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Athletic Trainer Resume Samples, Tips, and Templates. Athletic Trainers work directly with athletes to prevent injuries before games (such as taping or bracing people), evaluate injuries, and give emergency care or first aid. If long-term injuries occur, they also create rehabilitation plans and college writing, review them with athletes before recording patient injury, healing, and recovery. They will further reporting to group evaluation essay a licensed physician and work in college essay writing, concert with other medical staff to prevent, diagnose, and treat further injuries and illness. Athletic Trainers often work in other fields than just sports. They assist with a wide range of patient types, from children to alumni scholarship essays soldiers. They will evaluate and college application essay help learning, advise individuals to assist recovery from (or avoid) athletic-related injuries or illnesses, or to maintain peak physical fitness. Ultimately, the athletic trainer is the liaison between the patient, the medical doctors or their support staffs, and the medical assistant. When applying and member evaluation essay, interviewing for an Athletic Trainer, a well-crafted resume will help set you apart. Essay Writing Learning! Tips for Athletic Trainer Resumes. Athletic Trainers must possess at least a Bachelor#8217;s Degree in a related field, and often a Master#8217;s is preferred.

Additionally, most states require the individual hold a State Athletic Training License and/or be certified by rationalization, the National Athletic Trainers#8217; Association#8217;s Board of Certification (NATA BOC). Learning! Additionally, Athletic Trainers will typically need two to three years of experience and an acute awareness of any state specific requirements and sport body rules (ie, NCAA, NAIA, or NJCAA governing rules) before they will be allowed to work unsupervised. Especially when dealing with injured individuals, Athletic Trainers should take copious notes on how their patients are recovering. On Innovation Management! Athletic Trainers will require a studious knowledge of different treatments and application essay learning, that individual#8217;s response to activities, training, and treatments. Furthermore, an Athletic Trainer should keep records and logs of thesis on innovation all injuries, statistics, and treatments, in college application writing learning, order to best encourage healing and prevent further injury. Athletic Trainers must already be knowledgeable about a wide range of medical problems, but they must be prepared to act on their training at a moment#8217;s notice. Quick thinking and action can easily mean the difference between an small injury and a career-ending injury. Athletic Trainers must be able to ocr confidently handle emergency care and first aid while under pressure. The following resume samples and templates for Athletic Trainer can help you get a better idea of essay writing what your resume can look like.

Athletic Trainers should always read the reflective and farm specific job description and requirements, and they should make sure that their resume matches them. Additional Athletic Trainer Resume Tips. Work on Interpersonal Skills – Athletic Trainers often work with people in stressful situations, while there is pressure from athletes, coaches, and fans alike. Keeping a clear head and a calm demeanor when talking to people in pain, other medical professionals, coaches, and essay writing, families will be an max weber rationalization, invaluable asset. Seek to Stay Current – It is essential for an Athletic Trainer to keep current with the essay writing learning latest treatments and advancements in medicine, methodology, equipment, and training. In this way, they can give their athletic patients the newest and best treatments. Each state also maintains separate requirements for keeping one#8217;s certification that Athletic Trainers must keep in mind. [City, ST ZIP Code] ATHLETIC TRAINER RESUME SAMPLE. PROFESSIONAL SUMMARY Evidences over a2 chemistry, 10 years as an athletic trainer, working effectively with individuals for college application essay writing help, injury prevention and care. Holds a strong ability to act as a resource for and communicates effectively with patients, families, and physicians.

SKILLS ABILITIES • Planned and implemented new exercise plans to reduce player injuries. • Developed preventative, therapeutic, rehabilitative, and emergency medical care programs for student athletes. • Evaluated and implemented long and short term treatment plans for athletic injuries. • Able to work in high stress and emergency situations while maintaining attention to detail. Alumni Scholarship Essays! EXPERIENCE Athletic Instructor - Sacred Heart Health System. September 2005 – Present. • Evaluated injuries and administered emergency First Aid/CPR/AED to student athletes during practice, training, and games. • Measured and applied protective and therapeutic bandaging, wrapping, strapping, padding, braces, guards, and other protective devices as necessary. • Diagnosed, treated, and rehabilitated muscle and bone injuries. • Evaluated athletic musculature/skeletal problems. • Educated athletes regarding their treatment plan and rehabilitation process; reported all patient progress to physicians. Application Help! • Referred student athletes to the team physician, physician specialists, hospital emergency room, or allied health care specialists, as appropriate. • Developed treatment programs and describing a famous person, treated patients as prescribed and indicated. College Help Learning! • Maintained injury tracking system and documentation of all athletes. • Established, administered, organized, and maintained physical examination, health insurance, injury, and rationalization, treatment records and college application writing help, reports. • Acted as a liaison between administrators, coaching staff, parents, and team physicians. • Advised coaching staff on the severity of injuries incurred by student athletes and on their ability to thesis management resume training and re-enter practice and application writing, competition.

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Marcel Mauss: our guide to the future. Durkheim assembled a team to promote his vision for sociology, but he and Mauss were a double act like Marx and essay writing help learning Engels. There was room for only one leader of the movement, so we speak of the on innovation in production operational Durkheimians and the Marxists. Mauss and Engels each assumed leadership of the movement they jointly founded after their partner’s death, but the intrinsic inequality of the partnership was made worse in application essay writing, Mauss’s case by age difference, kinship seniority and his inability to write books of his own. The publication of an abridged English translation of reflective and farm Marcel Fournier’s Marcel Mauss: a biography allows us to reconsider his historical relationship with Durkheim, as well as his legacy for anthropology, history and the social sciences today. French scholarship on Mauss is, of course, much more advanced than its Anglophone counterpart and it is less confined to academic anthropology. Fournier’s 800-page collection of Mauss’s Ecrits politiques remains virtually unknown to English-speakers and the collective organized in his name, the college essay writing help learning Mouvement Anti-Utilitariste dans les Sciences Sociales (with its journal, revue du MAUSS ), continues the eponymous founder’s commitment to rationalization integrating progressive politics and intellectual work over a wide range of issues. In both cases, The Gift has iconic significance as Mauss’s most discussed work; but, as Sigaud has already pointed out, the essay help learning Anglophone academy, with assistance from one or two leading French anthropologists, has taken up its message in ucla alumni essays, ways that depart seriously from the author’s original intentions. This short review essay accordingly has two parts. In the first, I will outline a schematic trajectory of Mauss’s life, conceived of first as Durkheim’s junior partner and afterwards as himself. The initial phase lasted from application essay learning, 1895, when Mauss entered academic employment as an agrege in philosophy aged 23, to the outbreak of war in 1914.

This was followed by a decade of great personal fulfillment, first in military service and afterwards as the leader of his uncle’s cause, following Durkheim’s premature death in 1917. Mauss now flourished as a political journalist, while redefining his main academic interest as the member essay relationship between socialism and the nation. College Application Help? The years 1920-1925 account for fully two-thirds of the political writings assembled by Fournier. They culminated in the foundation of the Institut d’Ethnologie with Mauss at its head and, not coincidentally, in the publication of The Gift. Mauss lived another 25 years after that. He achieved considerable renown as a teacher and public figure, managing to be acknowledged both as Durkheim’s heir as a professor of sociology in the College de France and as the guru for a new school of ethnographers. And Farm? His political engagements waned in this period and his academic publications even more so. College Writing? His last decade was a sad one, when he was first forced to withdraw as a Jew in German-occupied Paris and then was more or less abandoned by people who later claimed to lionize him.

He died in 1950 in his late seventies. The second part of this essay considers ‘The strange history of The Gift ’. My aim here is to a famous person show that the essay writing help essay’s prominence in contemporary anthropological discourse owes almost nothing to alumni essays Mauss’s agenda in writing it. This is because his political program, articulated so fully in the same period, has dropped out of sight, being replaced by the star-struck concerns of a self-aggrandizing academic elite. But it has to be acknowledged that his text is in some ways rather obscure, permitting a variety of college writing help interpretations. It was also a vehicle for Mauss to assert himself against Durkheim’s sociological reductionism in pursuit not only of an integrated intellectual politics, but also of an opening up to the full complexity of human existence which he summarized in the rather mystical phrase “total social fact.” This message was hard to understand at the time – his long-term collaborator, Henri Hubert, said so – but is even more so in our age of academic bureaucracy and specialization. I conclude that Mauss’s value for us today lies in his attempt to integrate politics and intellectual life in the heady years after the First World War, of which The Gift was one enigmatic outcome. Marcel Fournier’s achievement as Mauss’s biographer and archivist is group hard to overstate. Without his patient labors, Mauss would be even more the creature of myth and legend than he is already. A Montreal sociologist, Fournier describes this as an intellectual biography; yet his treatment of the main texts is rather cursory and learning much concerning Mauss’s central ideas remains opaque. For example, we learn that he was a methodological tiger, often attacking authors in describing essay, his countless book reviews for their errors in this regard.

Yet readers of college application writing help learning this book would be excused for wondering what Mauss’s methods actually were. Instead, what we get is a very rich account of Mauss’s social life and relationships. This balance is reflective and farm appropriate, since the college essay writing help protagonist occasionally expressed doubts about the intellectual life and a2 chemistry coursework his uncle for college application essay writing help learning one sometimes wondered if he was more suited to cafe society than to hard academic work. Reflecting his own personality rather than Durkheim’s, Mauss kept pushing for a more concrete and complex approach to studying the human condition than the modern social sciences allow for. He supervised a revolution in French anthropology that he was never able to participate in describing a famous, directly, while the sociology he professed came under acute pressure during the interwar years. Marcel Mauss’s own life is the essay writing learning “total social fact” whose meaning he sought to illuminate and we have to excavate. Even his apparent failures offer us much opportunity for reflection. While the twentieth century denied his enterprise at every turn, he sought a method for placing the group member essay whole person in college essay writing help, society as a whole. A life in three stages.

Emile Durkheim’s The Division of Labor in Society , a version of his doctoral thesis written while teaching at Bordeaux, was published in 1893. It provided a template for the school of and farm sociology he sought to college learning found and his nephew, Marcel Mauss, was still addressing its central concerns more than thirty years later, when he wrote The Gift . The idea of economic progress through specialization was at the core of the ucla alumni scholarship essays British economics founded by Adam Smith. College Learning? A century later economic individualism was the cornerstone of an evolutionary social theory articulated by Herbert Spencer and popularized as the native ideology of a triumphant western bourgeoisie. Durkheim sought to show that division was a dialectical process of separation and integration, that society became stronger as labor was divided and as the scope for individual action was enhanced. Emphasis on the making of individual contracts obscured the social glue of “the non-contractual element in the contract” that made the economy possible – a combination of group member evaluation essay law, state, customs, morality and shared history that it was the sociologist’s task to make more visible. The individual is the result of social development and college application essay writing learning not, as in Smith’s origin myth, its source. Durkheim’s aim, in a socialist tradition begun by Saint-Simon, was to uncover the sources of solidarity, of which he identified two main types: mechanical and organic. The first was grounded in the sameness of “primitive” or stateless societies and was expressed as a conscience collective , while the essay second arose from higher levels of interdependence in economies whose differentiation obscured common interests. Modern nations draw on college application writing help, a culture of sameness while organizing a complex division of labor. Durkheim hoped to promote the stability of the French Third Republic through a syndicalist politics (the professional association of occupational groups) that was antagonistic to class-based socialism.

Above all he hoped to nurture the development of a secular science of ethics to reflective essay replace the writing help learning traditional mixture of religious and class prejudice. Following the academic trend of the day in fields such as chemistry, he aimed to establish an exclusive and reductionist method for sociology and, in the following years, before moving to a more central base in Paris, he did so with the publication of two books, Rules of the Sociological Method and Suicide: a study in sociology . Marcel Mauss came from the rationalization same Jewish family of small embroidery manufacturers in the Vosges region of Eastern France, Durkheim being his mother’s brother and college help learning fourteen years his senior. Essay? His academic training was in philosophy, philology and the history of religions, with a strong emphasis on college writing learning, ancient languages. When qualified to scholarship essays teach, he joined the section of religious science at the Ecole Pratique des Hautes Etudes and took up a chair there in the religions of uncivilized peoples in 1901 when he was 29 (“there are no uncivilized peoples,” he said). The decades around the turn of the century were the college essay writing help heyday of a new scientific approach to the study of religion in France, being a time of anti-semitism (the Dreyfus affair) and the separation of church and state in education.

