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Approaches and Tactics for Older Workers Who Can#8217;t Find a Job. by Katharine Hansen, Ph.D. If you#8217;re over 40 and unemployed, don#8217;t despair. Try these key job-search strategies and tactics for older workers: Keep your skills current. Computer skills are especially important. Depending on what type of writing for excellence persuasive job you seek, be sure you are savvy on the Internet and with Windows-based programs, such as word-processing, spreadsheet, database, and presentation applications. Microsoft offers training programs though such organizations such as the AARP. If you#8217;ve been downsized, look for new work as soon as you can. The longer you#8217;re out of work, the harder it will be to land a new position. Seek out companies that embrace older workers: The CVS drugstore chain is revenue research, one example, according to the Pittsburgh Post-Gazette . The paper reports that, like many other companies, CVS Corp. is courting older workers and positioning themselves to attract Baby Boomers who plan to work in for excellence persuasive essay retirement.
A decade ago, employees 50 and older made up about wimax.thesis, 7 percent of the CVS work force; now they make up 14 percent. The Post-Gazette quotes Stephen Wing, a director for the Woonsocket, RI-based drugstore chain: #8220;Older workers are very responsible. They care about the customers. They#8217;re good examples to our younger employees.#8221; The Post-Gazette also cited Deloitte Consulting#8217;s Senior Partner Program. Noted the paper, quoting Karen Morrell, managing director of human resources at New York-based Deloitte: #8220;We ran the essay, numbers and found that in an essay on my ambition to become a teacher five to for excellence persuasive 10 years, a pretty large bubble of experienced partners would be retiring.
We wanted a way to keep some of that experience. To do that, we had to have a tailored program that would allow them to do their most passionate tasks.#8221; Networking is especially important for older workers because jobs at the senior levels are the least likely to be advertised. Essays Of Wang Tieya. It#8217;s important to fight the writing for excellence persuasive, perception that your skills and knowledge might not be on the cutting edge. Stay up to date with technological trends and be sure to demonstrate your savvy when you converse with network contacts. See: Quintessential Careers Networking Resources The AARP Message Board at Vault.com The Aging Horizons Community Use networking venues as opportunities to show what you can do. Get involved with professional associations, volunteering or consulting. Advises Janet Scarborough Civitelli, Ph.D. of VocationVillage.com: #8220;If you are an wise shopper, older job seeker and you are concerned that your age is working against you in your job search, find ways to shift the emphasis away from your age and toward your ability to make tangible contributions. Perhaps join the board of a professional association and then work to demonstrate your skills to writing persuasive the membership. Or seek a consulting or volunteer role that will afford the be a shopper, opportunity to achieve measurable results and will enable you to build relationships with a wider network of people.
As you become perceived as a valuable team member, your age will seem less relevant. You will be thought of as John, the for excellence, person who designed a new sales process that increased revenue, rather than John, the older worker in search of a job.#8221; Broaden your pool of targeted employers. In the syndicated column he writes with Kate Wendleton, Dale Dauten suggests looking at the pool of prospective employers this way: #8220;Say that at age 40, 40 percent of employers won#8217;t consider you; at age 50, it#8217;s 60 percent; and at age 60, it#8217;s 80 percent. Those are grim numbers #8212; too high #8212; but I want to illustrate a point. If at age 40, you picked 10 companies you wanted to work for, four wouldn#8217;t even consider you, leaving six. At age 58, and wiser, you know to broaden the search to identify 30 target companies. Guess what? That leaves six who would consider you, the research paper introduction, same number as at 40 years.#8221; Consider starting your own business #8212; and in the ultimate twist #8212; think about starting a business that targets other older workers as customers or employees. The SCORE Association (Service Corps of writing persuasive essay Retired Executives) is an appropriate source for assistance to prospective older entrepreneurs since it is a nonprofit association in which working and qos in, retired executives and business owners donate their time and expertise as volunteer business counselors and provide confidential counseling and mentoring free of charge. If you#8217;re retired and for excellence persuasive, already have a pension and health benefits from your old employer, consider working for salary only.
If being productive means more to you than additional benefits, consider companies with programs in which workers in their 50#8217;s who would otherwise take advantage of essays early retirement provisions in their pensions are offered the essay, chance to work reduced hours and supplement their reduced incomes by tapping those pensions. IBM in ambition Canada, for example, has a retiree-on-call program for those willing to persuasive essay come out of an essay ambition retirement and work up to 1,000 hours a year. Similarly, GE#8217;s information unit in Rockville, MD, has a Golden Opportunity Program. Other companies with this type of program for retirees include Avaya, Monsanto, PepsiCo, and Lockheed Martin, reports the New York Times. Consider flexible options that may be advantageous to both you and for excellence essay, the employer, such as a compressed work week, flextime, job reassignment, job redesign, part-time work, job sharing, phased retirement, or telecommuting. See more details about these options in AARP#8217;s article, Flexible Ways of Working. Consider offering to put in odd hours that younger workers with family obligations might not be able to work. Register with a temp agency so you can generate some income, update your skills, and build your resume while waiting for the perfect job. Some temp agencies even specialize in older workers. See our article, Temping Offers a Way to tieya Build Your Resume #8212; and essay, Much More. Management. Some problems with landing a job turn out writing for excellence essay not to be age-specific at all but are issues that any job-seeker could encounter.
Read our article Ten Questions to Ask Yourself if You Still Haven#8217;t Found a Job. Locate programs that help with job training and employability skills for older workers, such as the writing research introduction, Senior Community Service Employment Program (SCSEP). Writing For Excellence Persuasive Essay. When all else fails, consider legal recourse. It#8217;s difficult and expensive to prove age discrimination in hiring, but if you are truly convinced that you#8217;ve been denied a job because of your age, you may want to pursue a complaint with the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission or talk to an employment attorney. (You can request a list of employment attorneys in your state from the National Employment Lawyers Association.) PrairieLaw on paper Lawyers.com has a good article on initiating a discrimination action. Writing Essay. See also the qos in wimax.thesis, numerous links at essay Aging Horizons to organizations that can offer legal assistance. Use all the resources available to you: The AARP, formerly the bullying persuasive essay, American Association for Retired Persons, offers seminars on post-career planning, workforce re-entry, and resume writing. The seminars provide not only information but networking opportunities. Call the national headquarters at 800-424-3410 (on the Web at http://www.aarp.org/) to for excellence persuasive find out about sessions near you. See also AARP#8217;s Careers, Jobs, Work, and Retirement Issues section, which includes a great collection of resources for an essay on my ambition a teacher, older workers who are job-hunting, changing careers, or thinking about starting your own business.National Council on for excellence persuasive essay the Aging#8217;s MaturityWorks site.50Plus.com, the official site of Canada#8217;s Association for the Fifty-Plus.The Resource Directory for Older People.The Administration on Aging#8217;s Jobs for Seniors site.Quintessential Careers Job Resources for Mature and Older Jobseekers. Older Worker/Job-Seeker Organizations: Exec-U-Net, Inc.25 Van Zant St.Norwalk, CT 06855Phone: 800-637-3126Fax: 203-851-5177Web address: http://www.clickit.com/touch/execnet/hidden/senior.htmE-mail: firstname.lastname@example.orgExec-U-Net is a career management information service and career advancement networking organization exclusively for executives and revenue research, senior professionals with salaries in excess of $75,000. Started in 1988, it is a membership organization that helps executives leverage their networking and take control of their careers.Five O#8217;Clock Club300 E. 40 St.
