al. 2007 ). All four of the ISR schemes examined by Lenox and an unpleasant visit essay, Nash ( 2003 ) in the chemical, textile and educational and objectives essay, pulp and paper industries were designed with sharing mechanisms such as industry newsletters, annual conferences and essay, member meetings. These were intended to help participants learn to manage the uncertainty surrounding new environmental demands. However, in most of the schemes, the performance bar was not sufficiently ambitious to offer learning to new members on reducing pollution. Similarly, Lin-Hi and Blumberg ( 2016 ) emphasized the educational goals learning potential from schemes such as the Business Social Compliance Initiative (BSCI), which focuses on learning and capacity building to improve working conditions in an unpleasant visit, global supply chains. However, two of the factories in the Rana Plaza building in Bangladesh that collapsed in 2013 were participants in goals essay, the BSCI. Learning within the BSCI scheme did not extend to assessing the safety or regulatory compliance of the physical buildings, or to empowering local workers to act when they identified cracks in the building before the collapse (Gross 2013 ). Opportunities to learn about facility safety were lost because of weak performance standards in the scheme (Chao 2013 ). As with network effects above, the moral legitimacy of ISR depends not only on interactions and learning with stakeholders, but also on the ethical content of what is learned. Moral legitimacy requires the learning to have firm ethical foundations (Mele and Armengou 2015 ). However, these ethical foundations can become unmoored from the essay ISR scheme if participants do not place adequate emphasis on what and how they are learning from ISR schemes. This section addressed each of the bases of pragmatic legitimacy in turn and used past ISR research from all three management theory perspectives to explore potential tensions with moral legitimacy.

Focusing on tensions between pragmatic and moral responsibility offers several implications for ISR research. First, with respect to strategic control, the balance of evidence considered here seriously questions the consequential legitimacy of discretionary ISR schemes. Rather like students marking their own homework, it is educational tempting for managers to award themselves the easy points but without truly engaging with fundamental changes in their activities. This is on cryptography even the case in performance-based ISR schemes such as the educational and career and objectives USGBC’s LEED building standards. Future research should pay more attention to the specific outcomes of flexible ISR schemes, particularly ISR schemes that offer choices on a range of performance standards. Second, the current ISR literature challenges the consequential legitimacy of certification schemes that offer reputational benefits. Certification-based ISR schemes often provide pragmatic legitimacy from firms’ immediate audiences as they reassure stakeholders that firms are taking their social obligations seriously. Within the broader social context, such emblems and credentials can offer structural legitimacy that an industry-led scheme is the right form of latest thesis on cryptography, organization to address a social challenge.

However, increased structural legitimacy from reputation-enhancing ISR schemes is often decoupled from the scheme’s outcomes. Thus, future research should further investigate the structural conditions of ISR schemes and their outcomes. Finally, for educational and career goals ISR schemes that offer network and learning effects, the pragmatic reasons to participate can multiply the positive outcomes of an ISR scheme. Ibong Tagalog. This is an under-explored area in empirical studies and offers new optimism that there may actually be learning and relational benefits in firms marking their own homework. The current ISR literature is inconclusive about whether these network and learning effects are positive or negative, since ISR outcomes depend on what is learned and shared within ISR. More research is needed on educational, formally modelling learning effects and network spillover in ISR. A particularly exciting frontier for modelling might be when self-regulatory mechanisms interact, as in thesis, the case of the SFI sustainable forest products scheme and the USGBC’s LEED green building standards. So far, serious empirical treatments of the consequential legitimacy of overlapping, networked ISR schemes is lacking from the academic literature.

The wide range of ISR schemes now operating provides an opportunity for future empirical research to explore these ideas both within and across industry sectors. In principle, ISR can provide flexible and innovative social improvements at lower cost than direct state regulation (Coglianese and educational and career essay, Mendelson 2010 ; Gunningham and Rees 1997 ). However, mixed empirical evidence and some high-profile ISR failures have fed scepticism that ISR allows firms to mark their own homework. Although marking their own homework may not be unambiguously bad, current ISR theory cannot explain when or why this may be case, as it has not fully examined the legitimacy of ISR. While legitimacy theory clearly separates the pragmatic legitimacy of gaining a social licence to operate from a deeper, more stable moral legitimacy (Suchman 1995 ; Mele and Armengou 2015 ), ISR research has been slow to and drive essay, recognize this distinction. In response, this paper mapped what we know about the and career legitimacy of ISR from book report management theory, clearly separated pragmatic from moral legitimacy, and used this distinction to expose tensions and future directions on the legitimacy of ISR. This paper offers extensions to three strands within ISR theory. First, it provides integration across different theoretical perspectives within current management theory of and career goals and objectives essay, ISR. It derives an integrated approach drawing on essay, strategic, institutional and critical management perspectives. Pulling these perspectives into a single analysis is a significant contribution because previous management scholarship has been fragmented and context specific. And Career And Objectives. Strategic, institutional and critical management theories of ISR have evolved in parallel, as have scholarly communities that focus on particular content domains such as firms’ impacts on don't persuasive essay, the natural environment, labour standards, ethical trading or diversity practices. This paper leverages and integrates across these parallel studies and and career goals and objectives essay, offers the broader view needed to latest, explore the biases, blind spots and boundary conditions of ISR.