Religion was the precursor of the kind of secular republican morality that Mauss and his uncle wished to promote as a middle way between bourgeois individualism and communist revolution. Mauss wanted to discover the management elementary forms of religion through studying the ancient Indo-European texts and college application learning the new ethnography of primitive peoples coming out of essay and farm Australia, Oceania and Africa. He chose prayer or oral ritual as the subject of his doctoral thesis, for the interesting reason that speech is the unity of thinking and action. But his first major publication was a collaboration with his historian friend, Henri Hubert, “On the nature and function of sacrifice” (1899), an application essay help learning, attempt, focusing on Hinduism and Judaism, to max weber thesis place the individual at the centre of the collectivity through communion with the sacred. Many of Mauss’s abiding themes are to be found here — contract, atonement, punishment, the gift, the soul etc. The essay was published in Annee Sociologique , Durkheim’s ambitious review of new work in sociology for which Mauss was in effect the co-editor. Application Essay Writing Learning? In sixteen years (1898-1913), he reviewed and summarized hundreds of rationalization books and articles, producing a quarter of the 10,000 octavo pages published. He was responsible for the religious sociology section which Durkheim admitted had “a sort of primacy.” Uncle and college nephew collaborated in “On some primitive forms of classification” (1903), an audacious attempt to reduce the categories of understanding to alumni scholarship social morphology, for which Mauss dryly remarked, “I provided the facts.” Mauss could thus be said to have led Durkheim towards an college application essay, engagement with religion and philosophy that culminated in his supreme achievement, The Elementary Forms of the Religious Life . A Famous Person? Certainly they drew on the same Australian ethnography; but Mauss never completed his own book on prayer, despite working on it seriously in the period 1908-1913. Mauss actively embraced socialist party politics, maintaining an affiliation to the French Section of the Workers’ International (SFIO). College Application Essay Writing Help? He was a founder of and contributor to the journal, Mouvement Socialiste , and and farm wrote regularly for college help the left-wing press — first for Humanite and later for Populaire , his party newspaper. He was committed to voluntarism and to social action, being heavily involved in the co-operative movement; indeed he lost 10,000 francs in sponsoring a co-operative bakery, La Boulangerie . He openly embraced an anti-capitalist ideology, believing, unlike Durkheim, that only the working class could lead society to thesis on innovation in production a more universal form.

He never sought to separate his scientific work from politics and this led to some tension between them, especially since Durkheim was able to link this trait to his nephew’s inability to settle down (he remained a bachelor and something of a socialite) and to follow through on his major writing projects. College Essay Writing Help Learning? Mauss’s rejection as a candidate for a chair in the College de France in 1908 brought much of this to a head. In the max weber run-up to the First World War, Mauss embraced pacifism and internationalism, but, when it broke out, he signed up with some alacrity, serving for four years as an interpreter with British and Australian troops, for the most part on the front line. Application Essay Writing Help Learning? Military service was a liberation for him from the academic drudgery of being Durkheim’s second-in-command. Operational Management? “I’m doing wonderfully. I just wasn’t made for the intellectual life and I am enjoying the life war is college essay giving me.” Of course, long before the end, he and alumni essays everyone else became fed up with the reality of the war. While still on active service, he started writing a book, unencumbered with footnotes, “On Politics”; but, like every other similar project, it remained unfinished. In 1919, he returned to Paris and his old job at the Ecole Pratique , heavily decorated and in the novel situation of being his own man at last. Essay Writing Help Learning? Durkheim lost his only son Andre in 1915 and died of grief two years later without having yet reached sixty. Even his friends told Mauss that now was the time for a2 chemistry him to college essay grow up; and he accepted responsibility for leadership of what was left of the team Durkheim had brought together. He entered the years 1920-1925 full of energy for reflective politics and intellectual life, with a greater emphasis on the former.

It was without doubt the high point of help learning his career and its main academic outcome was the Essai sur le don (1925). Mauss wrote scores of articles for coursework political publications in this period – especially for La vie socialiste , Action cooperative and Populaire . His intellectual energies were focused on the nationalization of socialism and he began a book on college essay learning, “The Nation” that remained his dominant writing project for the next two decades. He was much taken with English versions of socialism, not just the Rochdale Pioneers of his beloved co-operative movement, but also the Fabians, especially Sidney and Beatrice Webb, for whom nationalization of the means of production was a priority. Mauss returned to thesis on innovation in production internationalism after the college application essay help learning war and was pleased that Durkheim’s idea of the division of ucla alumni labor was now being applied between societies as well as within them. Like everyone else, he had to take a position on the Bolshevik revolution and its aftermath; and he did so while drawing explicitly on sociological method. He was highly critical of the Bolsheviks’ coercive resort to violence, especially against the most active classes, and of their destruction of the essay writing market economy along with confidence and good faith.

He advocated an “economic movement from below,” in the form of syndicalism, co-operation and mutual insurance. His greatest hopes were for a consumer democracy driven by the co-operative movement. He even enjoyed a brief period as a financial commentator on the exchange rate crisis of 1922 and argued that “economic revolutions are always monetary.” His ethics were based on “gentleness and legalism,” his politics on the need to add economic self-organization to juridical socialism. He was increasingly fascinated by the national variations in socialist practice emerging at this time. Member? Mauss also edited for publication his uncle’s lectures on socialism in college essay learning, the tradition of Saint-Simon (1928). In all this time, Mauss continued his academic career at the Ecole Pratique ’s section of religious science.

His researches were no longer focused on the elementary forms of religion, but rather on reflective essay and farm, the political sociology of the post-war period – nationalism, socialism and the Bolshevik revolution. He revived the Annee Sociologique , but the journal soon failed for lack of the committed manpower Durkheim was able to mobilize in essay writing help, its heyday (principally his own and a famous essay his nephew’s). In the writing help early 1920s, he began to take an interest in the potlatch reported for America’s Northwest Coast by Boas and ocr his colleagues. This was amplified by college writing the publication of Malinowski’s Argonauts of the Western Pacific , confirming Mauss’s view that the potlatch was a common feature of Melanesian societies. He began to read the ancient Indo-European sources for reflective analogous phenomena; and we may recall that his essay with Hubert on college application essay, sacrifice was also in scholarship, part about the gift. The result was the Essai sur le don: forme et raison de l’echange dans les societes archaiques , published in the first volume of the new series of Annee Sociologique , a medium-length tract with over 500 footnotes and application writing help learning a hundred references, but still offered as a preliminary report on ongoing inquiries. Along with his incipient interest in max weber rationalization, joking relationships, this essay was intended to “…counter the Durkheimian image of a society functioning as a ‘homogenous mass’ with the application help image of a more complex collectivity, groups and subgroups that overlap, intersect and fuse together”. In the same year, the Institut d’Ethnologie was founded in the university with a remit to train professional ethnologists and offer support to amateur inquiries in the colonies. Mauss took his place in the Institute’s leadership along with Levy-Bruhl and Rivet. Not long afterwards, despite an unexpectedly close fight, he won a chair in sociology at alumni, the College de France . Sociology was under considerable pressure at application essay, this time, as witnessed by Annee Sociologique ’s failure; but Mauss won great renown in his twin capacity as Durkheim’s heir and alumni the de facto guru of the application essay learning new discipline of ethnology. Apart from a very brief sojourn in Morocco, Mauss did no fieldwork; but he was an engaging teacher with a dialectical style of improvisation who had plenty of time for cafe conversation with his students.

He had his detractors still: a rival for Rockefeller patronage dismissed Mauss as “essentially a politician who produces nothing on his own.” And it is true that much of his effort was devoted to publishing the posthumous work of former friends and colleagues, including Henri Hubert, Robert Hertz and Emile Durkheim. Thesis Operational Management? In The Gift , he acknowledged the validity of essay writing help criticisms by a2 chemistry coursework historians and application writing others that social scientists tend to abstract too much and proposed instead to address the full complexity of “individuals in essay and farm, their moral, social, mental and college application essay above all corporeal and material integrity”. Consistent with this anti-reductionist stance, his two major publications before retirement were essays on and farm, “the person” and “techniques of the body”, opening up sociology to college writing help technology, psychology and a2 chemistry coursework the humanities in general. Mauss married his secretary in 1934 and essay help learning she was soon bed-ridden after an incident involving poisonous gas. Thesis? He suffered a prolonged sequence of personal bereavements throughout the second half of his life; and application writing help learning was forced out of his job and spacious apartment by the German occupation of Paris (but escaped being sent to Buchenwald). After the war, he remained socially isolated and eventually, before his death in 1950, his mind began to give way. A new school of coursework French ethnographers was happy to college application learning claim him as their inspiration; and his international reputation, which was already considerable, has continued to grow ever since. In the same year as his death, Claude Levi-Strauss edited and introduced a collection of his principal essays ( Marcel Mauss: Sociologie et anthropologie ), Mauss’s first and only book-length publication. Despite ongoing evidence that these essays have not been closely read by the bulk of anthropologists, Mauss’s reputation as a founder of the modern discipline appears to member essay be secure; and every undergraduate student of anthropology in the world at least pays lip service to essay having read The Gift . The strange history of coursework The Gift. Mauss’s essay on The Gift is offered as a provisional fragment of a more comprehensive study (which never appeared).

At one level, this could be taken as just another example of the author’s style. But I would suggest that the essay’s greatness lies in Mauss’s aspiration to embrace the human condition in its entirety by exploring the moral relationship between concrete persons and society as a whole, a heroic aspiration that is college application essay learning bound to fail. The French words he uses are totalite and integrite which have their direct analogues in the Latin register of English. Moreover, he claims that this wholeness is better approached through concrete description, in the manner of the humanities, rather than as scientific abstraction. His method is eclectic and encyclopedic, relying on knowledge of numerous languages, dead and extant, in the manner of the great classical philologists. But Mauss claims that his is max weber thesis a controlled comparison, drawing on selected ethnographic phenomena of application Polynesia, Melanesia and the American Northwest, plus western legal traditions as revealed by documentary sources, while seeking always to preserve local color and the original context. The argument is inevitably only max weber thesis a partial realization of such an college learning, ambitious project and is often obscured by an accumulation of detail. Mauss provides extended conclusions on the relevance of his study for contemporary societies, but these do not include even a summary account of prevailing economic and legal institutions, so that the reader is forced to make numerous imaginative leaps in order to keep up with the author.

Fortunately for Mauss, his essay has encouraged many to join him in this enterprise; but he must be held partly responsible for the wide range of interpretations that have subsequently emerged. The Gift is in a direct line of descent from essay, Durkheim’s The Division of Labor in Society , published over three decades before. If Durkheim referred somewhat vaguely to the non-contractual element in the contract, this essay is focused explicitly on that issue. Mauss summarily eliminates the two utilitarian ideologies that purport to account for the evolution of contracts: “natural economy,” Smith’s idea that individual barter was aboriginal; and college application essay writing learning the notion that primitive communities were altruistic, giving way eventually to our own regrettably selfish, but more efficient individualism. Against the contemporary move to replace markets with communist states, he insists that the complex interplay between individual freedom and social obligation is synonymous with the human condition and that markets and money are universal, if not in their current impersonal form. In this way he fleshes out his uncle’s social agenda, but also questions the scholarship accuracy of his model of application writing help learning mechanical solidarity for stateless societies. Mauss’s key term for the range of archaic contracts he intends to investigate is untranslatable into English and something of a feudal relic in French. Prestation is a service performed out of obligation, something like “community service” as an alternative to imprisonment. According to him, the ucla alumni essays earliest forms of exchange took place between entire social groups and involved the whole range of application essay writing help learning things people can do for each other, a stage he called the systeme des prestations totales . But his main interest is in a form that probably evolved from reflective, this, named after the Northwest Coast example as “potlatch,” which he considers to be general in Melanesia and Oceania, where his chief examples are the kula ring and the Maori.

Excavation of classical sources reveals analogous phenomena in Thrace and possibly Germany. These forms of gift-exchange involve aggressive competition between the individual leaders of groups which he labels prestations totales de type agonistique . As is well known, Mauss’s guiding question is: “What is the college application essay writing learning principle of right and interest in backward or archaic societies that makes it obligatory to return a present one has received? What force is there in max weber rationalization thesis, the thing given that makes the college help recipient give something back?” He rarely refers to this process of giving and making a return as “reciprocity.” His answer, broadly speaking, is that human beings everywhere find the personal character of the gift compelling and are especially susceptible to its evocation of the most diffuse social and spiritual ties. Potlatches provide a clear instance of this principle in action. Mauss goes on ucla essays, to trace its appearance in sacrifice ( do ut des ), in early Roman law and in college writing, the Germanic wadium , even in the apparently negative instance of on innovation in production alms-giving, where the recipient is assumed to be incapable of making a return except in essay writing, the form of spiritual deference. Thesis Management? A lot of ink has subsequently been spilled on college help learning, this part of the argument. Mauss’s concluding chapter addresses the relevance of all this for contemporary societies without offering an explicit analysis of capitalist markets (which we are all supposed to know about). There are three sections: 1. Conclusions de morale 2. Reflective Essay And Farm? Conclusions de sociologie economique et d’economie politique 3. Conclusion de sociologie generale et de morale . The logic of the structure is that Mauss will consider first “moral” questions and then the writing help learning economy, returning to morality in essay and farm, the context of sociological method more generally. College Application Essay Writing Help? The difficult term for us is morale which in the first instance clearly refers to the science of ethics that Durkheim aimed for in the Division of Labor , but in the latter case it probably means more generally the human aspiration to place relations between person and society on describing a famous person, a just footing of college application help shared morality.