6LNew York, NY 10016Phone: 212-286-4500Web address: http://www.fiveoclockclub.com/A national career counseling network with certified career counselors across the United States.Forty PlusWeb address: http://www.fortyplus.org/chapters.html(Forty Plus apparently does not have a national Web site, but this California site lists local chapters around the writing for excellence persuasive essay, country.) A nonprofit organization that provides professional job search programs, networking opportunities, and writing research paper, a wide variety of resources to writing members, who are executives, managers, and be a wise shopper essay, professionals. Job and Career Books for Mature Workers #8212; a growing collection of books about the older worker, including resume and job-search strategies, as well as other issues facing the mature job-seeker, such as dealing with age discrimination. Questions about some of the terminology used in for excellence this article? Get more information (definitions and links) on key college, career, and job-search terms by be a wise, going to writing for excellence essay our Job-Seeker#8217;s Glossary of Job-Hunting Terms. Katharine Hansen, Ph.D., creative director and associate publisher of essays Quintessential Careers, is an for excellence essay, educator, author, and blogger who provides content for Quintessential Careers, edits QuintZine , an electronic newsletter for bullying essay, jobseekers, and blogs about storytelling in for excellence the job search at A Storied Career . Katharine, who earned her PhD in wimax.thesis organizational behavior from Union Institute University, Cincinnati, OH, is author of writing persuasive Dynamic Cover Letters for New Graduates and A Foot in the Door: Networking Your Way into the Hidden Job Market (both published by wimax.thesis, Ten Speed Press), as well as Top Notch Executive Resumes (Career Press); and with Randall S. Hansen, Ph.D., Dynamic Cover Letters , Write Your Way to writing for excellence essay a Higher GPA (Ten Speed), and The Complete Idiot#8217;s Guide to Study Skills (Alpha). Visit her personal Website or reach her by e-mail at kathy(at)quintcareers.com. Check out Dr. Hansen on be a wise shopper GooglePlus. Have you seen all our career and writing for excellence, job resources for older workers?
Go to: Job and Career Resources for Mature and introduction, Older Job-Seekers (Including the Baby Boomers). For Excellence Essay. Maximize your career and job-search knowledge and wise shopper essay, skills! Take advantage of The Quintessential Careers Content Index, which enables site visitors to locate articles, tutorials, quizzes, and for excellence, worksheets in 35 career, college, job-search topic areas. Building Tools That Build Better Work Lives. Since 2005, LiveCareer’s team of career coaches, certified resume writers, and savvy technologists have been developing career tools that have helped over 10 million users build stronger resumes, write more persuasive cover letters, and develop better interview skills. Use our free samples, templates, and writing guides and qos in wimax.thesis, our easy-to-use resume builder software to help land the job you want. Dr. Randall S. Hansen.
Dr. Persuasive. Randall S. Hansen is founder of Quintessential Careers, one of the oldest and most comprehensive career development sites on the Web, as well CEO of essay EmpoweringSites.com. He is essay, also founder of MyCollegeSuccessStory.com and EnhanceMyVocabulary.com. He is research paper introduction, publisher of writing for excellence persuasive Quintessential Careers Press, including the Quintessential Careers electronic newsletter, QuintZine. Dr. Hansen is also a published author, with several books, chapters in books, and hundreds of articles.
He’s often quoted in the media and conducts empowering workshops around the country. Finally, Dr. Wise Shopper. Hansen is also an educator, having taught at the college level for more than 15 years. Visit his personal Website or reach him by writing for excellence persuasive, email at email@example.com. Check out Dr.
Hansen on GooglePlus. Katharine Hansen, Ph.D., creative director and associate publisher of in honour Quintessential Careers, is an for excellence, educator, author, and blogger who provides content for Quintessential Careers, edits QuintZine, an electronic newsletter for bullying persuasive, jobseekers, and blogs about storytelling in the job search at A Storied Career. Katharine, who earned her PhD in organizational behavior from Union Institute University, Cincinnati, OH, is author of Dynamic Cover Letters for New Graduates and A Foot in the Door: Networking Your Way into the Hidden Job Market (both published by Ten Speed Press), as well as Top Notch Executive Resumes (Career Press); and with Randall S. Hansen, Ph.D., Dynamic Cover Letters, Write Your Way to for excellence persuasive a Higher GPA (Ten Speed), and qos in wimax.thesis, The Complete Idiot’s Guide to writing persuasive Study Skills (Alpha). Visit her personal Website or reach her by e-mail at firstname.lastname@example.org. Check out Dr. Hansen on GooglePlus. I AM A CAREER CHANGER This page is your key source for all things career-change related.
You#8217;ll find some great free career-change tools and resources. Changing careers can be traumatic, especially if you have been in your current career for qos in, a long time, but you do not have to go through the for excellence, process alone or  Quintessential Careers: Career and Job-Hunting Blog. Quintessential Careers: Career and Job-Hunting Blog Career and job-search news, trends, and scoops for job-seekers, compiled by the staff of to become a teacher Quintessential Careers.The Quintessential Careers Blog has moved!! These pages remain as an writing for excellence persuasive, archive of our previous blog posts. Please check out the new and improved Quintessential Careers Blog for Job-Seekers and Careerists.
Interview Advice Job  The Quintessential Directory of Company Career Centers. The Quintessential Directory of bullying Company Career Centers Where job-seekers can go directly to persuasive the job/career/employment section of a specific employer#8217;s Website.Because more and revenue management research, more companies are developing career and employment centers on their corporate Websites, Quintessential Careers has developed this directory, which allows you to go straight to the career and employment section of the  Quintessential Careers: I am a Career Coach or Counselor. The Quintessential Directory of Company Career Centers Where job-seekers can go directly to the job/career/employment section of a specific employer#8217;s Website.Because more and more companies are developing career and employment centers on their corporate Websites, Quintessential Careers has developed this directory, which allows you to go straight to writing the career and employment section of the  Mighty Recruiter Mighty Recruiter. Be A Shopper Essay. Customer Service Customer Service. 800-652-8430 Mon- Fri 8am - 8pm CST.
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The Elegant Essay - Institute for Excellence in Writing
How to Write a Great Business Plan. Every seasoned investor knows that detailed financial projections for a new company are an act of imagination. Nevertheless, most business plans pour far too much ink on the numbers–and far too little on the information that really matters. Why? William Sahlman suggests that a great business plan is one that focuses on a series of questions. These questions relate to writing, the four factors critical to the success of every new venture: the people, the opportunity, the context, and the possibilities for both risk and reward. The questions about paper, people revolve around three issues: What do they know? Whom do they know? and writing persuasive, How well are they known? As for opportunity, the plan should focus on two questions: Is the market for the venture’s product or service large or rapidly growing (or preferably both)? and Is the industry structurally attractive? Then, in essays in honour addition to writing for excellence persuasive essay, demonstrating an understanding of the bullying persuasive context in which their venture will operate, entrepreneurs should make clear how they will respond when that context inevitably changes. Writing For Excellence. Finally, the plan should look unflinchingly at bullying persuasive, the risks the writing for excellence persuasive new venture faces, giving would-be backers a realistic idea of what magnitude of reward they can expect and when they can expect it.
A great business plan is not easy to compose, Sahlman acknowledges, largely because most entrepreneurs are wild-eyed optimists. But one that asks the qos in right questions is a powerful tool. A better deal, not to mention a better shot at success, awaits entrepreneurs who use it. Few areas of for excellence persuasive, business attract as much attention as new ventures, and research paper, few aspects of new-venture creation attract as much attention as the writing essay business plan. Countless books and articles in the popular press dissect the topic. A growing number of annual business-plan contests are springing up across the United States and, increasingly, in other countries. Both graduate and undergraduate schools devote entire courses to the subject.
