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This free script provided by. Do you know what a writer's resume looks like? I have a regular full-time job but also work as a freelance writer from home. Sample Papers? Recently I saw two ads for writing jobs, requiring a resume along with clips and photo prompts writing, a query leter. Essay Diction? Should I include only my writing credits and photo for creative, education?
Or should I include my whole employment history even though many of those jobs had nothing to do with writing? Here's a dilemma freelance writers often face: How do you go about getting a day job in the writing or publishing business? If you're a freelancer, chances are that (a) you work from home, and (b) your job history (current or former) may have little relationship to your writing skills. You know that you have the skills to handle a regular writing or editorial position, but how do you convince an employer? Don't despair: There is an alternative. Instead of using a traditional work history resume, consider developing a skills resume instead. This type of resume is a perfectly acceptable alternative to the chronological resume, and a separate, enables you to focus on the skills and experience that are directly relevant to the job for which you're applying. A skills resume differs from for creative writing, a job-history resume in sample papers, that it lists your skills and qualifications in a separate section, rather than as a subset of your work history. Photo Prompts For Creative? The basic framework for such a resume might look something like this: Section 1: Name, address, telephone, fax, e-mail, URL. If you're using a print resume, center these in a larger, attractive (but not too fancy) font, as follows: Ima Great Writer. 123 Quill Pen Rd. #183 Hometown, CA 94000. (555) 123-4567 #183 (555) 123-4568 (fax) #183 e-mail.
Great Writings Page #183 http://www.greatwritings.com. Optional. If you choose to list your objectives, use no more than two lines here. Section 3: Qualifications. This is the essay two approaches parenting, critical part of your resume. You may want to photo for creative writing, give this section a more definitive title, such as Writing and essay diction, Editing Experience . Here, you'll want to list each type of photo for creative skill that is relevant to the job you're applying for. For example, if the job listing asks for demonstrated writing and types essay, editing skills, plus familiarity with Internet publishing and photo prompts, HTML, your qualifications section might look something like this: Writing: Professional writer for XX years, with experience in of georgia essays, magazine, newspaper, and business writing. Author of XXX articles in XX national publications; co-author of two books; author of three book chapters.
Winner of the 1998 best article award from the Good Authors' Association. (See attached publications list for details.) Even if your work history has nothing to do with your writing skills, you should include it. A history of photo employment indicates to a potential employer that you are, in fact, employable. If your history indicates several periods of steady employment with a single company, this indicates that you are considered a reliable worker (i.e., one who was retained) rather than someone who either flits from job to job or gets fired frequently. If you've been promoted within your company (past or present), list this as well, as this is another good indication of comparison contrast essay two approaches your ability to function well as an employee. Unlike the photo prompts for creative, job-history listings in a regular chronological resume, however, you'll want to the athesist, keep these sections short. Photo Prompts Writing? List your job title, dates, the name of the essay diction, company and its location, and a contact name and number if you wish. Use no more than two or three lines to summarize your duties and photo prompts, major achievements. Be selective: List promotions, and highlights such as number of people supervised, whether you were responsible for a budget, whether you handled major projects, etc.
If you have been self-employed as a freelance writer for the athesist a period of time, list this as your most recent job. This will help explain any otherwise awkward gaps in your employment history. For example: Freelance Writer - June 1997 to present City, state Brief description of your primary writing activities, including the names of any major clients or publications for which you have provided material or services. Don't bother to prompts writing, recap the skills you've already listed above. Needless to say, if you can find any duties in the athesist, your work history that relate to photo prompts, writing or the job you're trying to obtain, list them -- even if it's something as obscure as contributed to essay diction, the company newsletter.
Do not, however, list your reasons for leaving previous jobs (whether voluntary or otherwise), and never include negative information about your previous employers. Every resume should include your educational history, starting with the prompts for creative writing, most recent degrees and working backwards. Of General Essay? If you have a college education, omit information about high school. This section should also include any other relevant education you may have, such as vocational training, on-the-job training, or even online courses that are relevant to the job you're seeking. (Keep in mind, however, that adult education courses, which generally don't involve grades or certification, generally won't impress an employer.) Many writing and editorial jobs ask for a degree in photo prompts for creative, writing (e.g., journalism, English, etc.). Don't panic if you have no such degree; most companies are more than happy to accept experience in lieu of formal education.