Mauss’s chief ethical conclusion is that the attempt to create a free market for private contracts is utopian and just as unrealizable as its antithesis, a collective based solely on altruism. Human institutions everywhere are founded on the unity of individual and society, freedom and obligation, self-interest and concern for others. Modern capitalism rests on an unsustainable attachment to one of these poles and it will take a social revolution to operational restore a humane balance. If we were not blinded by ideology, we would recognize that the system of prestations survives in our societies — in weddings and at Christmas, in friendly societies and more bureaucratic forms of essay learning insurance, even in wage contracts and the welfare state. With regard to thesis the economy, Mauss, who had earlier insisted that the kula valuables are money, if not of the sort we are familiar with, takes Malinowski to task for reproducing in help, his typology of transactions the describing person ideological opposition between commercial self-interest and the free gift. College Learning? The economic movement from below that he advocated in his political journalism – professional associations, co-operatives, mutual insurance – is a secular version of what can be found in the religions of archaic societies, as well as in the central phenomena described here. These are all faits sociaux totaux , total social facts, in the sense that they bring into play the whole of society and all its institutions – legal, economic, religious and aesthetic. And this is the challenge they pose for sociological method. Mauss claims that he has studied these societies in their dynamic integrity, not as congealed states to be decomposed into analytical instances of rules pertaining to group law, myth or value and price. “By considering the whole together, we have been able to perceive the essential, the movement of application essay writing help everything, the live dimension, the coursework fleeting moment when society or rather men become aware of the common feelings they have for themselves and others. This concrete observation of help learning social life gives us the means of discovering new facts that we are just beginning to glimpse.

Nothing, in our opinion, is more urgent and fruitful than this study of social facts.” We must follow the ocr example of the historians and observe what is given, rather than split up social phenomena into separate abstractions. The reality is always a concrete person acting in society – “the middle-class Frenchman, the Melanesian of this or that island”. Then sociologists will furnish psychologists with material they can use, while maintaining their distinctive pursuit of the social whole and of group behavior as a whole. This is Marcel Mauss’s manifesto for how he will carry forward his uncle’s academic legacy. In some ways it entails the inversion of college application essay writing learning Durkheim’s reductionist program for social science. It is therefore unsurprising that he is now considered to be a founder of modern anthropology more than a sociologist. Lygia Sigaud has provided a trenchant account of The Gift ’s subsequent trajectory in twentieth-century anthropology which I will just summarize briefly here. She argues that the essay became famous only in the second half of the last century and then in a distorted version that privileged economic exchange to the detriment of Mauss’s other concerns. The chief culprit is Levi-Strauss whose introduction to the collected essays was designed to harness Mauss’s reputation to ucla scholarship his own theory of reciprocity as previously published in college essay, The Elementary Structures of Kinship . But The Gift really took off as a staple of Anglophone anthropological discourse following Sahlins article, “The spirit of the reflective essay gift”, which entrenched Levi-Strauss’s claim that Mauss’s essay hinged on a faulty understanding of the Maori concept of hau . She notes that the college application learning opposition between “commodity economy” (the West) and “gift economy” (the Rest) began to take root after 1980; and she identifies this trend with Carrier (1995) who sought to coursework ocr subvert it, while characterizing the dichotomy as “Maussian Occidentalism.” We could add that this is the period of neo-liberalism. Sigaud makes no connection between Mauss’s essay and college essay writing help his political commitments.

The trajectory she describes is a purely academic one. As a result, when trying to account for the remarkable discontinuity between what Mauss wrote and what he is on innovation operational now thought to have written, she relies for explanation on the cult of personality and college learning the power of gossip in small-scale oral communities such as academic anthropology. In fact, Chris Gregory launched the modern trend with his book, Gifts and Commodities , even though, as he states in Savage Money , “I have never used the distinction between gifts and max weber thesis commodities to classify societies nor have I ever suggested that ‘we’ are to commodities as ‘they’ are to gifts. Such an approach is anathema to me. My problem in college application essay help, Gifts and Commodities was to reflective explain the paradox, brought about by colonization, of the efflorescence of gift exchange in a world dominated by college essay help commodity production and exchange. I characterized Papua New Guinea as an ‘ambiguous’ economy where things are now gifts, now commodities, depending on the social context.

Thus I developed the logical opposition between gifts and reflective commodities in application writing help learning, order to try to understand the ambiguity of the historically specific situation of ucla scholarship colonial Papua New Guinea (…) Ethnographic classification is quite distinct from conceptual division by the logical principle of dichotomy.” But it didn’t do any good. Application Essay Help Learning? The “fictions” employed ingeniously by Marilyn Strathern in The Gender of the max weber rationalization Gift – that “we” (the West or “Euroamerica”) are opposed to “them” (the Rest or “Melanesia”) and essay writing that the gift is the conceptual opposite of the commodity in some linked way — are now routinely reproduced in introductory anthropology courses everywhere. Essay And Farm? Mauss’s text is adduced in support of this notion, even though it is the very ideology his essay was intended to refute. College Application Help? But then who reads anything closely these days?

The French literature is, for obvious reasons, much more respectful of Mauss’s actual rather than his invented legacy (Godbout and in production operational Caille 2000, Godelier 1999). There are honorable exceptions in the English-speaking tradition, among whom I would include myself. Jonathan Parry’s article also argues correctly that the purely altruistic gift was for Mauss the inverse of the market conceived of college application writing help as a sphere of group pure self-interest, whereas the archaic gift was a mixture of the two; so that market ideology leads us to application essay writing learning think of reflective essay Christmas presents as pure gifts, an idea that we then project onto application essay writing help learning our reading of reflective essay and farm Mauss’s text. But chief among the exceptions must be counted David Graeber who offers a full-length reanalysis of college writing help learning The Gift , complete with detailed attribution of Mauss’s socialist views and acknowledgment of the continuation of his intellectual politics by the MAUSS group, among others. It will be interesting to management see if this long chapter makes any difference to the wholesale adoption of application writing learning bourgeois ideology by Anglophone anthropologists who affect disaffection from it, while imagining that Mauss was as opposed to the market as they claim to max weber be, at least in their classrooms. It cannot be said that Marcel Fournier’s biography of Mauss makes the latter’s ideas more transparent than they were already. College Essay Help? But he does show us that his protagonist’s political engagement is a2 chemistry ocr indispensable to understanding his academic production. Moreover, his account of the life should be the baseline for all future judgment of Mauss’s intellectual significance.

I believe that the academic division of labor that shapes contemporary anthropology has passed its sell-by date. Mauss already felt so eighty years ago. When we come to consider how anthropology might contribute to the formation of a more just world society, Mauss’s example will be even more influential than at present. In the meantime, his most famous work is college application learning generally seen upside down through “the camera obscura of ideology” (Marx). One thought on “ Marcel Mauss: our guide to the future ” You must be logged in to post a comment.

The two great memory banks are language and money. Exchange of meanings through language and of objects through money are now converging in a single network of communication, the internet. We must learn how to person essay use this digital revolution to advance the human conversation about a better world. Essay Learning? Our political task is to make a world society fit for all humanity.

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The Spill, The Scandal and the President. The inside story of how Obama failed to crack down on application essay writing help learning the corruption of the Bush years – and let the world's most dangerous oil company get away with murder. O n May 27th, more than a month into the worst environmental disaster in U.S. history, Barack Obama strode to the podium in the East Room of the White House. For weeks, the administration had been insisting that BP alone was to blame for the catastrophic oil spill in the Gulf #x2013; and the ongoing failure to stop the massive leak. They have the technical expertise to plug the hole, White House spokesman Robert Gibbs had said only six days earlier. Describing A Famous! It is their responsibility.

The president, Gibbs added, lacked the authority to play anything more than a supervisory role #x2013; a curious line of argument from an administration that has reserved the right to assassinate American citizens abroad and college application writing help learning, has nationalized much of the auto industry. If BP is not accomplishing the essay, task, can you just federalize it? a reporter asked. No, Gibbs replied. Now, however, the president was suddenly standing up to take command of the cleanup effort. College Essay Writing Help Learning! In case you were wondering who's responsible, Obama told the nation, I take responsibility. Sounding chastened, he acknowledged that his administration had failed to adequately reform the Minerals Management Service, the scandal-ridden federal agency that for years had essentially allowed the oil industry to self-regulate.

There wasn't sufficient urgency, the president said. Coursework! Absolutely I take responsibility for that. College Application Essay Writing Learning! He also admitted that he had been too credulous of the oil giants: I was wrong in my belief that the oil companies had their act together when it came to worst-case scenarios. He unveiled a presidential commission to investigate the disaster, discussed the resignation of the head of MMS, and extended a moratorium on new deepwater drilling. The buck, he reiterated the next day on max weber rationalization the sullied Louisiana coastline, stops with me. This article appeared in the June 24, 2010 issue of college application essay Rolling Stone. The issue is available in the online archive. What didn't stop was the gusher. Hours before the president's press conference, an ominous plume of oil six miles wide and scholarship essays, 22 miles long was discovered snaking its way toward Mobile Bay from BP's wellhead next to the wreckage of college essay writing help learning its Deepwater Horizon rig. Admiral Thad Allen, the U.S. Reflective Essay And Farm! commander overseeing the cleanup, framed the spill explicitly as an college application writing help, invasion: The enemy is reflective essay, coming ashore, he said.

Louisiana beaches were assaulted by blobs of oil that began to seep beneath the application writing help, sand; acres of marshland at the Bird's Foot, where the person, Mississippi meets the essay writing help, Gulf, were befouled by shit-brown crude #x2013; a death sentence for wetlands that serve as the cradle for much of the region's vital marine life. By the a2 chemistry coursework ocr, time Obama spoke, it was increasingly evident that this was not merely an writing learning, ecological disaster. It was the a famous person essay, most devastating assault on application learning American soil since 9/11. Like the attacks by person essay, Al Qaeda, the essay writing learning, disaster in the Gulf was preceded by ample warnings #x2013; yet the administration had ignored them. Instead of group evaluation essay cracking down on application essay learning MMS, as he had vowed to do even before taking office, Obama left in place many of the top officials who oversaw the agency's culture of corruption. He permitted it to thesis in production operational management rubber-stamp dangerous drilling operations by BP #x2013; a firm with the worst safety record of any oil company #x2013; with virtually no environmental safeguards, using industry-friendly regulations drafted during the Bush years. He calibrated his response to the Gulf spill based on flawed and misleading estimates from BP #x2013; and then deployed his top aides to lowball the flow rate at a laughable 5,000 barrels a day, long after the best science made clear this catastrophe would eclipse the Exxon Valdez . Hours after BP’s rig sank on April 22nd, a white board in NOAA's war room in application essay writing learning, Seattle displays the administration's initial, worst-case estimate of the spill — 64,000 to 110,000 barrels a day. Photo courtesy of al.com. Even after the president's press conference, Rolling Stone has learned, the administration knew the spill could be far worse than its best estimate acknowledged. That same day, the president's Flow Rate Technical Group #x2013; a team of scientists charged with establishing the person, gusher's output #x2013; announced a new estimate of college application writing learning 12,000 to 25,000 barrels, based on calculations from video of the plume. In fact, according to interviews with team members and scientists familiar with its work, that figure represents the plume group's minimum estimate.

The upper range was not included in their report because scientists analyzing the flow were unable to rationalization reach a consensus on essay help learning how bad it could be. The upper bound from the plume group, if it had come out, is very high, says Timothy Crone, a marine geophysicist at Columbia University who has consulted with the government's team. That's why they had resistance internally. Group Essay! We're talking 100,000 barrels a day. The median figure for Crone's independent calculations is 55,000 barrels a day #x2013; the equivalent of an Exxon Valdez every five days. That's what the plume team's numbers show too, Crone says. Essay Writing Help! A source privy to internal discussions at one of the world's top oil companies confirms that the industry privately agrees with such estimates. The industry definitely believes the higher-end values, the source says.

That's accurate #x2013; if not more than that. The reason, he adds, is that BP appears to have unleashed one of the 10 most productive wells in the Gulf. BP screwed up a really big, big find, the source says. And if they can't cap this, it's not going to blow itself out anytime soon. Even worse, the coursework ocr, moratorium on drilling announced by the president does little to prevent future disasters. The ban halts exploratory drilling at only 33 deepwater operations, shutting down less than one percent of the total wells in college application help learning, the Gulf. Interior Secretary Ken Salazar, the Cabinet-level official appointed by Obama to rein in the oil industry, boasts that the group member essay, moratorium is application help, not a moratorium that will affect production #x2013; which continues at 5,106 wells in the Gulf, including 591 in deep water. Most troubling of all, the government has allowed BP to member continue deep-sea production at its Atlantis rig #x2013; one of the world's largest oil platforms. Capable of drawing 200,000 barrels a day from the seafloor, Atlantis is located only 150 miles off the application essay writing learning, coast of Louisiana, in waters nearly 2,000 feet deeper than BP drilled at Deepwater Horizon. Scholarship Essays! According to congressional documents, the platform lacks required engineering certification for as much as 90 percent of application essay its subsea components #x2013; a flaw that internal BP documents reveal could lead to scholarship catastrophic errors.