Indeed, judging by all the revenue research hoopla surrounding business plans, you would think that the only things standing between a would-be entrepreneur and spectacular success are glossy five-color charts, a bundle of meticulous-looking spreadsheets, and a decade of writing for excellence, month-by-month financial projections. Nothing could be further from the truth. In my experience with hundreds of entrepreneurial startups, business plans rank no higher than 2—on a scale from wimax.thesis, 1 to 10—as a predictor of persuasive, a new venture’s success. And sometimes, in fact, the more elaborately crafted the document, the more likely the venture is to, well, flop, for lack of a more euphemistic word. What’s wrong with most business plans? The answer is relatively straightforward.
Most waste too much ink on numbers and be a wise shopper, devote too little to the information that really matters to writing for excellence persuasive essay, intelligent investors. As every seasoned investor knows, financial projections for a new company—especially detailed, month-by-month projections that stretch out for more than a year—are an act of essays in honour tieya, imagination. An entrepreneurial venture faces far too many unknowns to writing for excellence persuasive, predict revenues, let alone profits. Persuasive. Moreover, few if any entrepreneurs correctly anticipate how much capital and writing for excellence persuasive, time will be required to accomplish their objectives. Typically, they are wildly optimistic, padding their projections. Investors know about the padding effect and ambition to become, therefore discount the figures in writing business plans. These maneuvers create a vicious circle of inaccuracy that benefits no one. Don’t misunderstand me: business plans should include some numbers. But those numbers should appear mainly in the form of a business model that shows the entrepreneurial team has thought through the key drivers of the essays tieya venture’s success or failure.
In manufacturing, such a driver might be the yield on a production process; in magazine publishing, the persuasive essay anticipated renewal rate; or in wimax.thesis software, the impact of using various distribution channels. The model should also address the break-even issue: At what level of for excellence persuasive, sales does the business begin to research, make a profit? And even more important, When does cash flow turn positive? Without a doubt, these questions deserve a few pages in any business plan. Near the back. What goes at the front? What information does a good business plan contain? If you want to speak the language of investors—and also make sure you have asked yourself the right questions before setting out on the most daunting journey of a businessperson’s career—I recommend basing your business plan on the framework that follows. For Excellence. It does not provide the kind of management research, “winning” formula touted by some current how-to books and software programs for entrepreneurs.
Nor is it a guide to brain surgery. Rather, the essay framework systematically assesses the four interdependent factors critical to every new venture: The People. The men and women starting and running the venture, as well as the outside parties providing key services or important resources for it, such as its lawyers, accountants, and suppliers. The Opportunity. A profile of the business itself—what it will sell and to whom, whether the business can grow and how fast, what its economics are, who and what stand in the way of success. The Context. The big picture—the regulatory environment, interest rates, demographic trends, inflation, and the like—basically, factors that inevitably change but cannot be controlled by the entrepreneur. Risk and Reward.
An assessment of everything that can go wrong and right, and a discussion of how the entrepreneurial team can respond. Business Plans: For Entrepreneurs Only? The accompanying article talks mainly about business plans in be a wise essay a familiar context, as a tool for writing persuasive entrepreneurs. But quite often, start-ups are launched within established companies. Do those new ventures require business plans? And if they do, should they be different from the plans entrepreneurs put together? The answer to the first question is an emphatic yes; the answer to the second, an equally emphatic no. All new ventures—whether they are funded by venture capitalists or, as is the case with intrapreneurial businesses, by shareholders—need to paper, pass the same acid tests. After all, the marketplace does not differentiate between products or services based on who is pouring money into them behind the scenes. The fact is, intrapreneurial ventures need every bit as much analysis as entrepreneurial ones do, yet they rarely receive it.
Instead, inside big companies, new businesses get proposed in the form of capital-budgeting requests. These faceless documents are subject to detailed financial scrutiny and a consensus-building process, as the project wends its way through the writing essay chain of command, what I call the “neutron bomb” model of project governance. However, in the history of such proposals, a plan never has been submitted that did not promise returns in excess of corporate hurdle rates. It is only after the new business is launched that these numbers explode at the organization’s front door. That problem could be avoided in large part if intrapreneurial ventures followed the guidelines set out in the accompanying article. Research. For instance, business plans for such a venture should begin with the résumés of all the people involved. What has the team done in persuasive the past that would suggest it would be successful in the future, and essays in honour of wang tieya, so on? In addition, the new venture’s product or service should be fully analyzed in terms of its opportunity and persuasive essay, context. Going through the process forces a kind of discipline that identifies weaknesses and qos in, strengths early on writing for excellence persuasive, and helps managers address both. It also helps enormously if such discipline continues after the intrapreneurial venture lifts off.
When professional venture capitalists invest in new companies, they track performance as a matter of course. But in large companies, scrutiny of a new venture is an essay on my to become, often inconsistent. That shouldn’t or needn’t be the for excellence persuasive essay case. A business plan helps managers ask such questions as: How is the new venture doing relative to of wang tieya, projections? What decisions has the team made in response to new information? Have changes in the context made additional funding necessary? How could the team have predicted those changes? Such questions not only keep a new venture running smoothly but also help an writing for excellence essay, organization learn from qos in, its mistakes and writing for excellence, triumphs. Many successful companies have been built with the help of venture capitalists. Many of the bullying essay underlying opportunities could have been exploited by large companies. Why weren’t they?
Perhaps useful lessons can be learned by studying the world of writing for excellence persuasive, independent ventures, one lesson being: Write a great business plan. The assumption behind the framework is that great businesses have attributes that are easy to identify but hard to assemble. They have an experienced, energetic managerial team from the top to the bottom. The team’s members have skills and experiences directly relevant to the opportunity they are pursuing. Ideally, they will have worked successfully together in the past.
The opportunity has an of wang, attractive, sustainable business model; it is possible to create a competitive edge and defend it. Many options exist for expanding the scale and scope of the business, and these options are unique to the enterprise and its team. Writing. Value can be extracted from the business in a number of ways either through a positive harvest event—a sale—or by scaling down or liquidating. The context is favorable with respect to both the regulatory and essays in honour, the macro-economic environments. Risk is understood, and the team has considered ways to mitigate the writing impact of difficult events. In short, great businesses have the four parts of the framework completely covered. If only reality were so neat. When I receive a business plan, I always read the résumé section first. Not because the people part of the new venture is the most important, but because without the qos in wimax.thesis right team, none of the other parts really matters.
I read the writing for excellence résumés of the venture’s team with a list of questions in mind. (See the insert “Who Are These People, Anyway?”) All these questions get at the same three issues about the venture’s team members: What do they know? Whom do they know? and How well are they known? Fourteen “Personal” Questions Every Business Plan Should Answer. Where are the founders from? Where have they been educated? Where have they worked—and for whom? What have they accomplished—professionally and personally—in the past? What is qos in wimax.thesis, their reputation within the business community? What experience do they have that is directly relevant to the opportunity they are pursuing? What skills, abilities, and knowledge do they have? How realistic are they about the venture’s chances for writing essay success and the tribulations it will face?
Who else needs to be on the team? Are they prepared to recruit high-quality people? How will they respond to adversity? Do they have the mettle to make the paper introduction inevitable hard choices that have to be made? How committed are they to this venture?
What are their motivations? What and whom they know are matters of insight and experience. Essay. How familiar are the team members with industry players and dynamics? Investors, not surprisingly, value managers who have been around the be a wise shopper essay block a few times. A business plan should candidly describe each team member’s knowledge of the new venture’s type of product or service; its production processes; and the market itself, from competitors to customers. It also helps to indicate whether the team members have worked together before. Persuasive. Not played—as in shopper essay roomed together in college—but worked . Investors also look favorably on a team that is writing essay, known because the persuasive essay real world often prefers not to deal with start-ups. They’re too unpredictable. That changes, however, when the new company is run by people well known to suppliers, customers, and employees.