Second, this paper moves beyond the largely descriptive analyses of ISR in the current literature to examine the normative legitimacy of ISR. The framework contributes to ISR management theory by moving beyond the private benefits that provide pragmatic legitimacy to ISR schemes to educational and career and objectives essay, examine the more ethical foundations and shared responsibility norms that underly moral responsibility. The framework derived in Table 2 can guide a comprehensive evaluation of human action and ethics by g.e.m. anscombe, moral legitimacy based on and career goals and objectives, the details of adarna tagalog, a particular ISR scheme, rather than implicitly assuming which aspect of moral legitimacy is most important as has been so common in management theories of ISR. Moral legitimacy can be evaluated according to essay, what organizations accomplish (consequential), whether they exhibit socially accepted techniques and processes (procedural) and/or whether they look like the right organization for the job (structural). Focusing on different types of legitimacy gives different answers about the moral legitimacy of ichihime essay, ISR schemes. Very stringent schemes can give procedural legitimacy, but this does not necessarily mean that they will have good outcomes (i.e. consequential legitimacy). Goals Essay. Similarly, a well-functioning scheme with positive overall social benefits can lose legitimacy if it does not somehow signal appropriate emblems or credentials to maintain structural legitimacy. Previous research has been hampered by blinkered approaches from within particular management traditions. This paper offers an integrative view of moral legitimacy of ISR based on the different bases of moral legitimacy, rather than the implied theoretical worldview of the analyst. Finally, the paper contributes to and ethics, a burgeoning literature on the pragmatic and moral legitimacy of other phenomena such as codes of ethics (Long and Driscoll 2008 ), social enterprise (Dart 2004 ), NGOs as partners of and career goals essay, industry (Baur and Palazzo 2011 ), regulatory regimes (Black 2008 ) or controversial projects (Mele and essay, Armengou 2015 ). This literature recognizes that pragmatic legitimacy and educational goals and objectives, moral legitimacy do not always go together. The extension made in this paper is to specifically examine three tensions between pragmatic and moral legitimacy in the ISR context.

First, ISR schemes that offer pragmatic legitimacy through strategic control may be incompatible with the co-created, reciprocal responsibility required for moral legitimacy. Mandala. Participants in educational and career and objectives essay, ISR schemes cannot simultaneously dominate and responsibly reciprocate with stakeholders, leading to serious questions about whether ISR schemes that offer strategic control can also have moral legitimacy. Second, ISR schemes that offer reputational benefits rely on gaining pragmatic legitimacy through persuasion, which can become decoupled from consequential changes in behaviours. Focusing on the exchange and transactional aspects of reputation can help gain pragmatic legitimacy, but disconnect schemes from deeper, reciprocal moral legitimacy. Third, the moral legitimacy of ISR schemes with potent network or learning effects crucially depends on the ethical foundations of the scheme. Ethically weak ISR schemes will lack moral legitimacy regardless of how many firms join or how much participants share learning within the scheme. Focusing on don't persuasive, ISR has opened up some new frontiers in research on the interactions between pragmatic and moral legitimacy. ISR is unusual in that firms play a dual role in influencing the design of ISR schemes and then deciding whether and how to participate. Educational And Objectives Essay. To the extent that firms can influence the for avid design of ISR schemes, there is the potential for firms to educational goals, deliberately design schemes to essay, maximize pragmatic legitimacy. Goals And Objectives. For example, ISR schemes could be designed to emphasize strategic control (as in essay for avid, performance-based ISR schemes such as LEED), or to emphasize reputation (as in certification schemes). These design choices can ultimately influence the moral legitimacy of the scheme in action.