In a May 19th letter to Salazar, 26 congressmen called for writing help learning the rig to be shut down immediately. We are very concerned, they wrote, that the tragedy at Deepwater Horizon could foreshadow an a2 chemistry coursework, accident at BP Atlantis. The administration's response to essay writing learning the looming threat? According to person an e-mail to a congressional aide from a staff member at MMS, the college essay help learning, agency has had zero contact with Atlantis about its safety risks since the Deepwater rig went down. During the Bush years, the Minerals Management Service, the agency in the Interior Department charged with safeguarding the environment from the ravages of group essay drilling, descended into rank criminality. College Application Essay Writing Help! According to reports by Interior's inspector general, MMS staffers were both literally and rationalization, figuratively in bed with the oil industry.

When agency staffers weren't joining industry employees for coke parties or trips to corporate ski chalets, they were having sex with oil-company officials. Application Essay Writing! But it was American taxpayers and the environment that were getting screwed. MMS managers were awarded cash bonuses for pushing through risky offshore leases, auditors were ordered not to investigate shady deals, and safety staffers routinely accepted gifts from the describing, industry, allegedly even allowing oil companies to fill in their own inspection reports in pencil before tracing over them in pen. The oil companies were running MMS during those years, Bobby Maxwell, a former top auditor with the agency, told Rolling Stone last year. College Application Writing! Whatever they wanted, they got. Nothing was being enforced across the board at MMS. Salazar himself has worked hard to foster the impression that the ucla scholarship essays, prior administration is to blame for the catastrophe.

In reality, though, the Obama administration was fully aware from the outset of the need to correct the lapses at MMS that led directly to the disaster in the Gulf. Application Essay Learning! In fact, Obama specifically nominated Salazar #x2013; his great and dear friend #x2013; to ucla scholarship essays force the department to clean up its act. For too long, Obama declared, Interior has been seen as an appendage of commercial interests rather than serving the people. That's going to change under Ken Salazar. Salazar took over Interior in January 2009, vowing to restore the help learning, department's respect for scientific integrity. He immediately traveled to MMS headquarters outside Denver and ucla scholarship, delivered a beat-down to staffers for their blatant and criminal conflicts of interest and self-dealing that had set one of the worst examples of corruption and abuse in government.

Promising to set the standard for reform, Salazar declared, The American people will know the Minerals Management Service as a defender of the taxpayer. You are the ones who will make special interests play by the rules. Dressed in his trademark Stetson and bolo tie, Salazar boldly proclaimed, There's a new sheriff in town. Salazar's early moves certainly created the impression that he meant what he said. Within days of taking office, he jettisoned the Bush administration's plan to open 300#xA0;million acres #x2013; in college application essay help learning, Alaska, the Gulf, and up and down both coasts #x2013; to offshore drilling. The proposal had been published in the Federal Register literally at midnight on the day that Bush left the White House. Salazar denounced the plan as a headlong rush of the worst kind, saying it would have put in place a process rigged to force hurried decisions based on bad information. Thesis Operational Management! Speaking to Rolling Stone in March 2009, the secretary underscored his commitment to reform. We have embarked on college writing help learning an ambitious agenda to clean up the mess, he insisted.

We have the inspector general involved with us in a preventive mode so that the group, department doesn't commit the same mistakes of the past. The crackdown, he added, goes beyond just codes of ethics. Except that it didn't. Salazar did little to tamp down on the lawlessness at MMS, beyond referring a few employees for college application essay help criminal prosecution and alumni scholarship, ending a Bush-era program that allowed oil companies to make their royalty payments #x2013; the amount they owe taxpayers for extracting a scarce public resource #x2013; not in cash but in crude. And instead of putting the learning, brakes on new offshore drilling, Salazar immediately throttled it up to record levels. Even though he had scrapped the Bush plan, Salazar put 53#xA0;million offshore acres up for lease in the Gulf in his first year alone #x2013; an all-time high. The aggressive leasing came as no surprise, given Salazar's track record. This guy has a long, long history of promoting offshore oil drilling #x2013; that's his thing, says Kier#xE1;n Suckling, executive director of the Center for Biological Diversity. He's got a highly specific soft spot for reflective essay and farm offshore oil drilling.

As a senator, Salazar not only steered passage of the Gulf of Mexico Energy Security Act, which opened 8#xA0;million acres in the Gulf to drilling, he even criticized President Bush for not forcing oil companies to develop existing leases faster. Salazar was far less aggressive, however, when it came to making good on his promise to college application essay writing help learning fix MMS. Though he criticized the actions of a few rotten apples at the agency, he left long-serving lackeys of the oil industry in charge. The people that are ethically challenged are the career managers, the people who come up through the ranks, says a marine biologist who left the agency over the way science was tampered with by top officials. In order to get promoted at MMS, you better get invested in alumni scholarship, this pro-development oil culture. One of the Bush-era managers whom Salazar left in place was John Goll, the agency's director for Alaska.

Shortly after, the Interior secretary announced a reorganization of MMS in the wake of the Gulf disaster, Goll called a staff meeting and served cake decorated with the words Drill, baby, drill. Salazar also failed to college help learning remove Chris Oynes, a top MMS official who had been a central figure in ucla alumni scholarship, a multibillion-dollar scandal that Interior's inspector general called a jaw-dropping example of bureaucratic bungling. In the 1990s, industry lobbyists secured a sweetheart subsidy from Congress: Drillers would pay no royalties on oil extracted in deep water until prices rose above $28 a barrel. But this tripwire was conveniently omitted in application writing help, Gulf leases overseen by Oynes #x2013; a mistake that will let the oil giants pocket as much as $53#xA0;billion. Group Evaluation! Instead of being fired for this fuckup, however, Oynes was promoted by Bush to become associate director for offshore drilling #x2013; a position he kept under Salazar until the college writing help, Gulf disaster hit. Employees describe being in Interior #x2013; not just MMS, but the other agencies #x2013; as the third Bush term, says Jeff Ruch, executive director of Public Employees for Environmental Responsibility, which represents federal whistle-blowers. They're working for the same managers who are implementing the same policies. Coursework Ocr! Why would you expect a different result? T he tale of the application learning, Deepwater Horizon disaster is, at its core, the tale of two blowout preventers: one mechanical, one regulatory.

The regulatory blowout preventer failed long before BP ever started to ucla alumni scholarship essays drill #x2013; precisely because Salazar kept in place the application help learning, crooked environmental guidelines the coursework ocr, Bush administration implemented to application help learning favor the oil industry. MMS has fully understood the worst-case scenarios for ucla alumni deep-sea oil blowouts for more than a decade. In May 2000, an environmental assessment for deepwater drilling in the Gulf presciently warned that spill responses may be complicated by application essay help, the potential for very large magnitude spills (because of the high production rates associated with deepwater wells). The report noted that the oil industry has estimated worst-case spill volumes ranging from 5,000 to 116,000 barrels a day for 120 days, and it even anticipated the underwater plumes of describing person oil that are currently haunting the Gulf: Oil released subsea (e.g., subsea blowout or pipeline leak) in these deepwater environments could remain submerged for some period of time and college, travel away from the spill site. The report ominously concluded, There are few practical spill-response options for dealing with submerged oil. That same month, an alumni scholarship essays, MMS research document developed with deepwater drillers #x2013; including the company then known as BP Amoco #x2013; warned that such a spill could spell the end for offshore operations. The industry could ill afford a deepwater blowout, the document cautions, adding that no single company has the solution to such a catastrophe. The real test will come if a deepwater blowout occurs. Enter the Bush administration. Rather than heeding such warnings, MMS simply assumed that a big spill couldn't happen. There was a complete failure to even contemplate the possibility of a disaster like the one in the Gulf, says Holly Doremus, an environmental-law expert at the University of California.

In their thinking, a big spill would be something like 5,000 barrels, and college writing help, the oil wouldn't even reach the shoreline. In fact, Bush's five-year plan for offshore drilling described a large oil spill as no more than 1,500 barrels. In April 2007, an environmental assessment covering the area where BP would drill concluded that blowouts were low probability and low risk, even though a test funded by scholarship essays, MMS had found that blowout preventers failed 28 percent of the time. College Writing Help Learning! And an a famous person, environmental assessment for BP's lease block concluded that offshore spills are not expected to damage significantly any wetlands along the Gulf Coast. In reality, MMS had little way to assess the risk to wildlife, since a new policy instituted under Bush scrapped environmental analysis and fast-tracked permits. Declaring that oil companies themselves were in the best position to determine the environmental effects of drilling, the new rules pre-qualified deep-sea drillers to receive a categorical exclusion #x2013; an exemption from college application essay writing learning, environmental review that was originally intended to prevent minor projects, like outhouses on a2 chemistry coursework ocr hiking trails, from being tied up in red tape.

There's no analytical component to application writing help a cat-ex, says a former MMS scientist. You have technicians, not scientists, that are simply checking boxes to make sure all the rationalization, T's are crossed. College Essay Writing Learning! They just cut and paste from previous approvals. Nowhere was the absurdity of the alumni essays, policy more evident than in the application that BP submitted for college writing its Deepwater Horizon well only two months after Obama took office. BP claims that a spill is essay, unlikely and states that it anticipates no adverse impacts to college application endangered wildlife or fisheries. Should a spill occur, it says, no significant adverse impacts are expected for the region's beaches, wetlands and coastal nesting birds. Coursework! The company, noting that such elements are not required as part of the application, contains no scenario for a potential blowout, and essay, no site-specific plan to respond to a spill. Reflective And Farm! Instead, it cites an college learning, Oil Spill Response Plan that it had prepared for the entire Gulf region.

Among the sensitive species BP anticipates protecting in coursework ocr, the semitropical Gulf? Walruses and other cold-water mammals, including sea otters and sea lions. The mistake appears to be the result of a sloppy cut-and-paste job from BP's drilling plans for the Arctic. Even worse: Among the primary equipment providers for college application essay writing learning rapid deployment of spill response resources, BP inexplicably provides the thesis, Web address of essay writing learning a Japanese home-shopping network. Such glaring errors expose the 582-page response plan as nothing more than a paperwork exercise.

It was clear that nobody read it, says Ruch, who represents government scientists. This response plan is coursework ocr, not worth the paper it is written on, said Rick Steiner, a retired professor of marine science at essay help, the University of essay and farm Alaska who helped lead the scientific response to the Valdez disaster. Incredibly, this voluminous document never once discusses how to stop a deepwater blowout. Scientists like Steiner had urgently tried to alert Obama to the depth of the rot at essay, MMS. Group! I talked to the transition team, Steiner says. College Writing Learning! I told them that MMS was a disaster and needed to be seriously reformed. Reflective Essay! A top-to-bottom restructuring of MMS didn't require anything more than Ken Salazar's will: The agency only exists by order of the Interior secretary. He had full authority to change anything he wanted, says Rep.

Issa, a longtime critic of MMS. He didn't use it. Even though Salazar knew that the environmental risks of offshore drilling had been covered up under Bush, he failed to order new assessments. They could have said, 'We cannot conclude there won't be significant impacts from drilling until we redo those reviews,' says Brendan Cummings, senior counsel for the Center for essay writing Biological Diversity. But the oil industry would have cried foul. And what we've seen with Salazar is that when the oil industry squeaks, he retreats. Under Salazar, MMS continued to issue categorical exclusions to ucla alumni companies like BP, even when they lacked the necessary permits to college application writing help learning protect endangered species.

A preliminary review of the BP disaster conducted by scientists with the independent Deepwater Horizon Study Group concludes that MMS failed to enforce a host of environmental laws, including the Clean Water Act. MMS and Interior are equally responsible for the failures here, says the former agency scientist. They weren't willing to member take the regulatory steps that could have prevented this incident. Had MMS been following the application writing help, law, it would never have granted BP a categorical exclusion #x2013; which are applicable only to activities that have no significant effect on the human environment. At a recent hearing, Sen. Sheldon Whitehouse grilled Salazar about Interior's own handbook on categorical exclusions, which bars their issuance for reflective and farm offshore projects in relatively untested deep water or utilizing new or unusual technology #x2013; standards that Whitehouse called plainly pertinent for BP's rig. It's hard for college essay learning me to ucla alumni scholarship essays see that that's a determination that could have been made in good faith, Whitehouse said, noting that the monstrously complex task of drilling for application essay help learning oil a mile beneath the operational management, surface of the ocean appeared to have been given less oversight than is required of writing learning average Americans rewiring their homes. Who was watching? Not the a2 chemistry coursework ocr, Interior secretary. Salazar did not even ensure that MMS had a written manual #x2013; required under Interior's own rules #x2013; for writing learning complying with environmental laws.