Their enterprise may be brand new, but they aren’t. The surprise element of working with a start-up is somewhat ameliorated. Finally, the people part of a business plan should receive special care because, simply stated, that’s where most intelligent investors focus their attention. A typical professional venture-capital firm receives approximately 2,000 business plans per writing persuasive essay year. Tieya. These plans are filled with tantalizing ideas for new products and services that will change the world and reap billions in the process—or so they say. Writing For Excellence Essay. But the fact is, most venture capitalists believe that ideas are a dime a dozen: only execution skills count. As Arthur Rock, a venture capital legend associated with the formation of introduction, such companies as Apple, Intel, and Teledyne, states, “I invest in people, not ideas.” Rock also has said, “If you can find good people, if they’re wrong about the product, they’ll make a switch, so what good is for excellence persuasive, it to understand the product that they’re talking about in the first place?” Business plan writers should keep this admonition in mind as they craft their proposal. Talk about the people—exhaustively.
And if there is nothing solid about their experience and abilities to herald, then the entrepreneurial team should think again about launching the venture. When it comes to the opportunity itself, a good business plan begins by focusing on two questions: Is the total market for revenue management research paper the venture’s product or service large, rapidly growing, or both? Is the industry now, or can it become, structurally attractive? Entrepreneurs and investors look for persuasive essay large or rapidly growing markets mainly because it is often easier to obtain a share of a growing market than to fight with entrenched competitors for a share of essays, a mature or stagnant market. Smart investors, in fact, try hard to identify high-growth-potential markets early in for excellence their evolution: that’s where the big payoffs are. And, indeed, many will not invest in a company that cannot reach a significant scale (that is, $ 50 million in annual revenues) within five years. HBR Guide to Building Your Business Case Ebook + Tools. As for attractiveness, investors are obviously looking for markets that actually allow businesses to make some money. But that’s not the no-brainer it seems. In the late 1970s, the computer disk-drive business looked very attractive. The technology was new and exciting.
Dozens of companies jumped into the fray, aided by an army of an essay on my to become, professional investors. Twenty years later, however, the thrill is gone for managers and investors alike. Disk drive companies must design products to meet the perceived needs of writing persuasive, original equipment manufacturers (OEMs) and end users. Selling a product to writing research paper introduction, OEMs is writing persuasive essay, complicated. The customers are large relative to most of be a wise, their suppliers. There are lots of competitors, each with similar high-quality offerings. Moreover, product life cycles are short and for excellence persuasive essay, ongoing technology investments high. The industry is subject to major shifts in technology and paper, customer needs.
Intense rivalry leads to lower prices and, hence, lower margins. In short, the writing persuasive disk drive industry is shopper essay, simply not set up to make people a lot of money; it’s a structural disaster area. The information services industry, by contrast, is paradise. Companies such as Bloomberg Financial Markets and First Call Corporation, which provide data to the financial world, have virtually every competitive advantage on their side. First, they can assemble or create proprietary content—content that, by the way, is like life’s blood to thousands of money managers and stock analysts around the world. And although it is writing, often expensive to develop the service and to acquire initial customers, once up and running, these companies can deliver content to customers very cheaply. Also, customers pay in advance of receiving the service, which makes cash flow very handsome, indeed. In short, the structure of the information services industry is beyond attractive: it’s gorgeous. The profit margins of bullying essay, Bloomberg and writing persuasive essay, First Call put the disk drive business to shame. The Opportunity of a Lifetime—or Is It?
Nine Questions About the essays Business Every Business Plan Should Answer. Who is the new venture’s customer? How does the for excellence essay customer make decisions about buying this product or service? To what degree is the product or service a compelling purchase for the customer? How will the product or service be priced? How will the venture reach all the identified customer segments? How much does it cost (in time and resources) to acquire a customer? How much does it cost to produce and deliver the product or service?
How much does it cost to support a customer? How easy is it to retain a customer? Thus, the shopper essay first step for entrepreneurs is to make sure they are entering an industry that is large and/or growing, and one that’s structurally attractive. The second step is to make sure their business plan rigorously describes how this is the case. And if it isn’t the essay case, their business plan needs to specify how the venture will still manage to wimax.thesis, make enough of a profit that investors (or potential employees or suppliers, for that matter) will want to writing for excellence essay, participate. Once it examines the new venture’s industry, a business plan must describe in detail how the company will build and launch its product or service into the marketplace. Again, a series of questions should guide the on my ambition to become discussion. (See the insert “The Opportunity of a Lifetime—or Is It?”)
Often the answers to these questions reveal a fatal flaw in the business. Writing For Excellence Essay. I’ve seen entrepreneurs with a “great” product discover, for example, that it’s simply too costly to find customers who can and will buy what they are selling. Economically viable access to customers is the key to business, yet many entrepreneurs take the Field of Dreams approach to this notion: build it, and they will come. That strategy works in the movies but is not very sensible in the real world. It is not always easy to essays tieya, answer questions about the likely consumer response to new products or services. The market is as fickle as it is unpredictable. (Who would have guessed that plug-in room deodorizers would sell?) One entrepreneur I know proposed to introduce an electronic news-clipping service.
He made his pitch to a prospective venture-capital investor who rejected the plan, stating, “I just don’t think the writing for excellence essay dogs will eat the dog food.” Later, when the be a essay entrepreneur’s company went public, he sent the for excellence persuasive venture capitalist an anonymous package containing an empty can of dog food and essays in honour of wang, a copy of his prospectus. If it were easy to predict what people will buy, there wouldn’t be any opportunities. The market is as fickle as it is unpredictable. Who would have guessed that plug-in room deodorizers would sell? Similarly, it is tough to guess how much people will pay for writing persuasive essay something, but a business plan must address that topic.
Sometimes, the dogs will eat the dog food, but only at a price less than cost. Investors always look for opportunities for value pricing—that is, markets in which the costs to produce the product are low, but consumers will still pay a lot for it. No one is dying to essays of wang, invest in a company when margins are skinny. Still, there is money to be made in inexpensive products and services—even in writing commodities. A business plan must demonstrate that careful consideration has been given to revenue management, the new venture’s pricing scheme.
The list of questions about the new venture’s opportunity focuses on writing for excellence, the direct revenues and the costs of producing and marketing a product. That’s fine, as far as it goes. A sensible proposal, however, also involves assessing the business model from a perspective that takes into account the investment required—that is, the balance sheet side of the equation. The following questions should also be addressed so that investors can understand the cash flow implications of pursuing an opportunity: When does the business have to on my ambition a teacher, buy resources, such as supplies, raw materials, and people? When does the business have to writing for excellence persuasive essay, pay for them? How long does it take to acquire a customer?
How long before the customer sends the business a check? How much capital equipment is wimax.thesis, required to support a dollar of sales? Investors, of course, are looking for businesses in which management can buy low, sell high, collect early, and pay late. The business plan needs to spell out how close to that ideal the new venture is expected to come. Even if the answer is “not very”—and it usually is—at least the truth is out there to discuss. The opportunity section of a business plan must also bring a few other issues to persuasive, the surface. First, it must demonstrate and essays in honour tieya, analyze how an opportunity can grow—in other words, how the new venture can expand its range of products or services, customer base, or geographic scope. Often, companies are able to for excellence persuasive, create virtual pipelines that support the economically viable creation of new revenue streams. Writing Research Paper. In the publishing business, for example, Inc. magazine has expanded its product line to include seminars, books, and videos about entrepreneurship. For Excellence. Similarly, building on the success of its personal-finance software program Quicken, Intuit now sells software for electronic banking, small-business accounting, and tax preparation, as well as personal-printing supplies and on-line information services—to name just a few of its highly profitable ancillary spin-offs. Now, lots of business plans runneth over on the subject of the new venture’s potential for growth and expansion.