It is possible that the tensions between pragmatic and educational and career and objectives essay, moral legitimacy identified in this paper are a consequence of this dual role in ISR. Essay. This analysis challenges legitimacy theorists to assess whether these tensions between pragmatic and moral legitimacy are unique to circumstances where organizations both design and educational goals, participate in governance schemes or are generalizable to ichihime essay, other contexts beyond ISR. This paper was partly motivated by the mismatch between the promise and educational and career goals and objectives essay, performance of ISR schemes, and drink and drive, a desire to better evaluate ISR schemes in practice. Table 2 generates a wide variety of normative considerations in assessing the appropriateness of ISR schemes that takes evaluation of ISR schemes far beyond simple cost–benefit logic. Scheme participants and stakeholders can use Table 2 to generate a systematic set of questions to evaluate the educational goals essay legitimacy of specific ISR schemes. From a consequential legitimacy point of view, questions focus on the outcomes of the scheme: what are the outcomes for thesis participating firms, non-participants and other interested stakeholders?

What are the direct and indirect outcomes over the short and long term? Questions of procedural legitimacy include whether inclusion criteria are sufficiently ambitious to set new standards, whether the and objectives essay scheme is sufficiently codified to shape action and to ichihime essay, what extent non-compliant participants are sanctioned. Structural legitimacy questions ask about the extent to which the authority of the and career and objectives ISR scheme is formally recognized within the an unpleasant visit relevant country or industry, whether the educational and career ISR scheme reflects acceptable values for its social context and whether and an unpleasant essay, how the form of the and objectives essay ISR conveys that firms are performing their proper social function. Systematic questions beyond simple short-term cost–benefit analysis have the potential to identify and on cryptography, develop relatively more socially beneficial ISR schemes in the future, and ultimately to improve ISR schemes in practice. The primary limitation of this analysis is that it is based on an analytic review of past research from a sprawling range of traditions and substantive policy domains. A formal, systematic review could have been a useful way to generate a more comprehensive, unbiased and goals and objectives essay, transparent literature review. However, a systematic review would also have had to ibong adarna report tagalog, be necessarily limited to particular policy domains or contexts or sets of journals (that is, theoretical tradition) to educational and career, formally limit the essay scope of the review.

By adopting a more analytic approach, this analysis linked up insights on ISR that would not usually show up in educational and career and objectives essay, a narrower key word search. Life Action By G.e.m. Anscombe. It did not offer the replicable and more structured findings of a systematic review, but instead served as a conversation starter based on an analytical overview of a wide span of literature. This paper is also limited in that it did not attempt to empirically explore, verify or test key insights. Future research on educational goals and objectives essay, the structural conditions of ISR schemes and their outcomes is ichihime essay particularly needed, and is now increasingly possible because of the very large number of schemes that could be compared. For example, the International Trade Centre lists over educational goals, 210 voluntary standards operating in over 200 countries, many of which would meet the definition of ISR used in this paper (see ). Similarly, lists over 450 ecolabels across 25 industry sectors.

Empirical researchers might collate existing evidence on the effectiveness of these standards or ecolabels and develop preliminary tests and categorizations on which ones have the most learning or network potential, and how they rank on on cryptography, the various dimensions of consequential, procedural or structural legitimacy. As data availability improves, empirical researchers will be able to and career goals, conduct more complete systematic reviews and even meta-analyses of the legitimacy of ISR in the future. This paper examined the essay legitimacy of ISR in response to mixed empirical evidence and educational goals and objectives essay, accusations that firms are using ISR schemes to “mark their own homework”. It explained how current management theory on ISR has failed to separate pragmatic legitimacy of ISR schemes based on ibong adarna report, private benefits, from moral legitimacy based on reciprocal responsibilities, a firm ethical foundation and educational and career, normative approval. Mapping the literature has revealed tensions between pragmatic and human and ethics anscombe, moral legitimacy, and generated implications for theory on ISR and on legitimacy. Future ISR research should examine the full range of moral legitimacy questions about ISR. Only then can ISR achieve its full potential as a fully legitimate mode of governance in the contemporary economic system. The work was funded by the UK’s Economic and Social Research Council (ESRC: ES/K007440/1). Compliance with Ethical Standards. The author declares that they have no conflict of interest.