According to an investigation in describing a famous person essay, March by the Government Accountability Office, MMS managers relied instead on college application essay writing learning informal institutional knowledge #x2013; passed down from the Bush administration. The sole written guidance appeared on a website that only provided, according to the report, one paragraph about assessing environmental impacts of oil and gas activities, not detailed instructions that could lead an analyst through the process of drafting an essay, environmental assessment or environmental impact statement. People are being really circumspect, not pointing the finger at Salazar and Obama, says Rep. Raul Grijalva, who oversees the Interior Department as chair of the House subcommittee on public lands. But the troublesome point is, the administration knew that it had this rot in the middle of the process on offshore drilling #x2013; yet it empowered an already discredited, disgraced agency to essentially be in charge. On April 6th of last year, less than a month after BP submitted its application, MMS gave the oil giant the go-ahead to college essay writing help drill in the Gulf without a comprehensive environmental review. The one-page approval put no restrictions on BP, issuing only a mild suggestion that would prove prescient: Exercise caution while drilling due to indications of shallow gas. B P is the last oil company on Earth that Salazar and MMS should have allowed to regulate itself. The firm is implicated in each of the worst oil disasters in American history, dating back to coursework the Exxon Valdez in 1989. Essay Writing Help! At the group evaluation, time, BP directed the industry consortium that bungled the cleanup response to Valdez during the college application essay help, fateful early hours of the spill, when the worst of the scholarship, damage occurred. Vital equipment was buried under snow, no cleanup ship was standing by and no containment barge was available to collect skimmed oil.

Exxon, quickly recognizing what still seems to elude the Obama administration, quickly shunted BP aside and took control of the spill. In March 2006, BP was responsible for an Alaska pipeline rupture that spilled more than 250,000 gallons of crude into Prudhoe Bay #x2013; at the time, a spill second in size only to the Valdez disaster. Investigators found that BP had repeatedly ignored internal warnings about corrosion brought about by draconian cost cutting. The company got off cheap in the spill: While the EPA recommended slapping the firm with as much as $672#xA0;million in fines, the Bush administration allowed it to settle for just $20#xA0;million. BP has also cut corners at the expense of its own workers. In 2005, 15 workers were killed and 170 injured after a tower filled with gasoline exploded at a BP refinery in college essay writing learning, Texas. Essay! Investigators found that the company had flouted its own safety procedures and illegally shut off a warning system before the blast. An internal cost-benefit analysis conducted by BP #x2013; explicitly based on the children's tale The Three Little Pigs #x2013; revealed that the essay writing learning, oil giant had considered making buildings at the refinery blast-resistant to protect its workers (the pigs) from an explosion (the wolf). BP knew lives were on on innovation operational management the line: If the wolf blows down the house, the piggy is college essay, gobbled. But the company determined it would be cheaper to simply pay off the essay and farm, families of dead pigs.

After the college essay, blast, BP pleaded guilty to essay a felony, paying $50#xA0;million to settle a criminal investigation and another $21#xA0;million for violating federal safety laws. But the fines failed to force BP to college essay help learning change its ways. In October, Labor Secretary Hilda Solis hit the company with a proposed $87#xA0;million in new fines #x2013; the reflective essay and farm, highest in history #x2013; for continued safety violations at the same facility. Since 2007, according to college analysis by the Center for Public Integrity, BP has received 760 citations for egregious and willful safety violations #x2013; those committed with plain indifference to or intentional disregard for employee safety and health. Reflective Essay And Farm! The rest of the oil industry combined has received a total of one. The company applied the same deadly cost-cutting mentality to its oil rig in the Gulf. BP, it is important to note, is less an oil company than a bank that finances oil exploration; unlike ExxonMobil, which owns most of the equipment it uses to drill, BP contracts out almost everything. That includes the Deepwater Horizon rig that it leased from a firm called Transocean.

BP shaved $500,000 off its overhead by deploying a blowout preventer without a remote-control trigger #x2013; a fail-safe measure required in many countries but not mandated by MMS, thanks to intense industry lobbying. It opted to use cheap, single-walled piping for the well, and installed only six of the 21 cement spacers recommended by its contractor, Halliburton #x2013; decisions that significantly increased the risk of college learning a severe explosion. It also skimped on critical testing that could have shown whether explosive gas was getting into the system as it was being cemented, and began removing mud that protected the well before it was sealed with cement plugs. As BP was cutting corners aboard the ucla scholarship essays, rig, the Obama administration was plotting the greatest expansion of application help learning offshore drilling in half a century. In 2008, as prices at the pump neared $5 a gallon, President Bush had lifted an executive moratorium on offshore drilling outside the Gulf that had been implemented by a famous person essay, his father following the Exxon Valdez . On the campaign trail, Obama had stressed that offshore drilling will not make a real dent in application writing, current gas prices or meet the long-term challenge of energy independence.

But once in office, he bowed to the politics of drill, baby, drill. Thesis! Hoping to use oil as a bargaining chip to win votes for climate legislation in application essay writing help, Congress, Obama unveiled an aggressive push for new offshore drilling in the Arctic, the Southeastern seaboard and new waters in the Gulf, closer to essay and farm Florida than ever before. In doing so, he ignored his administration's top experts on college essay help learning ocean science, who warned that the offshore plan dramatically understated the risks of an max weber thesis, oil spill and petitioned Salazar to exempt the Arctic from drilling until more scientific studies could be conducted. Undeterred, Obama and Salazar appeared together at Andrews Air Force Base on March 31st to introduce the plan. College Help! The stagecraft was pure Rove in its technicolor militaristic patriotism. The president's podium was set up in max weber, front of the cockpit of an F-18, flanked by a massive American flag.

We are not here to do what is application essay writing, easy, Salazar declared. We are here to do what is right. He insisted that his reforms at MMS were working: We are making decisions based on alumni sound information and sound science. The president, for his part, praised Salazar as one of the finest secretaries of Interior we've ever had and stressed that his administration had studied the drilling plan for more than a year. This is not a decision that I've made lightly, he said. Two days later, he issued an even more sweeping assurance. It turns out, by the way, that oil rigs today generally don't cause spills, the application essay writing help learning, president said. They are technologically very advanced. Eighteen days later, on the eve of the 40th anniversary of Earth Day, the Deepwater Horizon rig went off like a bomb.

F rom the start of its operation in the Gulf, BP had found itself struggling against a famous person essay, powerful kicks from gas buildup, just as MMS had warned. Now, on April 20th, the pent-up methane exploded in college essay writing learning, a fireball that incinerated 11 workers. Like a scene out of a real-life Jerry Bruckheimer film, the half-billion-dollar rig #x2013; 32,000 tons and 30 stories tall #x2013; listed over and sank to the bottom two days later, taking a mile of on innovation operational pipe down with it. Within hours, the help, government assembled a response team at the war room of the National Oceanographic and Atmospheric Administration in Seattle. Member Evaluation Essay! The scene, captured by a NOAA cameraman and briefly posted on application help the agency's website, provides remarkable insight into the government's engagement during the earliest hours of the catastrophe, and, more troubling, the role of top administration figures in downplaying its horrific scope.

At a conference table, nearly a dozen scientists gather around a map of the essay and farm, Gulf. Joshua Slater, a commissioned NOAA officer dressed in his uniform, runs the show. So far we've created a trajectory [of the slick] that was passed up the chain of command to the Coast Guard and eventually to the president showing where the oil might go, he tells the assembled team. BP's remote operated sub, he adds, was unsuccessful in activating the blowout preventers, so we're gearing up right now. An NOAA expert on college essay help oil disasters jumps in: I think we need to be prepared for it to be the spill of the decade. Written on a whiteboard at the front of the room is the rationalization, government's initial, worst-case estimate of the size of the spill. While the college, figure is dramatically higher than any official estimate issued by BP or the government, it is in line with the high-end calculations by scientists who have monitored the spill. Estm: 64k - 110k bbls/Day.

The equivalent of up to three Exxon Valdez spills gushing into in production management the Gulf of Mexico every week. Later in the video, a voice on speakerphone with a heavy Southern accent reveals that government scientists were concerned from the very beginning about underwater plumes of oil #x2013; a reality that NOAA administrator Jane Lubchenco and BP executives are still seeking to downplay. They weren't sure how that oil was going to react once it was spilled, the voice says. Whether it was going to rise, or form layers and college application essay writing learning, start twisting around. A2 Chemistry! The government, in short, knew from the start that surface measurements of the oil slick #x2013; on which it would premise its absurdly low estimate of 5,000 barrels a day #x2013; were likely to college application help be unreliable.

By that evening, the White House was gearing up for rationalization thesis an urgent response. Application Essay Writing Help! The president convened an describing, emergency meeting in the Oval Office with Adm. Thad Allen, Homeland Security Secretary Janet Napolitano, Interior Secretary Ken Salazar and top White House deputies Rahm Emanuel, Carol Browner and essay writing help, Larry Summers. Obama forcefully instructed his team that the response to ucla alumni the oil spill should be treated as a number-one priority. But then the fog of war set in. The following day, the Coast Guard #x2013; relying on assurances from BP #x2013; declared that the spill appeared to essay writing learning be limited to oil that was stored aboard the sunken rig. A2 Chemistry Coursework Ocr! With a worst-case crisis seemingly averted, Obama checked out, heading off for a long weekend in application learning, Asheville, North Carolina, where he and the first lady would stop for ribs at a barbecue joint called 12 Bones Smokehouse before checking into the Grove Park Inn, a golf resort and spa. Asked whether the spill would hamper the president's offshore drilling agenda, spokesman Gibbs made light of the member evaluation, disaster. I don't honestly think it opens up a whole new series of application essay learning questions, he said. Essays! I doubt this is the first accident that has happened, and I doubt it will be the college application help learning, last. The next day, April 24th, Landry told reporters that leaks had been discovered in the riser pipe and estimated the flow at alumni essays, 1,000 barrels a day.

This is a very serious spill, she said. Over the next five days, the administration took significant steps to deal with the spill, but the essay writing help, effort fell far short of what was needed to tackle a crisis that BP was already privately estimating could be as catastrophic as 14,000 barrels a day. A Joint Information Center #x2013; a strange partnership involving BP, the scholarship, Coast Guard and MMS #x2013; was set up in Louisiana. Senior officials met with BP CEO Tony Hayward to receive briefings on the company efforts to stop the flow. The Navy opened a base in Florida as a staging area for BP's cleanup work.

Salazar ordered inspections for rigs throughout the Gulf and visited BP's command center in Houston. College Application Help! Napolitano began an investigation into the disaster. The president himself was occupied elsewhere. After returning from reflective, his vacation, Obama spent Monday, April 26th palling around with Derek Jeter and the New York Yankees, congratulating them on their World Series victory. He later took time to chat with the president of Honduras. When he put in a call to college essay writing help Gov. Essay And Farm! Haley Barbour of Mississippi, it was to talk about tornadoes that had caused damage in college writing help learning, that state, with only a brief mention of the oil spill. Ucla Alumni! On Tuesday the 27th, Obama visited a wind-turbine plant in college application writing help learning, Iowa. Thesis On Innovation In Production Management! Wednesday the 28th, he toured a biofuels refinery in Missouri and application writing, talked up financial reform in Quincy, Illinois.

He didn't mention the oil spill or the ocr, Gulf. That evening, administration officials received news that #x2013; to judge from their subsequent response #x2013; scared the shit out of them. The following is not public, a confidential NOAA advisory stressed. Two additional release points were found today in the tangled riser. If the application essay writing help learning, riser pipe deteriorates further, the flow could become unchecked, resulting in a release volume an thesis, order of magnitude higher than previously thought. There is no official change in the volume released but the [Coast Guard] is no longer stating that the release rate is 1,000 barrels a day.

Instead they are saying that they are preparing for a worst-case release and bringing all assets to bear. Standing before the cameras, a visibly shaken Landry bumbled through the reading of a press release. Although BP continued to believe its estimate of 1,000 barrels a day, she said, NOAA experts believe the writing learning, output could be as much as 5,000 barrels. The remarks established, for the first time, a figure that both BP and the government would stick to a famous long past its sell-by date. After he was briefed that evening, Obama told his deputies to contact the college writing learning, Pentagon. The following day, Napolitano declared the BP disaster, which was now approaching the size of Puerto Rico, an Oil Spill of National Significance #x2013; the designation required to max weber rationalization draw on regional resources and to appoint an incident commander to coordinate a federal response. It had taken a full week after Deepwater Horizon exploded for the government to become fully engaged #x2013; a critical lapse that allowed the crisis to spiral out of control. T he White House press office organized a show of overwhelming force, with Gibbs convening Browner, Napolitano, Deputy Interior Secretary David Hayes, EPA chief Lisa Jackson and Coast Guard Rear Adm. Sally Brice-O'Hara for a single press conference on April 29th. Though clearly meant to signal engagement, the all-star crew didn't have their message straight.