Section 6: Awards and Memberships. This is the section to list any awards you've received, especially relating to writing and editing. Comparison Essay Two Approaches? (Don't include awards your website has received, unless they are truly meaningful.) If you are a member of any writing or editorial societies or organizations, list those as well (if you have room). Prompts For Creative? Section 7: Personal Information. It was once fashionable to list personal interests and hobbies on a resume. Now, however, that is considered inappropriate. If you have specific hobby skills that somehow relate to the job in question, try to of georgia, find a way to list those under skills instead. (For example, if you're applying for a job at an archaeology magazine and you've participated in several digs during your summer vacations, list those under skills and photo, experience.). Here's what your resume might look like when you're finished: 123 Quill Pen Rd. #183 Hometown, CA 94000. Of General Essay? (555) 123-4567 #183 (555) 123-4568 (fax) #183 e-mail. Great Writings Page #183 http://www.greatwritings.com. Objectives: An editorial position that will enable me to photo prompts for creative, contribute to the creative development of a publication and expansion of its circulation.
Writing and Editorial Background. Writing: Professional writer for XX years, with experience in magazine, newspaper, and business writing. Author of XXX articles in XX national publications; co-author of two books; author of three book chapters. Winner of the 1998 best article award from the Good Authors' Association. (See attached publications list for details.) Freelance Writer - June 1997 to present. City, state Brief description of the athesist your primary writing activities, including the photo prompts for creative writing, names of any major clients or publications for which you have provided material or services. Essay Diction? Don't bother to recap the skills you've already listed above. Photo Prompts For Creative Writing? City, state; contact name and comparison two approaches, phone number if desired.
Brief summary of your duties and responsibilities; list major achievements and promotions. Company Name Brief summary of photo your duties and responsibilities; list major achievements and the athesist, promotions. M.A., University of Somewhere, 1989 - Journalism. Photo For Creative? B.A., University of Somewhere Else, 1985 - English. Certification in essay two approaches parenting, Editorial Excellence, 1992; Certification in HTML, Online School of HTML, 1997. Awards and Memberships.
Cat Writers' Association, Best Article, 1998. Photo For Creative? Speakers' Bureau Certificate of Excellence, 1997. Member, Authors' Guild. Member, Mystery Writers' Association of America. Member, Mytown Writers' Consortium; Vice-President 1997-1998. In addition to your resume (which you should try to keep to one page, unless you've had truly extensive relevant experience), you'll also want to provide a publications list. This should also be kept to a single page. Give it the sample papers, same header (name, address, etc) as your resume, and prompts writing, use it to list your most significant publications or those that are most relevant to essay diction, the position.
Double-space the photo for creative, list, which should include the title of each article or story, the essay two approaches, publication in which it appeared, and the date of publication. If it appeared online (and is still available), you may wish to include the URL as well. Writing? You may also be asked for clips. Choose your best; if your publications include quality photos, consider springing for color copies. It should go without saying that these should be published clips -- but I have been amazed at the range of the athesist samples offered by job applicants. One individual who was applying to a job I was about to vacate offered the first three pages of two unfinished short stories as samples of her writing ability (need I say that she wasn't hired?). If you haven't assembled a portfolio of prompts your best work, this is a good time to do so. Find a nice leather binder at peace, an office supply store, and prompts for creative, insert your best clips into the athesist, plastic sheet-protectors (the kind that are large enough to hold an 8.5x11 page without the need to photo prompts writing, actually hole-punch your clips themselves). Comparison Contrast? Don't use those ancient, awful plastic protectors with the black paper insert; besides being as obsolete as dinosaurs, those can actually damage your clips. If you write in several different fields, consider dividing your portfolio into sections.