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Example Of Narrative Essay Essays and Research Papers. boot-camp not as a military training program, but rather as a group of educational goals and objectives, individuals who are driven by a common goal? If we can do this then we can begin . making comparisons with other groups of latest thesis on cryptography, individuals and and career essay, notice a great deal of similarities. For example , universities offer a wide variety of clubs such as the Philosophy Club or the Student Veterans Organization, and these clubs are formed because like-minded individuals driven by don't essay, a common goal congregated and bonded to birth their club. And Objectives Essay? Just like. Bond , Bonds, Lancashire , Marine 900 Words | 2 Pages. Pamela Essay 1 Sitting at my desk at home, a crushing feeling crept up on me.

I didn’t know what to think. I’m not going to and drive persuasive, make . it, am I. It was already midway through junior year of high school, and having just calculated my GPA requirements for educational and career essay, many of the colleges I had wanted to go to, I realized that my grades were not even close to what I expected them to be. Ichihime Essay? I guess I had been in denial for so long that I let them slip this far. How could I have let this happen? Where was my. Debut albums , Disappointment , High school 1235 Words | 3 Pages.

The Narrative Essay *What is a Narrative Essay ? • Narrative writing tells a . story. In essays , the narrative writing could also be considered reflection or an exploration of the author's values told as a story. The author may remember his or her past, or a memorable person or event from that past, or even observe the present. Educational Goals? • The author may write about: -An experience or event from his or her past. -A recent or ongoing experience or event. . Essay , Essay mill , Metaphor 1511 Words | 6 Pages. Narrative Essays : To Tell a Story There are four types of ichihime essay, essays : Exposition - gives information about goals essay . various topics to the reader. Description - describes in detail characteristics and traits. Argument - convinces the reader by demonstrating the truth or falsity of a topic. Narrative - tells a story, usually from one person’s viewpoint. A narrative essay uses all the story elements - a beginning and ending, plot, characters, setting and climax - all coming together to complete the. A Story , Essay , Essays 1444 Words | 5 Pages. How to Write an Accomplishment Essay What are your three most substantial accomplishments, and why do you view them as such? — Harvard . essay What is the most significant change or improvement you have made to ichihime essay, an organization with which you have recently been affiliated? Describe the process you went through to identify the educational and career goals need for change and manage the process of implementing change.

What were the thesis on cryptography results. Narrative , This Boy's Life , Writing 1811 Words | 4 Pages. Narrative Essay A Brief Guide to Writing Narrative Essays Narrative writing tells a . story. In essays the narrative writing could also be considered reflection or an educational goals essay, exploration of the author's values told as a story. The author may remember his or her past, or a memorable person or event from that past, or even observe the present.

When you're writing a narrative essay , loosen up. After all, you're basically just telling a story to someone, something you probably do every day in casual conversation. Essay , Experience , Five paragraph essay 1314 Words | 5 Pages. As a mode of latest thesis, expository writing, the goals and objectives narrative approach, more than any other, offers writers a chance to think and write about an unpleasant visit themselves. We . Educational Goals And Objectives? all have experiences lodged in our memories, which are worthy of sharing with readers. An Unpleasant Essay? Yet sometimes they are so fused with other memories that a lot of the time spent in writing narrative is in the prewriting stage. When you write a narrative essay , you are telling a story.

Narrative essays are told from a defined point of view, often the author's, so there. Article , Essay , Essays 797 Words | 3 Pages. Sample SAT Essays —Up Close Below is our sample essay question, which is educational and career goals and objectives essay designed to be as close as possible to an . essay question that might appear on the SAT. Drink Persuasive? You’ll recognize that it’s based on the great philosopher Moses Pelingus’s assertion, “There’s no success like failure,” which we have referred to educational goals and objectives, throughout this chapter. Thesis? This particular essay topic presents you with a very broad idea and then asks you to explain your view and back it up with concrete examples . Not every SAT essay topic will. Dot-com bubble , Essay , Essays 2405 Words | 7 Pages. Narrative Essay Vs. Descriptive Essay. ? Narrative Essays Are a Great Read Name ENG121 Professor June 16, 2014 Narrative . Goals Essay? Essays Are a Great Read Narrative essays and Descriptive essays can be similar but they are different in life by g.e.m. nature. Educational? The narrative essay “I Want a Wife” is more compelling than the descriptive essay “Homeless” because the narrative essay has a point of view, uses humor and satire, and uses tone and language that can draw the reader in. “Narration is storytelling from the perspective of. Essay , Essays , Homelessness 1604 Words | 7 Pages.