When Brice-O'Hara praised the professionalism of essay help our partner, BP, Napolitano quickly barked, They are not our partner! They are not our partner! For her part, Napolitano revealed that she didn't know whether the Defense Department possessed any assets that could help contain the group evaluation, spill, and referred vaguely to whatever methodologies BP was using to seal the well. Instead of seizing the reins, the college application essay learning, Obama administration cast itself in a supporting role, insisting that BP was responsible for cleaning up the mess. And Farm! When you say the company is responsible and the government has oversight, a reporter asked Gibbs on May 3rd, does that mean that the government is ultimately in charge of the cleanup? Gibbs was blunt: No, he insisted, the responsible party is BP. In fact, the National Oil and application essay help learning, Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan #x2013; the federal regulations that lay out the command-and-control responsibilities for cleaning up an oil spill #x2013; makes clear that an oil company like BP cannot be left in describing a famous person, charge of such a serious disaster. The plan plainly states that the college application essay writing, government must direct all federal, state or private actions to clean up a spill where a discharge or threat of discharge poses a substantial threat to the public health or welfare of the United States. The government is in and farm, a situation where it's required to be in charge, says William Funk, a professor of environmental and writing learning, administrative law at Lewis and Clark College who previously worked as a staff attorney in the Justice Department.

What's more, the administration failed to ensure that BP was prepared to respond to the mess on the surface, where a lack of ships and group evaluation, equipment has left more than 100 miles of the coast #x2013; including vast stretches of fragile marshlands #x2013; covered in crude. College Application Essay! According to MMS regulations, the agency is supposed to inspect the stockpiles of industry's equipment for the containment and reflective essay and farm, cleanup of oil spills. In BP's case, the agency should have made sure the company was prepared to clean up a spill of college help 250,000 barrels a day. But when Rolling Stone asked MMS whether BP had the required containment equipment on hand, the member essay, agency's head of public affairs in the Gulf replied, I am not clear if MMS has the info that you are requesting. The effect of application essay writing learning leaving BP in charge of capping the well, says a scientist involved in the government side of the effort, has been like a drunk driver getting into a car wreck and then helping the police with the accident investigation. Indeed, the administration has seemed oddly untroubled about leaving the ucla scholarship essays, Gulf's fate in the hands of a repeat criminal offender, and college essay help learning, uncurious about the crimes that may have been committed leading up to the initial sinking of the rig. The Obama Justice Department took more than 40 days after the initial blast killed 11 workers to announce it was opening a criminal probe. From the start, the administration has seemed intent on allowing BP to operate in near-total secrecy. Much of what the and farm, public knows about the college application writing, crisis it owes to Rep. Ed Markey, who chairs the House Subcommittee on Energy and the Environment. Under pressure from Markey, BP was forced to release footage of the a famous person essay, gusher, admit that its early estimates put the leak as high as 14,000 barrels a day and post a live feed of its undersea operations on the Internet #x2013; video that administration officials had possessed from the earliest days of the disaster.

We cannot trust BP, Markey said. It's clear they have been hiding the college essay writing help learning, actual consequences of this spill. But rather than applying such skepticism to BP's math, the Obama administration has instead attacked scientists who released independent estimates of the describing person, spill. When one scientist funded by NOAA released a figure much higher than the government's estimate, he found himself being pressured to college application essay writing help retract it by officials at the agency. Are you sure you want to keep saying this? they badgered him.

Lubchenco, the a famous, head of NOAA, even denounced as misleading and premature reports that scientists aboard the research vessel Pelican had discovered a massive subsea oil plume. Speaking to college help PBS, she offered a bizarre denial of the obvious. It's clear that there is something at depth, she said, but we don't even know that it's oil yet. Scientists were stunned that NOAA, an reflective and farm, agency widely respected for its scientific integrity, appeared to have been co-opted by the White House spin machine. NOAA has actively pushed back on every fact that has ever come out, says one ocean scientist who works with the agency. They're denying until the facts are so overwhelming, they finally come out and issue an admittance. Others are furious at the agency for application essay help learning criticizing the work of ucla alumni essays scientists studying the writing, oil plumes rather than leading them. A2 Chemistry! Why they didn't have vessels there right then and start to gather the college application essay writing, scientific data on oil and what the impacts are to different organisms is inexcusable, says a former government marine biologist. Evaluation Essay! They should have been right on top of college essay writing help that. A2 Chemistry Coursework! Only six weeks into writing help learning the disaster did the agency finally deploy its own research vessel to investigate the a2 chemistry coursework, plumes. T he failure of the Obama administration to crack down on BP #x2013; and to tackle the crisis with the full force of the federal government #x2013; is likely to haunt the Gulf Coast for decades to come.

Oil continues to lap up onshore in college application essay writing help learning, Louisiana, Alabama, Mississippi and Florida. Pelican rookeries are fouled, their eggs and nests soaked in oil. The region's fisheries #x2013; some of the richest in the world #x2013; are imperiled; anglers and describing a famous essay, shrimpers have been barred from more than a third of the Gulf's waters, which may never fully recover from the toxic stew of crude and chemical dispersant now twisting in its depths. The region's beaches are empty, and tourist towns are dying. Administration officials now admit that the oil may continue to gush into college essay help learning the Gulf until August, when relief wells are finally in describing essay, place. Both the government and BP have reasons to college essay help learning downplay the extent of the spill. For BP, the motive is financial: Under the Clean Water Act, the company could owe fines of as much as $4,300 for every barrel spilled, in addition to royalties for the oil it is squandering.

For the group essay, Obama administration, the disaster threatens to derail the president's plan to expand offshore drilling. It's crystal clear what the federal response to essay help learning the tragedy ought to be, said Sen. Frank Lautenberg, who chairs the on innovation operational, Senate subcommittee on environmental health. Bring a dangerous offshore drilling pursuit to an end. The administration, however, has made clear that it has no intention of reversing its plan to expand offshore drilling.

Four weeks into the BP disaster, when Salazar was questioned in a Senate hearing about the future of the writing learning, president's plan, he was happy to stand up for the industry's desire to drill at any cost. Isn't it true, asked Sen. Lamar Alexander, a Republican from Tennessee, that as terrible as the tragedy is, that unless we want $14, $16, $18, $20-a-gallon gasoline, that it's not realistic to think that we would actually stop drilling for oil in the Gulf? Unbowed by the catastrophe that was still unfolding on his watch, Salazar heartily agreed, testifying that the reflective essay and farm, president had directed him to move forward on offshore drilling. That may help explain why the administration has gone to unusual lengths to contain the spill's political fallout. Application Essay Writing Help! On May 14th, two days after the first video of the gusher was released, the alumni scholarship essays, government allowed BP to college application writing apply a toxic dispersant that is ucla alumni essays, banned in England at the source of the college essay writing, leak #x2013; an unprecedented practice in the deep ocean. The effort should be in recovering the oil, not making it more difficult to recover by dispersing it, says Sylvia Earle, a famed oceanographer and former NOAA chief scientist who helped the agency confront the world's worst-ever oil spill in the Persian Gulf after the first Iraq War. The chemical assault appeared geared, she says, to improving the appearance of the group, problem rather than solving the problem. Critics of the administration's drilling plans fear that the president's decision to college writing postpone drilling in member, the Arctic and appoint a commission to investigate the BP spill are merely stalling tactics, designed to blunt public anger about the disaster.

The way the PR is spinning is once that spill is plugged, then people declare victory, says Rep. Grijalva. The commission stalls it long enough where the college help, memory of the American people starts to thesis on innovation management fade a little bit on the issue. After that, we're back to where we were. #xA0; President Obama pushed to expand offshore drilling, in part, to college application essay writing help win votes for climate legislation, which remains blocked in the Senate. The political calculus is understandable #x2013; the risk of an oil spill weighed against the far greater threat posed by global warming #x2013; but in the end, he may have succeeded only in compounding one environmental catastrophe with another. Even if the climate bill is eventually approved, the thesis on innovation in production management, disaster in the Gulf will serve as a lasting and ugly reminder of the price we paid for our addiction to oil. It was a bargain with the devil, says Steiner, the college application help, marine scientist who helped lead the response to coursework ocr the Valdez disaster. And now the devil is gloating.

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20 Useful Words and college application help Phrases for Top-Notch Essays. In this blog entry I’m going to talk with you about transition words. These are the linking words which bind our ideas together and illustrate the relationships between the information in member evaluation our sentences. College Application Essay Help. I have to be really careful, however, to make it very clear that they are not magic ‘smart’ words but if you can understand them they can really give you a lot of power to articulate your ideas. These words are nothing but pretence when you use them carelessly. Nonetheless, it will be valuable to group evaluation essay, develop your understanding of how to use these words to serve your writing.

They can be important tools which enable you to lead your reader through your progression of logic persuasively and college essay writing help succinctly. I want to illustrate this point by describing sharing with you a funny story about something a very witty woman, with whom I work on campus, told me about transition words and high heels. College Essay Help Learning. While marking a number of mid-term papers, she turned to me and, with a sigh, lamented her students’ poor use of linking words. She told me that reading them could be like watching young drunk women trying to essay, walk in high heeled shoes. She cringed as she spoke of help learning how awkward they appeared when they are not accustomed to walking on them when sober, let alone while intoxicated. She added that, in her opinion, women could look striking and elegant while wearing heels but that young woman often didn’t appreciate that walking in them is a skill which requires practice. She surprised me when she likened their attempts to walk to group member essay, those of newly born calves.

Transition words are wonderful tools. Throwing them into your essay carelessly can make your writing look worse than it is and if you are not sure how to use them, it is college application essay writing help, better to reflective essay, stick to simpler options. Application Writing Help Learning. However, if you learn to coursework, use them thoughtfully, they can afford your writing the college writing learning elegance of top-notch essays. It is alumni, not that you add them, but that you employ them to support your flow or progression of logic. 20 Examples of Important Transition Words.

There are many linking words which can lead us into additional information and application writing while it is useful to vary your vocabulary beyond ‘ and ,’ these words are not mere replacements for ‘ and .’ They have nuanced differences, thus, by these particular meanings, we can offer a more delicate illustration of the relationships between our ideas. ‘Furthermore’ is used to add information that expands upon the previous point. It precedes information that expands upon that already given. It usually occurs at group evaluation essay, the beginning of an independent clause. Help Learning. ‘Moreover’ and ‘More so’ are both similar to ‘furthermore’ while giving special emphasis to the greater importance of the following clause. “Despite cutting back on other staff, her father gave her a position, furthermore , he gave her an enviable office while still not having a role for her.” Writers also sequence additional information. ‘Firstly,’ ‘secondly’ and ‘thirdly’ are obvious options used to person, achieve this, however, there are others. For example, we can look into the past with ‘previously,’ ‘until the present’ or ‘preceded by.’ “Present growth in the company was *preceded by several quarters of stagnation”* ‘Meanwhile’ and application essay learning ‘simultaneously’ talk about and farm, things which are happening at the same time as another, while ‘concurrently’ does this while emphasizing that the two ideas have played out in conjunction with one another. Usually, ‘incidentally’ is used to add relevant information while downplaying its significance compared with that of other ideas. “The priority of the zoo had been to protect species’ from extinction. The panda breeding program was enjoying some rare success, while simultaneously , other programs to increase the numbers of endangered species were being trialed. Meanwhile , the zoo was being visited by application essay learning an influx of essay tourists who were, incidentally , able to enjoy seeing the young animals.” ‘Subsequently’ and ‘afterward’ lead into information after the fact.

When writers need to illustrate similarity they can employ words such as ‘in like manner,’ ‘comparatively,’ and ‘correspondingly.’ Whereas , when they wish to highlight difference they have phrases like ‘on the contrary,’ ‘however,’ ‘notwithstanding,’ ‘nevertheless’ and ‘on the other hand.’ Notwithstanding the vehement opposition to college application help learning, online education programs being made available to essay and farm, inmates, considerable improvements were made to application essay help learning, the re-employment prospects of many offenders who benefited from the ucla scholarship trial. College. On the contrary, prisoners who were not able to access education while incarcerated were found to be more likely to reoffend and return to reflective and farm, prison. Essay Help. When it comes time to clarify an essays, argument or point, some of the transitional phrases which are used are, ‘to reiterate,’ ‘specifically,’ or ‘inasmuch as.’ When we have lead our reader through our flow of college essay help logic, there might be nothing more rewarding than driving our point home by showing consequence or concluding our arguments. There are a lot of strong phrases such as ‘accordingly,’ ‘hence,’ ‘thus’ and ‘thereupon’ which can do this. I hope you will feel encouraged, by this article, to continue to further your understanding of how transitional words can work to guide your reader through your flow of logic. Thesis. When used well, they add power and order to your argument and can add to the result you see from application essay writing, your work. If it is person, becoming difficult to get everything done before the deadlines, know that help is available. College. Your journey to learn how to study and articulate yourself well through your writing should be enjoyable.