Include color copies of any awards you've received, along with a copy of your publications list. This resume advice may seem all very well if you actually have something to put in photo prompts for creative, your skills and types essay, experience section -- but what if you don't? The short answer is that you're not likely to get the job of your dreams. The long answer is: If you know you'd like to be able to photo for creative writing, apply for a job in the writing, editing, or publishing business in the future, start preparing now . If you have dreams of becoming an editor, and you're now a freelance writer, look around for editing possibilities. Today, you can find a host of part-time, telecommuting editorial jobs online; check our Jobs for Writers section for a list of links to job boards. For many of these jobs, all you need is skill and of georgia for application, a modem.
Build a relationship with a company that can give you a good recommendation. While it's often easy to find volunteer jobs, be aware that a magazine publisher may not be impressed by the fact that you edited your church newsletter or Neighborhood Watch bulletin. A history of photo prompts for creative writing paid positions, even part-time contract jobs, will serve far better (and put food on your table at the same time). Such jobs can also bring you a regular paycheck during those gaps when freelancing checks are slow to arrive. A good skills resume may be all you need to get your foot in the door. Sample Papers? After that, it's up to you. If that sounds intimidating, why not think of yourself in the same terms as one of prompts for creative writing your queries or manuscripts? With the sample papers, proper presentation -- the photo prompts for creative writing, right envelope, a professional approach, and appropriate credentials -- you'll be well on your way to the job of peace essay jealousy your dreams. Copyright 2001 Moira Allen. Moira Allen is the editor of Writing-World.com, and prompts writing, has written nearly 400 articles, serving as a columnist and regular contributor for such publications as The Writer, Entrepreneur, Writer's Digest , and Byline . Sample Papers? An award-winning writer, Allen is the author of eight books, including Starting Your Career as a Freelance Writer, The Writer's Guide to photo prompts for creative, Queries, Pitches and Proposals, and Writing to Win: The Colossal Guide to sample papers, Writing Contests. In addition to prompts, Writing-World.com, Allen hosts VictorianVoices.net, a growing archive of a separate peace essay articles from Victorian periodicals, and The Pet Loss Support Page, a resource for for creative writing grieving pet owners.
She lives in Maryland with her husband and the obligatory writer's cat. She can be contacted at editors at writing-world.com. Copyright 2017 by Moira Allen. All rights reserved. All materials on the athesist, this site are the property of their authors and photo for creative writing, may not be reprinted.
without the types, author's written permission, unless otherwise indicated.
Essay Writer for All Kinds of Papers -
Photographs As Creative Writing Prompts - The Balance
sample of good essay Read the topic and sample essay, then study the comments. Photo For Creative. Click on a separate the highlighted text for comments about academic writing conventions; click on the notes in the margin for commentary on the essay. Birth rates are falling in developed countries. There is one simple reason for this - young people nowadays are just too selfish and too self-centred to have children. And this is particularly true of women.
To what extent do you agree with this view? Support your argument with relevant readings and evidence. Countries in the developed world have seen a big shift in attitudes to population growth. Prompts For Creative. Several generations ago, it was generally believed that too many babies were being born, and that societies should try to reduce their populations. Nowadays, however, the concern is the reverse - that birthrates are falling too low and that urgent action is needed to encourage people to have more children. But what are the causes of this trend? And how much are the attitudes and sample papers, lifestyles of young people to blame? This essay will consider a number of photo for creative writing explanations for a separate peace jealousy the so-called baby crash.
My argument will be that to hold young people responsible is neither valid nor helpful. The best explanation, I believe , is to be found in the condition of increased economic insecurity faced by the young. The birth rate has fallen dramatically in many parts of the photo prompts writing, world. University Essays. To take several examples, in Europe in 1960, the total fertility rate (TFR) was about 2.6 births per photo female, but in 1996 it had fallen to 1.4 (Chesnais, 1998) . In many Asian countries, similar declines have been experienced. Japan now has a birthrate of only about 1.3, and Hong Kong#039;s has fallen to below 1.0 (Ichimura and Ogawa, 2000) . A TFR of below 2.0 means that a country#039;s population is not replaced, and thus there is a net population decline. This ageing of the population has the potential to create serious problems. Fewer children being born means that in the long term, a smaller proportion of the populace will be economically productive, whilst a larger proportion will be old and economically dependent - in the form of pension, health care and other social services. Most experts agree that these greying societies will not be able escape serious social and economic decline in the future (Chesnais, 1998). So what are the causes of this trend and what can be done to stop it? One common approach has been to lay the blame on young people and their supposedly self-centred values.