? Descriptive Essays vs. Narrative Essays Many people have different preferences on what type of writing style . they think is more superior to another, I believe descriptive writing to be more excellent writing style then narrative . I can tell you that there are a few similarities and human life action essays by g.e.m. anscombe, a few differences between the two. I prefer Descriptive essays , rather than narrative essays . In my belief, it's that the descriptive essays are more effective when an author is educational essay trying to convey a story or get a. Essay , Fiction , Narrative 1153 Words | 4 Pages. Structure of ichihime essay, a Personal Narrative Essay.

Writing Center Structure of a Personal Narrative Essay “ Narrative ” is a term more commonly known as “story.” . Narratives written for educational and career and objectives essay, college or personal narratives , tell a story, usually to some point, to latest thesis on cryptography, illustrate some truth or insight. Following are some tools to educational essay, help you structure your personal narrative , breaking it down into parts. Ibong Adarna Tagalog? The “Hook” Start your paper with a statement about educational goals and objectives essay your story that catches the reader’s attention, for ibong report tagalog, example : a relevant quotation, question, fact, or . First-person narrative , Grammatical person , Grammatical tense 789 Words | 5 Pages. About Narrative Essay Narrative essay is a popular topic on the Continuous Writing section and . students should take note that this topic has appeared in goals and objectives essay the SPM examination almost every year since the paper was introduced. Many people think that writing a story is a difficult task, but believe me, it is much easier than what you think because you are not confined to any particular point. Therefore, you are free to ichihime essay, voice out everything that is in educational and career and objectives essay your mind. A narrative essay is a piece of writing. A Story , Character , Essay 1134 Words | 3 Pages. joke about drink and drive this accident. Things can seem horrible but really are insignificant moments in life. Educational And Career Goals And Objectives Essay? I can look back and human life action and ethics by g.e.m., laugh hysterically on and objectives, a day I thought . was the drink persuasive essay end of the world.

Narrative essay assessment rubric/score sheet Due date: __________________ Narrative essays must be typed, double spaced using 12 point font with a 1 inch margin. Headings must be left justified and educational and career essay, include name, class period, title and section, assignment and human action essays anscombe, date, and educational and career and objectives essay, be single spaced. An Unpleasant Visit Essay? Titles. Middle school , Sensory 754 Words | 4 Pages. ?Composition II Eric Sack Fall 2014 Essay 1 - Narrative Argument Write an essay that implies a clear claim and uses . your own first-hand experience for support/evidence. Educational? The essay must use appeals involving logos, ethos and pathos, as well as connect with a general audience. For an in-depth discussion of narrative arguments, see chapter 11 of Good Reasons.

According to ibong adarna book tagalog, the book, narrative arguments rely on concrete individual stories rather than abstract statistics; they allow the readers to educational and career essay, draw. Argument , Essay , Essays 723 Words | 2 Pages. Compare and Contrast Essay: Narrative and Descriptive Essays. Compare and Contrast Essay Name Institutional Affiliation Introduction Academicians argue that, a powerful reader paints a picture . on a reader’s mind. Writing effective different types of essays is increasingly becoming a critical organ of for avid, academic success (Feng Checkett, 2014, p. 152). There are two major types of educational and career goals essay, essays , narrative and ichihime essay, descriptive.

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Countless hours doing repetitive excercises reading and writing was not my cup of goals, tea. Drink And Drive? Although. Essay , Full-time , High school 1159 Words | 3 Pages. Sample Essay Read this example sample essay . Then answer the questions below. The qualities of a hero . include selflessness, having the inspiration to be a founder and being courageous. With these qualities in mind, it is easy to see why many Emiratis see Sheikh Zayed as a hero.

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Big wave surfing , Electromagnetic radiation , Surfing 1244 Words | 3 Pages. September 11th, 2012 Asmaa Salem Narrative Essay I am an average 16 year who just can’t wait to grow up and face the real . world and not have to worry about educational goals and objectives essay any rules or restrictions. On January 12th, 1996, my parents named me Asmaa, so I have to stick with that name for the rest of my life. Personally, I like the name because it’s the name of a very great person; more of a hero in Islam. Names in my family go with a pattern; but this only goes for don't drink and drive persuasive, girls. The pattern is the goals essay double ‘A’ at the. 2008 albums , Debut albums , Frustration 1565 Words | 4 Pages. NARRATIVE ESSAY PROMPTS [Being Unprepared] Because you have been sick, out of book report tagalog, town, busy at work, or working on and career and objectives, other . homework, you didn't have as much time to study for an important test as you needed. Everyone going to school has been in this situation. Think of ichihime essay, a specific test that you took that you felt unprepared for and narrate the events. Tell your readers about the preparation that you were able to do, the reasons that you didn't get to prepare as well as you wanted, taking the test.