But they should likewise runneth over in explaining how they won’t fall into some common opportunity traps. Wimax.thesis. One of writing for excellence, those has already been mentioned: industries that are at their core structurally unattractive. But there are others. The world of invention, for example, is fraught with danger. Research Paper. Over the past 15 years, I have seen scores of individuals who have devised a better mousetrap—newfangled creations from writing essay, inflatable pillows for use on airplanes to automated car-parking systems. Revenue Management Research. Few of these idea-driven companies have really taken off, however.
I’m not entirely sure why. Sometimes, the inventor refuses to spend the money required by or share the rewards sufficiently with the business side of the company. Other times, inventors become so preoccupied with their inventions they forget the customer. Whatever the reason, better-mousetrap businesses have an writing for excellence, uncanny way of malfunctioning. Another opportunity trap that business plans—and entrepreneurs in general—need to persuasive, pay attention to is the tricky business of arbitrage. Basically, arbitrage ventures are created to take advantage of some pricing disparity in the marketplace. MCI Communications Corporation, for instance, was formed to offer long-distance service at a lower price than ATT.
Some of the industry consolidations going on today reflect a different kind of persuasive essay, arbitrage—the ability to buy small businesses at a wholesale price, roll them up together into a larger package, and take them public at a retail price, all without necessarily adding value in essay the process. Whatever the reason, better-mousetrap businesses have an writing for excellence, uncanny way of malfunctioning. Taking advantage of arbitrage opportunities is a viable and potentially profitable way to enter a business. In the of wang final analysis, however, all arbitrage opportunities evaporate. It is not a question of whether, only when. Writing Persuasive Essay. The trick in revenue management research these businesses is to use the arbitrage profits to persuasive essay, build a more enduring business model, and business plans must explain how and when that will occur. As for competition, it probably goes without saying that all business plans should carefully and thoroughly cover this territory, yet some don’t. That is a glaring omission. For starters, every business plan should answer the following questions about the competition: Who are the new venture’s current competitors?
What resources do they control? What are their strengths and be a wise, weaknesses? How will they respond to the new venture’s decision to enter the business? How can the persuasive new venture respond to its competitors’ response? Who else might be able to essays in honour tieya, observe and exploit the same opportunity? Are there ways to co-opt potential or actual competitors by forming alliances? Business is persuasive, like chess: to be a wise, be successful, you must anticipate several moves in advance. A business plan that describes an for excellence persuasive, insuperable lead or a proprietary market position is by definition written by naïve people. That goes not just for the competition section of the business plan but for the entire discussion of the opportunity.
All opportunities have promise; all have vulnerabilities. Be A Shopper. A good business plan doesn’t whitewash the writing for excellence persuasive essay latter. Rather, it proves that the entrepreneurial team knows the good, the bad, and the ugly that the venture faces ahead. Opportunities exist in a context. At one level is the macroeconomic environment, including the persuasive level of economic activity, inflation, exchange rates, and interest rates. Writing Persuasive. At another level are the wide range of government rules and regulations that affect the opportunity and how resources are marshaled to exploit it. Examples extend from tax policy to the rules about writing, raising capital for writing persuasive a private or public company.
And at yet another level are factors like technology that define the limits of essays in honour tieya, what a business or its competitors can accomplish. Context often has a tremendous impact on every aspect of the entrepreneurial process, from identification of opportunity to harvest. In some cases, changes in some contextual factor create opportunity. Writing For Excellence Persuasive Essay. More than 100 new companies were formed when the airline industry was deregulated in the late 1970s. The context for financing was also favorable, enabling new entrants like People Express to go to the public market for capital even before starting operations.
Conversely, there are times when the context makes it hard to start new enterprises. The recession of the early 1990s combined with a difficult financing environment for new companies: venture capital disbursements were low, as was the amount of capital raised in the public markets. (Paradoxically, those relatively tight conditions, which made it harder for new entrants to get going, were associated with very high investment returns later in the 1990s, as capital markets heated up.) Sometimes, a shift in context turns an unattractive business into an attractive one, and an essay to become, vice versa. Consider the case of a packaging company some years ago that was performing so poorly it was about to be put on the block. Then came the Tylenol-tampering incident, resulting in multiple deaths. Writing Persuasive. The packaging company happened to have an efficient mechanism for installing tamper-proof seals, and in a matter of weeks its financial performance could have been called spectacular. Wimax.thesis. Conversely, U.S. Writing For Excellence Essay. tax reforms enacted in 1986 created havoc for companies in the real estate business, eliminating almost every positive incentive to invest. Many previously successful operations went out of business soon after the new rules were put in place.
Every business plan should contain certain pieces of evidence related to context. First, the entrepreneurs should show a heightened awareness of the new venture’s context and how it helps or hinders their specific proposal. Second, and more important, they should demonstrate that they know the venture’s context will inevitably change and paper introduction, describe how those changes might affect the essay business. Further, the business plan should spell out wise essay, what management can (and will) do in the event the persuasive context grows unfavorable. Finally, the business plan should explain the ways (if any) in be a essay which management can affect context in persuasive essay a positive way. For example, management might be able to research paper introduction, have an impact on regulations or on industry standards through lobbying efforts. The concept that context is fluid leads directly to the fourth leg of the framework I propose: a discussion of risk and how to manage it. I’ve come to think of writing for excellence, a good business plan as a snapshot of an event in the future.
That’s quite a feat to begin with—taking a picture of the unknown. But the best business plans go beyond that; they are like movies of the future. They show the people, the opportunity, and the context from multiple angles. They offer a plausible, coherent story of what lies ahead. They unfold possibilities of action and reaction. Good business plans, in other words, discuss people, opportunity, and context as a moving target. All three factors (and the relationship among them) are likely to change over time as a company evolves from start-up to ongoing enterprise.
Therefore, any business plan worth the time it takes to be a, write or read needs to focus attention on the dynamic aspects of the entrepreneurial process. When it comes to the matter of risk and reward in writing for excellence persuasive essay a new venture, a business plan benefits enormously from the inclusion of two graphs. Perhaps graphs is the an essay to become a teacher wrong word; these are really just schematic pictures that illustrate the writing persuasive most likely relationship between risk and reward, that is, the relationship between the opportunity and its economics. High finance they are not, but I have found both of these pictures say more to investors than a hundred pages of charts and prose. The first picture depicts the essays tieya amount of persuasive essay, money needed to launch the new venture, time to positive cash flow, and the expected magnitude of the payoff.
This image helps the revenue management research paper investor understand the depth and duration of negative cash flow, as well as the writing relationship between the investment and the possible return. The ideal, needless to revenue paper, say, is to have cash flow early and often. Writing For Excellence Essay. But most investors are intrigued by the picture even when the cash outflow is high and long—as long as the cash inflow is more so. Of course, since the qos in wimax.thesis world of new ventures is populated by wild-eyed optimists, you might expect the writing for excellence picture to display a shallower hole and persuasive, a steeper reward slope than it should. It usually does. But to be honest, even that kind of picture belongs in the business plan because it is a fair warning to investors that the new venture’s team is completely out of touch with reality and should be avoided at all costs. The second picture complements the first. It shows investors the range of writing for excellence, possible returns and the likelihood of achieving them.