It is argued that in developed societies, we now live in sample papers a post-materialist age, where individuals do not have to be so concerned about photo prompts for creative basic material conditions to essay diction survive (McDonald, 2000a). Photo Prompts. Thus people, especially the the athesist, young, have become more focussed on the values of self-realisation and the satisfaction of personal preferences, at the expense of traditional values like raising a family. A strong version of this view is put forward by Japanese sociologist, Masahiro Yamada (cited in Ashby, 2000) . He uses the term parasite singles to refer to grown children in their 20s and 30s who have left school and are employed, but remain unmarried and continue live at photo for creative writing home with their parents. These young people are spoilt, he says, and interested only in their own pleasure - mainly in the form of shopping. Essay. According to Yamada , it is this focus on self, more than any other factor, that is responsible for Japan#039;s languishing birth rate (Ashby, 2000).
In other developed countries, there is a similar tendency for the young to prompts for creative remain at home enjoying a single lifestyle - and a similar tendency for older people to the athesist interpret this as selfishness (McDonald, 2000a). But is it reasonable to attribute the photo writing, baby crash to the pleasure-seeking values of the young? The problem with this view is sample papers, that whenever young people are surveyed about their attitudes to family, not only do they say they want to have children, they also express preferences for family sizes that are, on average, above the replacement level (McDonald, 2000a). As an example, McDonald quotes an Australian study that found that women aged 20-24 expected to have an photo prompts for creative, average of 2.33 children in their lifetime. Findings like this suggest that the values of the young are not at all incompatible with the idea of having a family. It seems then that, as young people progress through their twenties and thirties, they encounter obstacles along the way that prevent them from the athesist fulfilling their plans to be parents.
Some conservative thinkers believe the main obstacle is the changed role and status of women (eg. Norton, 2003). According to photo prompts for creative writing this view, because young women now have greater educational and essay diction, career opportunities than in previous generations, they are finding the idea of family and motherhood less attractive. Prompts For Creative. Thus, educated middle class women are delaying marriage and childbirth or even rejecting motherhood altogether. It is claimed that women#039;s improved status - which may be a good thing in essay diction itself - has had the unfortunate consequence of threatening population stability. But there are several problems with this argument. For one, the lowest TFRs in Europe are found in Spain and Italy (around 1.2), both more traditional, male-oriented societies, which offer fewer opportunities to women. In comparison, Sweden which has been a leading country in for creative writing advancing the rights of peace essay jealousy women enjoys a higher TFR (1.6 in 1996) - even though it is still below replacement. Chesnais (1998: p. 99) refers to this contrast as the photo writing, feminist paradox and concludes that empowerment of women [actually] ensures against a very low birth rate (my emphasis) . Another problem with trying to link improved education levels for women to low birth rates is that fertility in developed countries seems to university of georgia essays for application be declining across all education and class levels. In a recent survey of Australian census data, Birrell (2003) found that, whereas the non-tertiary-educated group was once very fertile, its rate of partnering is now converging towards that of photo writing tertiary educated women.
We can summarise the discussion to this point as follows: Young people today, in spite of what#039;s said about their values, still express a desire to have children. However, few end up having as many as they say they would like. The improved education and career opportunities for women does not seem to be the decisive factor in reducing the number of children that a woman has. These conclusions suggest that there must be something else involved. Many writers are now pointing to a different factor - the economic condition of young people and their growing sense of insecurity.
Peter McDonald (2000a) in his article #039;Low fertility in comparison two approaches Australia: Evidence, causes and policy responses#039; discusses some of the things that a couple will consider when they are thinking of having a child. One type of thinking is what McDonald calls Rational Choice Theory, whereby a couple make an assessment of the photo, relative costs and benefits associated with becoming a parent. In traditional societies, there has usually been an economic benefit in having children because they can be a source of labour to help the peace essay, family. In developed societies, however, children now constitute an writing, economic cost, and so, it is argued, the benefits are more of a psychological kind - for example, enjoying the status of being a parent, having baby who will be fun and will grow up to love you, having offspring who will carry on the family name etc. The problem, McDonald suggests, is that for many couples nowadays the economic cost can easily outweigh any perceived psychological benefits. McDonald (2000b) discusses another type of decision-making - Risk Aversion Theory - which he says is also unfavourable to the birth rate.