Throughout your academic and professional career you will continue to improve and you will find new challenges. Don’t let setbacks in your life cause you to lose faith in max weber yourself and college essay give up on your studies. Ask write your essay from EssayPro and focus your efforts. We can get you out of that hole and help you progress toward your long-term goals again. Essay And Farm. Our team of professional writers can write any style of academic paper according to your specific criteria. Share This Article. 10 Most Commonly Confused Words Explained. As students, no matter how smart we are, we can always make small yet embarrassing. As you get closer to the essay writing, let's get familiar with a definition of. Tips for Writing an Admission Essay.

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essay structure ncea How to write your best essay ever! English biz has separate guides for each of the types of writing you'll meet on your course but this particular guide is college application probably the most important of them all. It will show you how to construct an effective, well-structured argument-based essay. How do you feel when you're given an essay to write? Do you fill with f-f-fear?

W-w-wobble with worry? P-p-pour with perspiration? Well, here's a way that make the whole process more satisfying and enjoyable! Okay, he's off his rocker (but we won't worry as he's not real!). He's yet to discover that writing an essay is never going to be an easy task, even for the best writers.

But you're about to find out how it can be made much more straightforward , interesting and effective . Oh, and likely to gain you a significantly higher grade, too! So that's something to feel, well. just a little bit excited about! It's important to ucla alumni scholarship understand one thing before we start: unlike a maths or science question, an English essay question has no single 'correct' answer. You can breathe easy on that one. It's just not like that.

In an English essay there is no one 'answer' and nothing to 'prove'. That isn't to say there aren't wrong answers - there are. These are those based on 'mis-readings' of your texts. Application Essay? But what your teacher or examiner wants is a reasonable, informed, explained and well-supported view . Reflective Essay? In a nutshell, that's it. An essay requires this from you: a succinct opening in which you give an overview of your response to the essay question.

This is college essay writing a kind of 'super-condensed' response that sums up your whole response in a line or two. you can add to the opening sentences, a very brief explanation of essay wh at application essay help learning, aspects of the text brought you to this view . If you can give, say, four - six aspects, then you are setting out the describing essay, coming structure of your essay . There is no better way to begin an essay than like this. From this point on you will never be left scratching your head wondering what to write next. the remainder of the essay is college essay help learning merely a series of PEE paragraphs that, point by point, argue the case for what you have just stated. Each point (P) needs its own paragraph and to have support (E) from the a2 chemistry coursework, text (either a quotation, or an explanation of some aspect of form or structure ) along with with an explanation (E) of how the college learning, text brought you to such a view, the effects it created, the methods the author used to create the ucla scholarship essays, effects and, finally, its relevance to the text, that is, the author's purposes . That's it. Done and dusted! More detail below if needed. The secret of a good essay? Make it an argument ! An effective essay is a piece of writing that makes a strong and essay writing help well-supported case for a stated viewpoint . Describing A Famous Essay? The view it makes the essay help, case for is your response to essay and farm the essay title or question . College Help Learning? You'll have arrived at after a couple of readings of the text, more if a poem, and one of max weber rationalization thesis which will be a so-called 'close-reading' when you annotate the text carefully in essay writing help, line with whatever the essay question asks, seeking out support as quotations or explanations of group evaluation useful effects created by form and structure . So your essay starts with a clear statement of your opinion . It could be something like, as an example: 'Shakespeare's theme of violence in Romeo and Juliet is shown especially effectively through the opening scene, as well as through the characters of Mercutio and college application essay learning Tybalt and an analysis of these three dramatic aspects will form the basis of this essay.' The opening overview is evaluation sometimes called a thesis statement . The 'thesis' is your response, i.e. the heart of your 'argument'. It's what the essay goes on to explain and support to help learning show that it is a view that is well - considered, based on the text and reasonable to hold . Essays are about opinions, not facts.

This point is crucial to take on board. There is never a straightforward right answer to an essay q uestion or title. There are wrong answers, of course - caused through, for rationalization thesis example, misinterpreting the college help learning, text; but the 'answer' to an essay question will always be a point of view . Essays deal in opinions, not facts . This is why your teacher is looking to read your views and why you have come to think in this particular way. How do you arrive at a 'thesis' or overview? This is the group member evaluation, tough part - there's no getting away from that. Not least, this is because it puts to the test your knowledge of the application essay help, text and your understanding of the essay title or question . The good news is that when it's done and reflective essay done well, the application essay, remainder of the essay becomes much more straightforward and far more interesting to member evaluation write, perhaps even a little exciting! The Outline Structure for an Effective Essay. As already stated above, this first paragraph needs to open with a clearly stated summary of your whole 'answer' along with an equally brief summary of the aspects of the text you'll be analysing to show your stated view is sound . It is these early sentences that provide the major 'signposts' that give your essay and its general direction. Importantly, you need to college essay writing set a confident tone early on in the essay. Describing A Famous Essay? This can be done by adding in a very few details to show you've grasped the text's big picture . This should be a brief comment (brevity is everything in college application writing, the opening paragraph) on the major details of the story (poem or whatever) along with an equally brief statement of any relevant context , (that is the reflective, situation you feel brought the writer to want to write their text, including key aspects of their social , cultural and literary contexts ). This will, though, always need to be focused on the needs of the essay question . Notice how you are constantly seeking to avoid waffle and generalised 'bolted on' comments ; instead, you need to keep all you write tightly focused on the needs of the essay title or question. This is the writing, bulk of the essay.

It is a series of paragraphs each introduced with a new clear important and wholly relevant point . Sadly, it's all too easy to open a in a way that inspires little confidence and which drifts from the essay question or argument. Avoid this by opening each and every paragraph in thesis, a way that is help learning clearly and directly developing the essay's 'answer' or argument . If you started by stating the four-six aspects you'll be covering in your essay, then you'll have no difficulty knowing what to write in these body paragraphs. This is where you restate, in on innovation in production operational management, a different form, your opening argument and give a brief list of the major points you have made along with a comment about the wider implications and college application essay writing relevance of what you have found. It will help to think back to the imaginary classroom situation. What would follow on from the a2 chemistry ocr, highly condensed 'answer' you gave to your teacher?

Your teacher might say, 'Good, that's a fair view to application help learning hold - but why do you think that? Show me from the text itself what made you think that way.' In the written essay, you'll need to be providing a whole lot more 'evidence' mainly in max weber thesis, the form of quotations each one itself supported by college essay help a commentary derived from an ocr analysis of the quotation's literary and linguistic content . However, with a central and guiding argument starting off and flowing through the entire essay, it now becomes much easier to college application writing search the text for aspects and quotations that will provide good quality evidence to support the essay's points. Each point and supporting quotation needs to be followed by an analysis and essay comment . Some teachers call this the P.E.E. ( point example explanation ) or P.Q.C. ( point quotation comment ) system. This is needed to explain how and why the aspect of the text or the quotation 'works' within the context of the essay question and the originally stated argument. Certain key questions need to application essay help be answered concerning each quotation used: What techniques have been used to make the language of the quotation effective? This means discussing the a2 chemistry ocr, writer's methods , e.g. through the creation of realistic dialogue; the use of an effective metaphor; through vivid description; onomatopoeia; alliteration; effective stage directions, etc. How does the college application essay learning, method used affect the reader's understanding of the text and reflective essay and farm its themes (e.g. Essay Writing Learning? 'the effect of this passage is to create a sense of really being there for the reader. Essay? ')? Why was this method used (i.e. College Writing Help Learning? what was the writer's purpose )? E.g. 'At this point on the story the author wants to gain the reader's attention in order to begin exploring the overall theme of essay and farm injustice. ' MARK GRABBING TIP No. 1!

Begin all of your paragraphs in such a way that it is absolutely clear you are focused on the essay question and writing learning its requirements, thus building up your overall argument. This will keep the essay on evaluation track and avoid the plague of poor essays: wandering, digression and waffle! What if your essay title isn't in the form of a question? When considered as a question, you will often find it is easier to generate that all-important single main point of view to it - the main idea upon college application help learning which you will then base the remainder of your essay . Here is an example of a main idea succinctly stated (i.e. thesis statement ) that could be used to create an ucla alumni scholarship essays argument essay from the writing learning, above question: The remainder of a2 chemistry coursework ocr this - or any other - essay must then be no more than a linked series of college application help points with each point explained , developed and supported in a paragraph of its own . These points must all be directly related to the main idea you have already explained in the opening paragraph, which itself is your response to the essay title or question. Remember that each point - each paragraph - must set out to max weber thesis explain , develop and support some aspect of your over-riding main idea and application essay learning nothing more . In this example, the paragraph that follows the opening paragraph - the first of what is ucla alumni scholarship essays called the body paragraphs of your essay - could be based on the point that the theme of essay writing learning ambition is shown through what Macbeth and Lady Macbeth are given by Shakespeare to say and do in Act One of the play.

The third paragraph of your essay - its second body paragraph - might then explore, develop and thesis on innovation support how the learning, theme of ambition is max weber rationalization thesis shown through these two characters in some part of help Act 2, and so on. Below you'll find lots more detail and ideas for writing an effective essay but with luck, the above will have given you the basic idea. Aim to 'integrate' words or phrases from the text you are studying directly into your own sentences (still using quotation marks, of course). Don't overdo this effective technique, but used sparingly, this use of alumni scholarship essays 'embedded' quotations can help create a very impressive style, one that suggests you have a good grasp of the text and the essay question. Here are some examples of how to use embedded quotations. The first is from the opening of John Steinbeck's novel, 'Of Mice and Men': 'Small and quick' George is essay writing help presented by Steinbeck as a character in on innovation operational management, complete contrast to his friend, the lumbering and 'shapeless' Lennie.

Here is a similarly embedded quotation from J B Priestley's 'An Inspector Calls': As the college writing help learning, Inspector says, 'We don't live alone' and this is an important message Priestley gives his audience. Finally, see how this can be done using John Agard's poem, 'Half-Caste': Perhaps Agard also wants his reader to 'come back tomorrow' with a different attitude towards those they might feel are in any way different from themselves. MORE TIPS AND MORE DETAIL! Essays take a great deal of effort and time and so deserve careful preparation. T he most common failing examiners find is reflective essay and farm a lack of application essay help understanding of the text on which the essay is based. Group Essay? This is to take the help learning, road signpos ted 'Failure'. But you're heading elsewhere. So. get to know your text well. You won't succeed if you don't!

I f you struggle with the text, read it through again with a study guide to hand. Also, talk the text over max weber, with friends or your teacher. There is more help with specific texts here . Many essay writers fail to create an initial main viewpoint or drift from this single focus. This loses marks as it leads to waffle , vagueness and generalisation . As you've read above, another common pitfall is to college application writing focus too much on the surface features of the coursework, text you are writing about. This happens when you write at length about the meaning of the text, i.e. by college application essay learning telling what happens in it. In effect, all you are doing when you do this is to retell the story of the text. You need to be discussing how and why the author has created an rationalization effective text through careful, interesting and college application writing help learning effective choices of style and coursework ocr language as well as structure . M ore marks are lost if you forget the need to support the points you make in each paragraph. A good idea is to try to use at least one quotation - or reference to the text - per paragraph.

Remember, too, that this is an English essay and help learning this means you need to reflect how authors use language and literary techniques in effective ways in their writing . Aim only to choose quotations that contain important elements in them that will allow you to discuss in depth aspects of, for example, their literary style , language or structure. Consider discussing, for example, how the quotation acts to alumni scholarship build tension , mood , character , a sense of place or how it helps explore one of the text's themes . Discuss, too, how the quotation works both at the point it occurs and college application as a contribution to the whole , i.e. the way it helps the writer achieve his or her purpose . This means you need to discuss aspects of the quotation such as its effectiveness - which means discussing aspects of language , structure and style . 1. DEVELOP A STRONG INITIAL FOCUS FOR YOUR ESSAY. The word 'essay' comes from a French word meaning 'attempt': your essay is your attempt to argue for your point of reflective view , a view that when succinctly expressed is called a thesis statement . This 'thesis statement' needs to be an college writing help learning idea you developed based on an interpretation of whatever aspect of the reflective, text is asked in the essay question. Interpretation means considering how a text operates at different levels ; it is college application your interpretation of the text that will be at the heart of the essay: an a2 chemistry coursework interpretation that must supports the overall thesis statement. 2. FIND SOLID SUPPORT FOR YOUR VIEWPOINT. You will need to search through the text and note down a series of aspects and help quotations that can be used to support the overall view you have developed. Use 'post-it notes' to a2 chemistry coursework help with this or write the aspects/quotations down separately. Choose aspects or quotations that you can analyse successfully for the methods used , effects created and purpose intended . 3. WRITE AN EFFECTIVE OPENING PARAGRAPH.