The following example shows investors that there is a 15 % chance they would have been better off using their money as wall-paper. Essays Of Wang. The flat section reveals that there is a negligible chance of losing only a small amount of money; companies either fail big or create enough value to for excellence essay, achieve a positive return. The hump in the middle suggests that there is of wang, a significant chance of for excellence persuasive, earning between 15 % and 45 % in the same time period. And finally, there is a small chance that the initial outlay of cash will spawn a 200 % internal rate of return, which might have occurred if you had happened to essays in honour of wang, invest in Microsoft when it was a private company. Basically, this picture helps investors determine what class of for excellence persuasive, investment the business plan is presenting. Is the qos in new venture drilling for persuasive North Sea oil—highly risky with potentially big payoffs—or is on my ambition to become a teacher, it digging development wells in Texas, which happens to be less of a geological gamble and writing for excellence persuasive, probably less lucrative, too? This image answers that kind of essays in honour of wang tieya, question. It’s then up to the investors to decide how much risk they want to live with against what kind of odds.
Again, the people who write business plans might be inclined to skew the picture to make it look as if the probability of a significant return is downright huge and the possibility of loss is negligible. And, again, I would say therein lies the picture’s beauty. What it claims, checked against the investor’s sense of reality and experience, should serve as a simple pictorial caveat emptor. Of course, the future is hard to predict. Still, it is possible to give potential investors a sense of the kind and class of writing for excellence, risk and persuasive essay, reward they are assuming with a new venture. All it takes is a pencil and two simple drawings. (See the insert “Visualizing Risk and Reward.”) But even with these drawings, risk is, well, risky.
In reality, there are no immutable distributions of outcomes. It is ultimately the responsibility of management to change the distribution, to increase the likelihood and consequences of success, and to decrease the likelihood and implications of problems. One of the persuasive great myths about entrepreneurs is that they are risk seekers. Be A Wise Essay. All sane people want to avoid risk. As Harvard Business School professor (and venture capitalist) Howard Stevenson says, true entrepreneurs want to capture all the reward and give all the writing for excellence essay risk to others.
The best business is a post office box to which people send cashier’s checks. Yet risk is unavoidable. So what does that mean for a business plan? It means that the plan must unflinchingly confront the risks ahead—in terms of people, opportunity, and context. What happens if one of the revenue new venture’s leaders leaves? What happens if a competitor responds with more ferocity than expected? What happens if there is writing, a revolution in Namibia, the source of on my ambition to become a teacher, a key raw material? What will management actually do ? Those are hard questions for writing for excellence persuasive an entrepreneur to pose, especially when seeking capital.
But a better deal awaits those who do pose them and then provide solid answers. A new venture, for example, might be highly leveraged and therefore very sensitive to bullying persuasive, interest rates. Writing Persuasive Essay. Its business plan would benefit enormously by stating that management intends to bullying persuasive essay, hedge its exposure through the financial-futures market by purchasing a contract that does well when interest rates go up. That is the equivalent of offering investors insurance. (It also makes sense for the business itself.) Finally, one important area in the realm of risk/reward management relates to harvesting. Venture capitalists often ask if a company is “IPOable,” by which they mean, Can the writing for excellence essay company be taken public at some point in the future? Some businesses are inherently difficult to take public because doing so would reveal information that might harm its competitive position (for example, it would reveal profitability, thereby encouraging entry or angering customers or suppliers). Some ventures are not companies, but rather products—they are not sustainable as independent businesses. One of the essay greatest myths about entrepreneurs is writing persuasive essay, that they are risk seekers.
All sane people want to avoid risk. Therefore, the business plan should talk candidly about the end of the research introduction process. How will the investor eventually get money out of the business, assuming it is successful, even if only marginally so? When professionals invest, they particularly like companies with a wide range of exit options. They like companies that work hard to writing persuasive, preserve and revenue, enhance those options along the way, companies that don’t, for example, unthinkingly form alliances with big corporations that could someday actually buy them.
Investors feel a lot better about risk if the venture’s endgame is discussed up front. There is an old saying, “If you don’t know where you are going, any road will get you there.” In crafting sensible entrepreneurial strategies, just the opposite is true: you had better know where you might end up and have a map for getting there. A business plan should be the place where that map is drawn, for, as every traveler knows, a journey is a lot less risky when you have directions. Once a business plan is written, of course, the goal is to land a deal. That is a topic for for excellence essay another article in itself, but I will add a few words here. When I talk to young (and old) entrepreneurs looking to finance their ventures, they obsess about the valuation and terms of the deal they will receive. On My To Become. Their explicit goal seems to be to writing persuasive, minimize the dilution they will suffer in raising capital. Implicitly, they are also looking for investors who will remain as passive as a tree while they go about an essay ambition to become a teacher, building their business.
On the food chain of investors, it seems, doctors and writing persuasive, dentists are best and venture capitalists are worst because of the degree to which the latter group demands control and a large share of the returns. That notion—like the qos in wimax.thesis idea that excruciatingly detailed financial projections are useful—is nonsense. From whom you raise capital is often more important than the terms. New ventures are inherently risky, as I’ve noted; what can go wrong will. Persuasive Essay. When that happens, unsophisticated investors panic, get angry, and often refuse to advance the company more money. Sophisticated investors, by contrast, roll up their sleeves and help the company solve its problems. Often, they’ve had lots of experience saving sinking ships. They are typically process literate. They understand how to essays in honour, craft a sensible business strategy and a strong tactical plan. They know how to recruit, compensate, and motivate team members. Writing For Excellence Essay. They are also familiar with the Byzantine ins and outs of qos in, going public—an event most entrepreneurs face but once in writing persuasive a lifetime.
This kind of on my ambition, know-how is worth the money needed to buy it. There is an old expression directly relevant to entrepreneurial finance: “Too clever by half.” Often, deal makers get very creative, crafting all sorts of payoff and option schemes. That usually backfires. My experience has proven again and again that sensible deals have the for excellence persuasive following six characteristics: They do not blow apart if actual differs slightly from wise shopper essay, plan. They do not provide perverse incentives that will cause one or both parties to behave destructively. They are written on a pile of papers no greater than one-quarter inch thick. But even these six simple rules miss an important point. A deal should not be a static thing, a one-shot document that negotiates the writing for excellence persuasive essay disposition of qos in, a lump sum. Instead, it is incumbent upon entrepreneurs, before they go searching for funding, to think about capital acquisition as a dynamic process—to figure out how much money they will need and when they will need it. How is that accomplished?
The trick is for the entrepreneurial team to treat the new venture as a series of experiments. Before launching the whole show, launch a little piece of writing for excellence persuasive, it. Convene a focus group to test the product, build a prototype and watch it perform, conduct a regional or local rollout of a service. Such an exercise reveals the writing research paper introduction true economics of the business and writing essay, can help enormously in research paper introduction determining how much money the new venture actually requires and in persuasive what stages. Entrepreneurs should raise enough, and investors should invest enough, capital to fund each major experiment. Experiments, of course, can feel expensive and risky. But I’ve seen them prevent disasters and bullying persuasive, help create successes. I consider it a prerequisite of putting together a winning deal. Among the many sins committed by for excellence persuasive essay, business plan writers is arrogance.
In today’s economy, few ideas are truly proprietary. Of Wang Tieya. Moreover, there has never been a time in recorded history when the supply of capital did not outrace the writing for excellence persuasive supply of opportunity. Persuasive. The true half-life of persuasive essay, opportunity is writing, decreasing with the passage of time. A business plan must not be an albatross that hangs around the neck of the entrepreneurial team, dragging it into oblivion. Instead, a business plan must be a call for action, one that recognizes management’s responsibility to for excellence persuasive, fix what is broken proactively and in real time.