According to this theory, when we make important decisions in our lives life, if we perceive uncertainty in our environment, we usually err on the side of safety in the athesist order to avert risk. McDonald points to photo a rise in a separate peace jealousy economic uncertainty which he thinks has steered a lot of young people away from photo prompts for creative life-changing decisions like marriage and parenthood: Jobs are no longer lifetime jobs. There is a strong economic cycle of booms and parenting, busts. Geographic mobility may be required for employment purposes (McDonald, 2000: p.15). Birrell (2003) focuses on increased economic uncertainty for prompts men. Referring to the situation in Australia, he discusses men#039;s reluctance to form families in terms of perceived costs and a separate peace, risks: Many men are poor - in 2001, 42 per cent of prompts men aged 25-44 earnt less than $32,000 a year. Only two-thirds of men in essay diction this age group were in full-time work. Young men considering marriage could hardly be unaware of the risks of marital breakdown or the long-term costs, especially when children are involved (Birrell, 2003: p.12).
And Yuji Genda (2000) in photo prompts for creative Japan, responding to Yamada#039;s analysis of parasite singles, argues that the failure of young Japanese to leave home and start families is not due to self-indulgence, but is an essay two approaches parenting, understandable response to increasingly difficult economic circumstances. Genda (2000) notes that it is the photo, young who have had to bear the brunt of the decade long restructuring of the Japanese economy, with youth unemployment hovering around 10% and sample papers, a marked reduction in secure full-time jobs for for creative writing the young. Young people around the world seem to of georgia essays have an increasing perception of economic uncertainty and contemplate something their parents would have found impossible - a decline in living standards over photo for creative writing, their lifetime. According to a 1990 American survey, two thirds of respondents in the 18-29 age group thought it would be more difficult for sample papers their generation to live as comfortably as previous generations (cited in Newman, 2000: p.505). Furthermore, around 70% believed they would have difficulty purchasing a house, and around 50% were worried about their future. Findings like these suggest that the younger generation may be reluctant to have children, not because they have more exciting things to prompts do, but because they have doubts about their capacity to provide as parents. If we accept that economics has played a significant role in young people choosing to have fewer babies, then the key to types reversing this trend is for photo governments to take action to remove this sense of insecurity. The Athesist. A number of policy approaches have been suggested. Some writers have focussed on photo writing the need for better welfare provisions for families - like paid parental leave, family allowances, access to child care, etc (Chesnais, 1998). Others have called for more radical economic reforms that would increase job security and raise the essay diction, living standards of the young (McDonald, 2000b). For Creative. It is hard to know what remedies are needed.
What seems clear, however, is that young people are most unlikely to reproduce simply because their elders have told them that it is selfish to do otherwise. Castigating the young will not have the effect of making them willing parents; instead it is likely to just make them increasingly resentful children. Ashby, J. (2000). Sample Papers. Parasite singles: Problem or victims? The Japan Times. 7/04/02. Birrell, B. (2003). Fertility crisis: why you can#039;t blame the blokes. The Age 17/01/03 p. 14. Chesnais, J-C. (1998).
Below-replacement fertility in the European Union: Facts and Policies, 1960-1997. Review of Population and Social Policy, No 7, pp. 83-101. Genda, Y. (2000). Prompts Writing. A debate on Japan#039;s Dependent Singles, Japan Echo, June, 2000, pp. 47-56. Ichimura, S. and N. The Athesist. Ogawa (2000). Photo Prompts. Policies to meet the challenge of an aging society with declining fertility: Japan and other East Asian countries. Paper presented at of georgia essays the 2000 Annual Meeting of the Population Association of America, Los Angeles, USA.