Change , Learning , Narrative 1202 Words | 3 Pages. Constructive Narrative Essay Wiltshire College Salisbury/Bournemouth University BA (Hons) Photography – Year 1 Katie Stubbings . In Photography, there are many different styles and techniques used, every single photograph is educational goals constructed; from the setting up of equipment, finding the model, producing the set, taking the images, and finally choosing and latest thesis on cryptography, editing final images. You can also de-construct many images, and produce a narrative towards the educational and career essay photo, create a story and being able to produce. Anorexia nervosa , Human penis size , Idea 2824 Words | 7 Pages. ? Pontificia Universidad Catolica Madre y Maestra Departamento de Linguistica Aplicada Academic Writing Teacher: Newcombe Rosa . Narrative Essay Participant: Marcelle Lama 2011-5053 November 8th, 2013 Hope they didn’t hear! Things aren’t often what they appear to be at first blush. But embarrassment is. It was one of those boring days at school; my friends and ibong adarna book, I were used to it. Since we were seniors, we used to participate in the morning act on fridays, as usual for. Blushing , Embarrassment , Humiliation 778 Words | 3 Pages. ?Anthony Santos September 18, 2013 Narrative Essay Professor Wang Unfamiliar Territory I recall the nerves, . Educational And Career Essay? sweat, and some tears of my first day of public school in an unfamiliar environment.

I was vulnerable and invisible to all the ichihime essay chaos occurring in my peripheral vision. All I remember is seeing an and career, endless sea of faces from all different colors, backgrounds, and ages. On Cryptography? In the moment, I perceived that anyone who survived this madness would be considered invincible. This experience. Cafeteria , High school , Private school 825 Words | 3 Pages. ? NARRATIVE ESSAY NORMAL AGING OR ALZHEIMER’S? ENGLISH 101 DUE: 11-03-13 BY MELVA NORZAGARAY Normal aging or Alzheimer’s ? . Educational And Career And Objectives? I am never going to latest on cryptography, forget the educational goals and objectives essay beginning of the most important lesson life has taught me up to this date.

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Education , Educational years , Elementary school 974 Words | 3 Pages. ?My Narrative Essay I believe that “Love at first sight” is real. An actual feeling you get when you first lay eyes on that one . special person. More special than anybody you’ve ever met. The person that your heart just immediately falls in love with and decides that it wants to an unpleasant visit essay, spend eternity with that person.

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Derek Smith Keith M. McLure English 101 02/17/2013 Narrative Essay : Specific Life Event Many philosophers have came to a . conclusion that life experiences; good or bad are what make us better people. These experiences guide us through our future and give us wisdom to withstand the essay unexpected obstacles that come our way in life action and ethics the process of goals essay, reaching the human action and ethics by g.e.m. American Dream. Some may argue that we are in a survival of the essay fittest mentality. I firmly believe this statement is true. My own life journey. American Dream , Chef , Dream 1054 Words | 3 Pages.

Megan McMinn Professor Petas Bonaparte English 1920 20 December 2012 Narrative Essay Julia’s Success As the . May graduation ceremony finished, all the high school graduates threw their black and gold caps in for avid the air and joined in and career goals and objectives cheering with the friends and family still in their audience seats. Still on don't and drive persuasive, the stage from educational goals essay, giving a speech and thanking her parents for “helping her through the latest on cryptography years”, Julia rushed to go hug them as they congratulated her on and objectives, her success. Anti-obesity medication , Fenfluramine , Girl 1229 Words | 7 Pages. The Butterfly Effect Narrative Essay. Alyssa Iannotti Art of The Moving Image Narrative Essay November 28, 2007 The Butterfly Effect . Narrative form is ichihime essay simply “a type of filmic organization in and career and objectives which the parts relate to an unpleasant, one another through a series of educational goals and objectives essay, casually related events taking place in time and space.” Narration usually occurs in latest on cryptography a cause-effect relationship. There are many factors of narration but range and and objectives essay, depth are the most important. Life Essays By G.e.m. Anscombe? The range refers to how much we know in the plot. And Career? Range connects characters and. Ashton Kutcher , Eric Bress , Film 1208 Words | 3 Pages. ? Narrative Essay Wow, senior year of High School could not have gone faster. Ibong Book? It felt as if I blinked and three years of high . school passed by.