Risk is inevitable, avoiding risk impossible. Risk management is the on my ambition key, always tilting the venture in favor of reward and for excellence persuasive, away from risk. A plan must demonstrate mastery of the entire entrepreneurial process, from identification of opportunity to harvest. It is not a way to separate unsuspecting investors from their money by hiding the fatal flaw. For in the final analysis, the only one being fooled is the entrepreneur. We live today in the golden age of qos in wimax.thesis, entrepreneurship. Writing For Excellence. Although Fortune 500 companies have shed 5 million jobs in the past 20 years, the overall economy has added almost 30 million. Paper. Many of those jobs were created by entrepreneurial ventures, such as Cisco Systems, Genentech, and Microsoft. Each of those companies started with a business plan. Is that why they succeeded? There is no knowing for sure.
But there is little doubt that crafting a business plan so that it thoroughly and candidly addresses the ingredients of for excellence persuasive essay, success—people, opportunity, context, and the risk/reward picture—is vitally important. In the absence of a crystal ball, in fact, a business plan built of the right information and analysis can only be called indispensable. William A. Essays In Honour. Sahlman is the Dimitri V. D’Arbeloff-MBA Class of 1955 Professor of Business Administration at the Harvard Business School.
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Lesbian Self-Naming in Daphne Marlatt's Ana Historic. Daphne Marlatt has written that to become aware of th[e] dialogue on the many fringes of white, middle-class, heterosexual, Anglo-American/Canadian culture #151; to listen . . . to other women's words/realities #151; is to engage in a delicate balance between recognition of difference and writing persuasive recognition of shared ground, to achieve a balance between i and we, neither capitalized nor capitalizing on the other (Difference (em)bracing 192). Marlatt's Ana Historic: a novel is in revenue research paper, many ways an exploration of this proposition. Almost every female character in the text blends into every other one while also retaining a distinct identity, and all are (a)part of/from Ana herself, who concludes the book by simultaneously realizing a lesbian identity and entering a female community. The story of Ana Historic is the story of its narrator-author's process of becoming a self-named lesbian (Warland 123) called Annie Torrent, and it reaches its narrative and sexual climax in a powerful poem: we give place, giving words, giving truth, to. each other #151; she and me. you. hot skin writing.
skin. Persuasive. fluid edge, wick, wick. she draws me. out. Revenue. you she breathes, is where we meet. breeze from the window reaching you now, trees. out there, streets you might walk down, will, soon. it isn't dark but the luxury of being. has woken you, the reach of your desire, reading. us unto the page ahead. You is a conduit, a light beam to larger possibility, so large it fringes on writing, the other without setting her apart from me, writes Marlatt in the essay with which i/we began this article: in the first or second person i see who you are, feminist, lesbian: your historicity, your meaning-potential is what i grow into (Difference (em)bracing 188). For Marlatt, the use of the connective you rather than the be a wise shopper, distancing her among feminists and lesbians facilitates more than the creation of a female scopic economy; 1 it heralds a culture centred on the embracing woman and rich with utopian possibilities. 2 It is in this context that the climactic poem in Ana Historic must be read if it is to release its deepest resonances.
In the essay, paragraphs preceding the poem, Annie and Zoe step outside the house in which Zoe and ambition a teacher her female friends have established a world of essay connection and stand together in the dark (151). Illuminated only by the light of the moon, an archetypal female symbol, and, perhaps, by the light shining through the open door from the realm of shared female experience, the couple is/are visible only to one another. Of Wang Tieya. Most importantly, they are hidden from the light of the for excellence persuasive, Look (82), the male gaze that objectifives and commodifies, dismembering female bodies and simplifying natural shapes. 3 As well as the writing research paper, moon, there [are] trees #151; an extractable resource for patriarchal capitalism (14), but sources of spiritual succour for writing persuasive, Annie earlier in the novel (18). Although the scene is an qos in urban garden, it corresponds to the open air and uncleared bushes (40, 86) into which Annie imagines the historical Ana Richards venturing physically and psychically in her escape from writing persuasive essay, patriarchy towards an unconfused and wimax.thesis unrepressed female identity.
In the terms of writing for excellence persuasive Deleuze and Guattari's Trait de nomadologie; La machine de guerre, Annie and Zoe have placed themselves in nomad space #151; the kinetic, unbounded region that lies outside the static enclosures of qos in wimax.thesis patriarchal power. Earlier in the novel, Annie had envisaged Ana Richards locking the for excellence essay, door [of her schoolhouse] behind her, locking herself out of carceral space (40). With the sound of a door closing, Annie and Zoe are similarly excluded from man-made enclosures in a space whose openness is conducive to the unlocking and expression of repressed desire. And, of course, the research paper introduction, sound of a door closing also signals the end of a stage in Annie's development towards her lesbian identity. As a passing reference to writing for excellence essay, a dark river early in the dialogue between Annie and Zoe anticipates, that identity is writing research closely linked with fluidity, an persuasive association that is underscored both by Annie's lesbian name and by revenue paper Zoe's accompanying activity: Annie Torrent, i said. For Excellence. (she looked up from the water she was floating something on in the wise shopper, dark, white robes of words, silver words) (152). For Excellence. As well as being a rejection of Annie's patriarchal surname, Torrent is a matrilineal affirmation, a proper noun derived from qos in, a floating signifier which Annie had earlier attached sympathetically to her mother: if only i'd seen more of you, found the right question, argued more, provoked you into a torrent of speech, the torrent you dammed up all those later years . . . the torrent you used to release in rushes of fury . . . (49). By taking as her new name the torrent that flowed from her mother in anger rather than love, Annie discharges her burden of daughterly guilt #151; unElectrafies herself #151; and, in so doing, folds her mother into the lesbian relationship that is now imminent. [S]o #151; Annie Torrent #151; what do you want? (152) asks Zoe in a gesture that is at once affirmative, connective, and encouraging #151; a hyphenated and hyphenating gesture that arises from writing for excellence essay, a loving listening to another woman's words/realit[y]. In the process of becoming a self-named lesbian, writes Betsy Warland, every woman must find her way through a myriad of fears. As she does, she becomes less afraid (123). Thus Annie's response to ambition to become, Zoe's question: she asks me to present myself, to take the leap, as the blood rushes into my face and i can speak: you. i want you. and me. together (152). At this point of balance between i and we, Annie's fluvial movement (Warland 134) towards her lesbian self takes her into a lesbian community of two.
As her individual identity shifts, so too does her social identity: with a realignment of sexual wants, comes a redrawing of borders around me, us, and them and, for the reader, an enriching awareness of a blurring of boundaries between fiction and autobiography. For Excellence Persuasive Essay. Nowhere more powerfully than at this juncture in Ana Historic does the border between Annie and essays in honour Daphne Marlatt, Zoe and for excellence persuasive Betsy Warland, become fluid and permeable. Introduction. Now a historically contingent vehicle for lesbian self-presentation, the text abandons the pretence of being a novel, a fictional heterocosm in the heterosexual tradition, and becomes instead an autofictional text, a blending of the discourses of fiction and autobiography which (re)presents Annie/Daphne's achievement of a lesbian identity outside the boundaries of normal society. The book's final shift into poetry is the natural outcome of the blurring, shifting, and realignment of gen(d)eric boundaries. Poetry, writes Virginia Woolf in A Room of for excellence essay One's Own , ought to have a mother as well as a father (107). One such mother, one source of a literary mother-tongue, in Ana Historic is Mary Shelley, the creator of an essay ambition a teacher a man who created a monster. 4 But Annie's reference to Frankenstein in the passage that precedes the concluding poem also recalls in order to reject the patriarchal perception of lesbianism as monstrous and unnatural: it isn't even Frankenstein, says Annie after her lesbian self-presentation, but a nameless part I know. terror has to do with the trembling that takes you out of yourself (152). Here the process of self-naming has begun to circle outwards and inwards towards areas which, though as yet nameless, are known and, hence, nameable.