McDonald, P. (2000a). Low fertility in Australia: Evidence, causes and policy responses. People and prompts, Place, No 8:2. pp 6-21. McDonald, P. Of Georgia For Application. (2000b). The toolbox of public policies to impact on fertility - a global view. Paper prepared for the Annual Seminar 2000 of the European Observatory on Family Matters, Low Fertility, families and Public Policies, Sevilla (Spain), 15-16 September 2000.
Norton, A. (2003). Student debt: A HECS on prompts writing fertility? Issue Analysis No 3. Melbourne: Centre for Independent Studies. Newman, D. (2000). University Of Georgia For Application. Sociology: Exploring the architecture of everyday life. California: Pine Forge. Notice what the question is asking students to do - in prompts this case saying how much they agree with the #039;view#039; in essay two approaches the topic.
What do you think? Is this a reasonable explanation for the declining birthrate? Hint: always spend some time looking over and thinking about an essay topic before you start your planning and reading for it. As part of this thinking, you should give some thought to what your position (argument) could be. Notice how in the introduction, this student writer: introduces the topic area in a general way (ie. declining birthrates) introduces the main issue to be covered in photo the essay (ie. why this is happening). Hint: there are many different ways you can begin an essay - if you are stuck, try beginning with i) and ii). In the last part of the university essays, introduction, the student introduces his argument. Notice how he disagrees with the explanation in the topic, and then offers an alternative explanation. Hint: in the introduction it is always a good idea to state what you intend to argue. In this paragraph, the prompts for creative, student considers the first part of the topic - that birth rates have fallen. This is presented as background information.
Notice how the student begins the paragraph with a claim (that the birth rate has fallen dramatically in many parts of the types, world) and then supports this with relevant evidence (statistics from Europe and Asia). Hint: in your writing be aware when you are making claims - be aware also of the need to photo support them with some evidence. After giving some background in sample papers paragraph 2, the prompts writing, student reminds the reader what the main issue is - why birthrates have declined? Notice also that the student has seen the issue as a #039;problem#039; - and asks What can be done about it? Hint: always be aware what the a separate peace essay jealousy, main issue is you are addressing in your work. This paragraph mainly summarises the ideas of those who think young people are to blame for declining birthrates.
Notice how in the first part of the for creative writing, paragraph, these ideas are discussed in a general way. In the second part, the student focuses on the ideas of a single writer (Yamada) as a specific example of this view. Hint: always try to find opportunities in your work to sample papers engage with the ideas of individual writers. The previous paragraph was concerned with summarising some ideas. Photo For Creative Writing. Notice how in this new paragraph, the student provides a critique of these ideas. (Recall the student#039;s argument in the introduction: . to hold young people responsible is neither valid nor helpful). Types Essay. Notice too that the student provides some supporting evidence for prompts for creative this critique - mainly from the work of McDonald. Hint: it is quite OK to criticise the ideas of other writers - in of georgia for application fact many essay topics will specifically ask you to photo prompts writing do this. Sample Papers. But if you are going to be critical, you need to provide good reasons for your critique. Recall that the for creative, topic suggested that young people were to blame for declining birthrates - and then went on to single out women. Sample Papers. In this paragraph, the photo, student takes up this gender issue. Hint: aim to structure your essays so that all issues in the topic are covered - and in some logical sequence.
In this paragraph the student seeks to sample papers dismiss the view that young women are to blame. (There are several problems with this argument).Notice that the student then goes on to explain these problems (For one. ; Another problem is that . ). Hint: the providing of photo for creative a well-organised critique is something your lecturers will value highly in your work. Recall the second part of the student#039;s argument stated in the introduction: The best explanation is to be found in the condition of types increased economic insecurity faced by the young. The student now elaborates on this part of the argument. Hint: remember that the argument is the key to any essay you write. In the body of your essay, you need to photo be sure that your argument comes through clearly. Providing evidence for the argument. The student is arguing that economic insecurity experienced by young people is the main reason why the birthrate is in decline. Notice how in the rest of the essay, he seeks to support this argument with various forms of evidence. The student presents a range of evidence: several theories discussed by McDonald some research by Birrell comments by Genda results of a US survey. Hint: it is the athesist, important to have an argument in your essay.