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within a narrative are very important. And Career Goals Essay? They help set the stage so the reader can understand the mandala essay story from the author’s perspective. A . narrative is structured so the reader can see things clearly. The structure contains the educational and career essay introduction, the body, and the conclusion. The introduction has a thesis statement. A thesis statement is a sentence that states the main point of the narrative . The introduction will clarify the book main points the writer will make throughout the body of the narrative . The body. Automobile , Bicycle , Causality 1419 Words | 4 Pages. Sarah Parker Eng 102 Narrative Essay Degree Choice Everyone in the world has a journey to find their passion.

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Camacho Narrative Essay Week 5 Revision There can be major physical changes and effects to a female’s body after having a . Latest? child. In 2011 when I had my son the hospital gave me an epidural for educational goals and objectives, the pain; they did the ibong adarna tagalog shot too high up on my back. As far as anyone knew I was fine. I showed no signs of problems until after I got out of the hospital, when I started having back spasms due to the fact that the epidural was done incorrectly. The female body goes through many natural changes; it prepares.

AIDS , Bile , Bile duct 1154 Words | 3 Pages. Compare-Contrast Essay Eng121: English Composition I (AXC13480) Regina McKinney Professor: Nancy Segovia January 1, 2014 A . Educational Goals And Objectives Essay? narrative essay is ichihime essay about storytelling for a narrative story to work it must capture and essay, hold the audience attention you must give a clear understanding of ichihime essay, your story. A descriptive essay lets you describe in detail what the essay is all about using words that appeal to your sense of smell, hearing, see, touch, and taste. A descriptive essay lets you use words that. Essay , Maya Angelou , Narrative 1226 Words | 4 Pages. SECRET TALENT When we talk about talent then first question that comes in our mind is “what is talent?” .Talent is any natural ability or power of a . person. Talent actually means that someone has special ability or power in educational and career goals essay some specific field. For example someone has power to change the peoples mind through his/her speaking power it means that that person has speaking ability and power in his/her voice that can affect the peoples mind.

It’s called talent. Talent is natural ability it builds self-confidence. Billboard Hot Dance Club Songs number-one singles , Cognition , English-language films 760 Words | 3 Pages. old skills. Been a volunteer can help many people in the world. Such as people who are in ichihime essay the hospitals suffering from sicknesses that they no cure also . people who are without family and many kids that are suffering from educational essay, very bad sicknesses for action by g.e.m., example , cancer IDS. Many people who have cancer and IDS are the educational goals most needed suffer people in the hospital according to the National Cancer Institute cancer and thesis, IDS affect the whole family not just the person with the disease. These means that people who. Hospital , National Cancer Institute , Volunteer 1429 Words | 4 Pages. An Example Of Narrative Animation.

?An Example of Narrative Animation: Duck Amuck During the golden age of Hollywood short cartoons, from the 1930s to educational goals, the 1950s, . Disney and Warner Bros. Life Action And Ethics Essays By G.e.m. Anscombe? were rivals. Disney animators had far greater resources at their disposal, and their animation was more elaborate and educational and career and objectives essay, detailed than the drink and drive essay simpler style of the Warner product. Warner cartoonists, despite their limited budgets, fought back by exploiting the comic fantasy possible in animated films and playing with the medium in imaginative ways. Goals And Objectives Essay? In Warner. Animation , Bugs Bunny , Chuck Jones 1216 Words | 3 Pages.

Examples from Reflection Essays Disciplinary Awareness “The research I did this summer focused on sorption of cesium and . And Ethics Essays By G.e.m. Anscombe? strontium by soils. These two chemicals are commonly found in chemical contaminants… My research also focused on the distribution coefficient which is a measurement of how much of goals essay, a solvent is [absorbed] by a geologic medium.” “I found that many of the readings I came across regarding abortion seemed to convey a strong belief in human rights, which was demonstrated by the dichotomy. Abortion , Clean Water Act , Human rights 1543 Words | 5 Pages. Example Essay “He that is good for making excuses is seldom good for human life action essays by g.e.m. anscombe, anything else.” -- Ben Franklin. Educational And Career? As early as the . founding of the United States of mandala for avid, America, Mr.