As the lesbian body breaks out of patriarchal confinement, writes Betsy Warland in moving parts, so too the language opens up #151; revealing not only the patriarchal codes embedded within our most intimate words, but also revealing how these codes can be broken open: how the language can be inclusive #151; not exclusive (128). In the beautifully crafted build-up to the book's sexual and poetic climax, this inclusiveness manifests itself in an eroticism that many heterosexuals may find embarrassing: we go up the stairs, we enter a room that is alive with the smell of her. bleeding and soft. her on my tongue. she trembles violently on my lips (152). For Excellence Essay. Surrounded by a community of women, a body of women, Annie for shopper essay, the first time experiences fully the sensual freedom and non-destructive violence of a lesbian relationship. As well as affirming aspects of the female (the smell . . Writing Persuasive. . bleeding . . . ) that patriarchy tends to persuasive essay, construct negatively, Annie's initiation effects a release of sexual desire into a loving relationship. More than simply the opening out of for excellence persuasive Annie's sexuality, the representation of lesbian love in the final paragraph and poem of Ana Historic is an authorial and personal affirmation by Marlatt and #151; for the aim is inclusion #151; Warland and the feminist, lesbian reader. In a powerful analysis of the bullying persuasive, effect of lesbian writing on the traditional division between writer and reader, Warland argues that in lesbian love poetry particularly the writing for excellence persuasive essay, patriarchal construction of the reader as a viewer #151; a voyeuristic spectator for whom the be a wise shopper essay, poet describes the activities of lovers #151; has been rendered obsolete (134). As well as being admitted openly into the text, we-the-writers-and-readers of lesbian texts must pass through the initial fear of intrusiveness into the pleasure of writing for excellence persuasive essay inclusiveness (135).
In the poem that concludes Ana Historic , the blurring of distinctions and research paper fusing of identities that lies at writing essay, the heart of ambition to become lesbian experience finds a corollary in the erasure of for excellence essay barriers between and among the lovers, the writer(s), and the reader(s): we give place, giving words, giving birth, to / each other #151; she and me. you / hot skin writing / skin. fluid edge, wick, wick. she draws me / out. you she breathes, is where we meet. Here lesbian love is celebrated, not from the voyeuristic or omniscient perspective of patriarchy as the penetration of an other, but as a merging interface of boundaries between two selves which are distinct and yet alike. Management Research. Serving jouissance rather than procreation (Irigaray 24), lovers of the sex that is and is not one giv[e] birth to place . . . words . . . [and] each other #151; to shared places, common texts and the community that inhabits them. [W]ick, wick: twice the substance between the inside and the outside of a lamp, twice the material between the liquid and writing essay the flame of a candle. Research Paper. In the terms of Irigaray and de Beauvoir (but without their heterosexual mind-set): the doubling of the second sex in love, in joy, eradicates hierarchy, dichotomy and closure. As the poem ends, the centripetal movement that has drawn Annie, Zoe, and writing for excellence persuasive essay the reader together becomes a centrifugal movement outwards from the room and from the wise shopper essay, text. For Excellence Persuasive. Now that security within a lesbian identity has been achieved, a breeze crossing yet another threshold between outside and in honour tieya inside provides pleasant intimations of public spaces soon to be visited willingly because confidently: breeze from the window reaching you now, trees. out there, streets you might walk down, will, soon, it isn't dark but the luxury of being. has woken you, the reach of your desire, reading.
us into the page ahead. As much an address to writing for excellence essay, the reader as to Annie/Daphne or Zoe/Betsy, these lines speak of research introduction potential as well as fulfillment, imminent procedures as well as achieved identity, reading forward as well as affirming being. The passage and, with it, the poem and the body of the novel, ends with a period, but it is the period that arrives at no full stop, the bleeding period of l'criture fminine 5 which erupts like a spring, like a wellspring of being, well-being inside . . . (90). Also working against writing persuasive essay patriarchal assumptions of closure and essays in honour of wang completeness, the (non-)concluding reference to the page ahead points the reader towards the for excellence persuasive essay, blank page which, in the Coach House Press edition of the book, appears between the poem and a biographical note on Daphne Marlatt. One of several meditative white spac[es] throughout the bullying persuasive, book, this blank page invites the reader . Persuasive. . . to enter the text and play an active role in an essay ambition a teacher, its interpretation (Warland 131). By means of the writing for excellence persuasive, dialect thus induced, Warland adds, the text embraces any reader whose life and perspective have been marginalized and oppressed. Not being a poet, I have scribbled the notes for revenue research paper, this article on the page ahead of the poem and in the white space[s] that follow. And in the space below the poem I have transcribed some notes from Marilyn Frye's Politics of Reality : Lesbian. Persuasive Essay. One of the people of the Isle of Lesbos. Revenue Research Paper. It is for excellence persuasive essay bizarre that when I try to name myself and explain myself, my native tongue provides me with a word that is so foreign, so false, so hopelessly inappropriate . . Essays Of Wang. . . Lesbian is . . . the essay, only concept I have ever set out to explain, that seemed to be shut out [of the conceptual scheme of patriarchy] in more than one . . . way . . . Essays Of Wang. . The redundancy of the devices of closure which are in place here . . . leads me to say that lesbians are excluded from the scheme . . . . Writing For Excellence Essay. The meaning of this erasure and of the totality and conclusiveness of it has to do, I think, with the maintenance of phallocentric reality as a whole, and with the situation of women generally a propos that reality (160-62). The lesbian naming at the open con-clusion of paper Ana Historic challenges phallocentric reality in a way that raises complex responses in all readers, be they female or male, homo- or heterosexual.
It may arouse or disgust. It may spark a recognition of writing sameness or provoke a charge of abnormality. It may confirm convictions or suspicions of sexual identity. It may even redraw the contours of some readers' sexuality and, by doing so, widen the scope of their humanity. Cixous, Hlne. The Laugh of the Medusa.
Signs: Journal of Women in. Culture and on my a teacher Society 1. 4 (1976): 875-93. #151;#151;#151; , and Catherine Clment. The Newly Born Woman . Trans. Betsy. Wing. Minneapolis: U of Minnesota P, 1986. Deleuze, Gilles, and Flix Guattari.
Nomadology: The War Machine . Trans. Brian Massumi. New York: Semiotext(e), 1986. Frye, Marilyn. The Politics of Reality: Essays in writing essay, Feminist Theory . Freedom, California: Crossing Press, 1983. Garry, Ann, and Marilyn Pearsall, ed. Women, Knowledge and in honour of wang tieya Reality: Explorations in writing essay, Feminist Philosophy . London: Unwin Hyman, 1989. Marlatt, Daphne. Ana Historic: a novel . Toronto: Coach House Press, 1988.
#151;#151;#151;. Qos In. Difference (em)bracing. In Language in Her Eye . Ed. Libby Scheier, Sarah Sheard and Eleanor Wachrel. Toronto: Coach House Press, 1990: #151;#151;#151;. musing with mothertongue. in the feminine: women and words/les.
femmes et les mots . Ed. Persuasive Essay. Ann Dybikowski et al. Edmonton: Longspoon, Irigaray, Luce. Writing Paper Introduction. thique de la diffrence sexuelle . Paris: Les ditions de Minuit, Raymond, Janice. A Passion for Friends: Towards a Philosophy of Female. Friendship . For Excellence Persuasive Essay. London: Women's Press, 1986.
Tostevin, Lola Lemire. Daphne Marlatt: Writing in the Space that Is Her. Mother's Face. Line 13 (Spring 1989): 32-29. Warland, Betsy. Proper Definitions: collected theorograms . Vancouver: Press.
Gang Publishers, 1990. Woolf, Virginia. A Room of management research paper One's Own . New York: Harcourt, Brace and.