Use your introductory paragraph to state your point of view , i.e. your thesis statement. The purpose of your opening paragraph is to application essay help learning make clear your thesis statement - response to the essay question: that is, to explain the focus of your argument - your main idea or point of view. Stated clearly at group evaluation essay, the opening to application writing help your essay, this shows how you intend to answer the essay question and what general direction your essay will take. Following your thesis statement, it's a good idea to add a little more detail that acts to 'preview' each of the major points that you will cover in the body of the essay. This opening paragraph will then act to show - succinctly - where you stand regarding the questions and how you intend to answer it. Importantly, in the opening paragraph of your essay you will also need to write an overview of the text, one that gives a succinct summary of the ' big picture ' of the text; importantly, too, of course, this must be focused on the requirements of the essay question. Giving a succinct account of the big picture of the text in the opening paragraph will show that you have engaged with and digested the detail of three key aspects of the essay: the essay question, the member evaluation essay, text and its author - perhaps also, a brief account of the author's context . Giving an overview suggests a confident approach and is a hallmark of the best essays. TIP: It is always impressive to incorporate into your own sentences, using quotation marks of course, a short suitable quotation taken from the text. College Help Learning? Some teachers call this using embedded quotations.

Keep all references to the biographical background of the author and any aspects of his or her context entirely relevant to the essay question and - brief! Remember that this is not a history or a sociology essay so very few marks are awarded for this kind of on innovation management background information (although that does not mean it might not be useful). The majority of marks in an English essay are awarded for the quality of analysis and interpretation you show - that is, an awareness of the application essay help, author's uses of the English language and literary uses of this. If your essay title does concern aspects of essay and farm context try hard to discuss context by deriving your comments from application essay writing, quotations rather than by merely discussing aspects of context; in other words allow the text to introduce the context. TIP: avoid making simplistic and irrelevant value judgments of the text or its author. Saying that Shakespeare is 'a wonderful author' or that you think 'Of Mice and max weber rationalization Men' is 'really good' will gain no marks whatsoever - this is no more than a kind of waffle that fills space with empty words that add nothing useful to your essay. 4. USE THE REMAINING PARAGRAPHS EFFECTIVELY. Follow the opening paragraph with a number of paragraphs that form the 'body' of the essay. Each of application essay writing learning these paragraphs are there purely to expand on and support your originally stated overall viewpoint.

Having stated your main idea in your opening paragraph, now you need explore this, develop it and provide support from the text for ucla alumni essays this. In the essay's body paragraphs your aim is to: follow the analysis system called P.E.E. or P.Q.C. For more on this see here ; work through the text's structure logically and, highlighting via the use of quotations, explain how these led you to college application develop your point of view; comment on how the language of each of these parts led you to form your interpretation: why did the author choose this particular type of language to make this point in this way? How does it help a) the audience and b) the writer's purpose or theme ? discuss how this individual part of the text forms a useful structural part of the text by leading the reader towards an member overall understanding of the themes, messages or purposes of the text; CRUCIALLY. each paragraph needs to develop a separate and help individual point - one that will help to show how different parts and aspects of the text helped you develop your interpretation and coursework ocr viewpoint (this is the POINT part of P.E.E.); A useful tip is to open each paragraph with a topic sentence . This is a sentence that clearly makes a point that is developing your argument - your answer to the essay question - and, because it is, therefore, clearly focused on the essay question, it will keep your writing on track; Always aim to provide support for each of the points you make by referring directly to the text (this is the EXAMPLE part of P.E.E.). You normally do this by quoting briefly from a relevant part of the college writing, text but you might choose to describe an event. It's very important NOT to write a long description of WHAT happens.

If you do you are merely 'retelling the and farm, story' - this loses many marks. In a play you also lose marks if you do not discuss aspects of the essay help, staging and reflective and farm stage action. You will need to follow each quotation with an college essay explanation of and a discussion on group member evaluation essay aspects of the language the author used in the quotation; this means discussing, for essay writing example, how aspects of the quotations literary, poetic or dramatic language works, including mentioning the method the rationalization, writer used, the effect the language creates and writing learning the reasons this might have been done (this is the EXPLAIN part of P.E.E). You should also aim to show how the member essay, quotation helped you develop your overall interpretation of the text (this is also the EXPLAIN part of P.E.E). 5. CREATE A LOGICAL STRUCTURE. Always work in a clear way through the text, from college application essay learning, beginning to end. Avoid starting your essay by discussing a point that occurs half way through your text: ALWAYS begin at alumni, the beginning! Many students begin discussing a text half way through or even near the end then go back to an earlier point. College Application Essay Writing Learning? This ignores the work the writer puts in to a famous essay develop an effective structure to their text - and loses marks! 6. CONCLUDE EFFECTIVELY. The conclusion to an essay is essay important but causes problems for many students.

It should leave your reader with a pleasant and logical sense of essays 'closure' - a 'wrapping up' of the main ideas behind the essay . 1. Re-state in a different form (using rather different words) your opening argument. 2. Now bring together your main points (again, avoiding simple repetition of the college, same words): list or summarise the main points from the preceding paragraphs (use the describing a famous person, topic sentences from each paragraph to give you an idea). 3. End by identifying some of the wider implications and relevance that arise from what you have found and explored. The conclusion should consist of learning just a few sentences but these will need to be made to sound convincing and authoritative . It's crucial to keep the conclusion brief and to max weber rationalization thesis the point and, above all else, to essay writing learning introduce no new material at all. ALWAYS WRITE ANALYTICALLY , NEVER DESCRIPTIVELY. Here is an example of how many students go wrong; don't worry, you won't - but this is a very common mistake: In William Shakespeare's play, 'Romeo and Juliet', these are the first two lines of the 'Prologue' as spoken by 'The Chorus': 'Two households, both alike in dignity, In fair Verona, where we lay our scene. ' What follows is reflective and farm a typical 'retelling': an 'overview' or 'translation' that gains no marks : 'Here, Shakespeare is saying that the play is set in Verona where there are two dignified families.' Compare the above 'description' with this analytical and insightful interpretation : 'The opening lines of the Prologue are important because they paint a picture for the audience of what could and should be - fairness and dignity. These words set up a powerful contrast to what is: the violence, hatred and bloodshed shown in the coming scene. College Essay Help? It will be against this violent backdrop that the pure love of Romeo and reflective Juliet will have to struggle.'

Which approach and style would gain the application writing learning, higher mark? STUCK FOR WHAT TO WRITE ABOUT? THERE ARE FOUR KEY ASPECTS THAT APPLY TO ALL TEXTS AND WHICH SHOULD FORM THE BASIS OF ANY LITERATURE ESSAY. FORM, CONTENT, STRUCTURE AND STYLE. This is so very often ignored despite the fact that it provides the basis for the very best essays because it provides a subtle response. And subtlety always receives the highest marks ! When you write about a text at the level of its form , you analyse how aspects of it other than the meaning of rationalization thesis its language have been used by the writer in important and effective ways. To give you an idea of the importance of form to a text, you yourself make use of the form of language when you speak loudly or softly , or when you chat or text a friend and use CAPS LOCK. Also, when you create short or long sentences or paragraphs you are affecting the look - the form - of your writing. This, albeit subtly, affects the way the writing is received and interpreted. A novelist makes use of application essay help learning form by writing in sentences and paragraphs of varying lengths (you can imagine the reflective, effect a very short sentence, or a one-line paragraph, for example). The use of dialogue (spoken words shown inside speech marks) is also an effective use of form, as is the use of underlining , bold or italics - or, in non-fiction texts, the inclusion of bullet points or sections.

Poets are acutely aware of and very creative with the use of form. A poet makes use of college application writing help form, for example, by consciously splitting up sentences into coursework, the lines of poetry . This allows the poet to exaggerate a particular word by application essay help learning placing it at the end of member evaluation essay a line, or by rhyming it with a similar sounding word. A non-fiction writer makes use of form by using layout and college application appearance and by essay adding illustrations and photographs , and college essay help learning so on. All writers use form by using patterns of sound , such as by using alliteration , rhyme , rhythm , onomatopoeia , assonance and so on. A playwright, of course, uses form very differently. Max Weber Rationalization Thesis? When your essay concerns a play, therefore, you'll definitely be losing marks if you ignore aspects of form. In a play, much of the 'meaning' is created not from language but from what you see happening on the stage - the staging and writing help learning stage action. This includes not just what the actors do but what they wear , where they stand and so on - all potentially important formal aspects of the a2 chemistry coursework, play that should find their way onto your essay. Form is college essay writing learning always worthy of comment when (but only when ) if it adds usefully to the meaning, i.e. the content of a text. Every word and phrase has a literal meaning . This is its basic dictionary meaning. Thesis On Innovation Management? It's sometimes called a word's denotation . E.g. 'In this story, the author's detailed description of darkness denotes the coming on of a storm'.

This is a way of 'playing' around with a word's meaning that makes writing more vivid , emotional and help learning interesting . Words and max weber phrases can be used differently from their literal context and writing learning given what is member evaluation essay called a connotation . Using connotation or figurative language , a writer can introduce layers of help meaning - especially emotional meaning (don't forget that many words can create both meaning and max weber feeling ). The most common way this is done is to application essay writing help learning use a word not for its literal meaning but for its metaphorical or figurative meaning. Another way is to use a word that acts as symbolically and represents something very different from its literal meaning. E.g. 'As well as suggesting the essay and farm, coming of college essay writing learning a storm, the darkness also acts to suggest a metaphorical darkness is taking over the character's mind. In this way the darkness seems to be symbolising a kind of evil'. Using a pun - a witty play on words - is person another way that meaning can be played with in an interesting way. Punning works because some words, in application essay, a certain context, can have an ambiguous meaning - two possible meanings - one of which might be humorous.

Irony is a key way that writers use to create layers of meaning. Sarcasm is irony, but this is a spoken form of irony that is intended to ucla essays hurt someone's feelings by college writing help learning ridiculing some aspect of them. Max Weber? It's a crude, easy kind of irony not really subtle enough for writing. Irony is usually subtle , sophisticated , edgy and witty ; an altogether more intelligent use of language. But irony can also be difficult to recognise - yet it is probably true to say that irony is one of the most common means by which a sophisticated writer creates layers of meaning in a text . Irony works because when it is application essay writing recognised, it engages the reader very much more closely with the describing a famous essay, text. This is college application essay learning because, rather like solving a puzzle, there is a real enjoyment and satisfaction in unpicking the various levels of meaning created by the irony. Creating an 'ironic tone of voice' in writing is a2 chemistry coursework much harder than in speech because the original sound of voice and facial expression or body language of the speaker are absent. To create an ironic tone (or any tone, for that matter), words have to writing learning be chosen with great care. It is a key reading skill to be able to detect this as it tells you what attitude the writer is management taking towards their subject matter. An example of application essay help learning irony occurs in an old story by O. Henry called 'The Gift of the Magi'. This story of poor young lovers ends with the boyfriend selling the describing a famous essay, one thing he owns of value, his pocket watch, in order to buy his girlfriend an expensive hair comb; equally secretly, she has all of her long hair cut off to sell to a wig maker so she can afford to buy him. a chain for application writing learning his watch.

Structure is the way a writer consciously 'shapes' a piece of writing in an attempt to ocr make it as effective as possible for their audience and college their purpose. It is important to comment on the structure of alumni a text, e.g. College Application Writing? 'The way the author slowly builds up the max weber rationalization thesis, tension throughout this chapter helps create a feeling of real excitement and mystery'. Style is the way a writer or speaker consciously chooses language and language features to suit a particular audience to achieve a specific purpose . When you aim to convince your mum that Friday's party cannot be missed, you will consciously adapt your style to one that is more emotional and persuasive! Some famous writers have a particular style of college application essay writing help their own that is quickly recognisable. John Steinbeck, Charles Dickens and William Wordsworth are three such writers - here, a writer's individual style is sometimes referred to as the on innovation in production operational management, writer's 'voice'. Your primary job when analysing and discussing a text is to comment on its style - on what are called the stylistic or language choices its writer has made, especially those that seem to college writing you to have been chosen to create a particular effect to achieve a certain purpose. So. if you are commenting on the form and content of a writer's language, you are commenting on the writer's style . COMPARING TWO OR MORE TEXTS. Even though it's a central part of the mark scheme, and always made clear in the essay question or title, each year many students still manage to write their comparison exam answer or coursework essay and forget to thesis in production operational management compare and contrast the texts . Aside from not knowing the texts sufficiently well, failing to compare and contrast is the number one reason marks are lost in this kind of essay.

When writing about more than one text, your opening paragraph should be used to give the briefest details of each text (i.e. your writing needs to be succinct !). This will mean being even more careful and sparing when you write an overview of each text, in which you give the big picture . There are two methods you can consider using when comparing texts: 1) Write about the college application essay learning, first text fully before moving on to the second - still using the techniques outlined above; but when you go on to write about the second text, you must compare and contrast it with the essay, first. 2) Alternatively, and this makes the most sense when thinking about the argument essay, you write about essay learning, both texts as you proceed . This allows you still, as shown above, to create a central argument , one in which examples to thesis operational support the points are taken from college essay help, one or both texts as relevant to essay and farm the point. This second method is the more complex and sophisticated of the two.