Franklin observed society using the excuse, I don't have enough time… and it negative effects on their lives. Today, it is goals and objectives frequently used as an excuse to justify the lack of time management skills. The effects on kids, work, or even in family life are sometimes devastating. In a day there are 24 hours, and time is available. Benjamin Franklin , Family , Franklin Planner 950 Words | 3 Pages. surprised to find three judges, different from the previous year. My face literally turned as bright as the sun when I did not see the judge that absolutely . detests my teacher, *a*c* *e*s*n (for privacy reasons, I will exclude her name from this essay ). I turned as hyper as a kid could become, and I was about to scream from happiness right then. Drink And Drive Essay? Every single time I am in a competition, and she’s a judge, she always marks me down. Luckily, she was not here this time, and instead, sitting in her.

Competition , Debut albums , Mess 1337 Words | 4 Pages. idea of ghosts is far too exaggerated to be real. According to the paranormal is “designating any phenomenon comprising the . Educational And Career Goals And Objectives Essay? transfer of data or energy which can't be described by latest on cryptography, present scientific insights” (“What”). For example , a couple of years ago I was in my house alone. Goals Essay? I was walking towards the front door and a pair of scissors fell from the countertop and on to the floor. It scared me to latest, death and it was like the and career and objectives essay scissors had been thrown.

I do not know if it was. Cryptid , Ghost , Loch Ness Monster 1320 Words | 5 Pages. mess you up for life. Don't Drink And Drive? Therefore these experiences will become a necessary example to teach you how to deal with the unfairness . in life. When I first started middle school I felt so out of place, I mean I had to deal some very flaky people and I was very stressed out a lot. The reason why I was so stressed out was because of the changes that I had to goals essay, endure around and to visit essay, me. And Career Essay? For example I had to deal with the disturbing fact that I was growing hair in mandala for avid various places on my. College , English-language films , High school 1128 Words | 3 Pages. ? Eng 121 Narrative Essay 02/13/2014 Education is the key to success and and career goals, as such the only way to get to thesis on cryptography, the top. And Career Goals? As the . Mandala For Avid? late president Nelson Mandela said, “It always seems impossible unless it’s done.

I was fourteen years of age when this incredible opportunity came for educational goals and objectives essay, me to join the Bournvita brain match quiz club sponsored by Cadbury as a representative for my junior high school. On my journey to the quiz club, I learnt how to associate with people, listen and not. College , Grammar school , High school 1573 Words | 4 Pages. Keba Raye Eng 101 (online) Narrative Paper / Final Draft A DANCER WAS BORN I had only hours until those big red curtains slowly dragged . apart. Don't Drink And Drive Persuasive? I had been practicing for the most important showcase of the and career and objectives year for over a month now. I t was my first solo performance and ibong adarna report, my nerves were rattling.

I was only nine! How was I supposed to handle the most important part of the entire routine all on my shoulders? I stared around at the gym. Today it seemed extremely larger than any other day. All. Dance , Lunch , The Showcase 897 Words | 3 Pages. ?John Doe Professor Mansito ENC 1101 12:00-1:50 21 October 2013 Essay 1 Sexuality: The 1950’s to Today Sexuality, like many other . things in educational goals and objectives our world, is an ever changing thing. The ideas and connotations surrounding it change from generation to ibong adarna report tagalog, generation. Because of this, the educational and career goals essay idea of essays by g.e.m., sex in the 1950’s is completely different from the idea of sex today.

Today, sexuality can be expressed in almost anything we do. Commercials, billboards, TV shows, movies, magazine articles, and many other. 20th century , 21st century , Global warming 1105 Words | 4 Pages. ?Alena Professor Okun ENC 1101 3 February 2014 Narration Essay Number One Growing up nothing ever affected me as much as the time when I . saw my baby sister in educational and career goals and objectives agony. Cecelia was only two years old at the time and yet she had already gone through something so horrific and frightening for a toddler to experience. I could not understand what was happening as I was only a little girl. The feeling that I had in the pit of my stomach left me feeling petrified because it was truly one of my worst. Advanced Trauma Life Support , Burn , Doctor 1667 Words | 4 Pages. other areas) show specific anatomical and ichihime essay, functional features in professional and educational and career goals, semi-professional musicians.” One of the most visible . benefits of playing a musical instrument is the improvement of ibong book tagalog, memory capacity and ability. Essay? For example , the constant use of both the left and right hemispheres of the brain simultaneously in someone who plays the on cryptography piano exercises memory. And Objectives? Thanks to latest thesis, this, it is also believed that people who play musical instruments are less prone to have neurodegenerative.

Brain , Intelligence , Intelligence quotient 946 Words | 3 Pages.