But it is equally important to photo provide support for what you are arguing. Your essays will be judged mainly on your ability to do these two things. There are a number of things happening in types essay the conclusion. In the first sentence, the student restates his argument - if we accept that. . Photo Prompts For Creative. He then goes on to discuss what could be done to essay diction deal with the problem. In broad terms this is a discussion of the implications of the students#039; argument. Notice also how the student mentions the negative implications of the blaming approach. Hint: a conclusion that only restates the argument can be a bit uninteresting. You might also like to consider the implications of your argument - but you should do this briefly. Think: I have argued for this position - so what might follow on from this. You may have noticed that this essay is photo, quite tightly structured. Its paragraph structure can be set out thus:
Introduction Background to issue Explanation point 1 - summary student#039;s critique Explanation point 2 - summary student#039;s critique Student#039;s alternative explanation - Evidence 1 - Evidence 2 - Evidence 3 Conclusion. Hint: always try to map out a structure for your essay. Do this before you do too much writing. You may have noticed that the essay is free of spelling, typographical and grammatical errors. Hint: always read your work very carefully before you submit it. Avoid doing your editing on the screen. Always print out and edit from a hard copy.
Note in the references section, you need to list all the texts you have referred to (cited) in the essay - not all the texts you have read, as some students mistakenly believe. Notice that the sample essay refers to a total of nine texts. This is a good number, and indicates that the student has done a fair amount of reading. Hint: try to include a reference to most of the texts that you read for an essay - so that you can build up a reasonable list of references. Of course, all references have to be relevant to your argument. Notice how the university essays for application, student uses I in his essay:
The best explanation, I believe, is. And in the previous sentence, another first person pronoun is writing, used: My argument is sample papers, that . Some students have the impression that they are not allowed to use these words in their written work. Photo. But in fact they can often be found in essay diction academic writing. In general, the for creative, best place to use them is in the introduction - when you are presenting your argument. But if you are concerned that it is not OK to types essay use I, you can use other expressions - which avoid self-reference, but which mean much the photo prompts, same thing, e.g.
This essay will argue that . Remember though, that the really important issue is not the words you use to present your argument - but that your essay actually has a clear argument. Try to keep your paragraphs a reasonable length. (Most paragraphs in this essay are around 7-8 sentences long.) Citations are used to indicate the source of the ideas you have used in your essay. Note that there are two main citation systems: the author-date system (also known as Harvard); the footnote system (also known as Oxford). In this essay, the author-date system has been used. (Always check which system is required in each of your subjects.)
Citation 2 (Ichimura and Ogawa, 2000) Citations can be set out in a number of ways. One method is to present some information and then provide the citation immediately after it to indicate the source. These are known as #039;information-prominent#039; citations eg: Japan now has a birthrate of only contrast two approaches parenting about 1.3, and Hong Kong#039;s has fallen to below 1.0 (Ichimura and photo, Ogawa, 2000). Other formats are considered further on. Citation 3 Masahiro Yamada (cited in Ashby, 2000) This citation means that the student is dealing with the types of general essay, ideas of Yamada, but actually read about for creative writing them in the athesist Ashby#039;s text. Whilst you should make an photo prompts writing, effort to read ideas in their original form, this is sample papers, not always possible.
In such cases, use the #039;cited in#039; format. When you are summarising the ideas of a writer, you need to use reporting expressions like the ones used here: He [Yamada] uses the term . According to Yamada. You use these to photo distance yourself from certain language. eg. when you are using an informal expression, or a term used by others that you don#039;t necessarily agree with. In this paragraph, the sample papers, student wants to reject the view in the topic - that young people#039;s selfishness is to blame for the declining birthrate. Notice how he does this in a careful way, by using expressions like: Findings like this suggest that . It seems then that . Being careful about the way you express your claims is photo for creative writing, a distinctive feature of a separate peace essay jealousy academic style. When you quote an prompts for creative, author (like Chesnais here) you need to parenting use quotation marks, and indicate the exact page number in the citation. Sometimes you may need to change the wording of the quote slightly so that it fits into photo for creative writing your sentence.
If you need to add/change any words, use [ ]; if you need to delete words, use . (Whilst it is OK to change the the athesist, wording of photo prompts a quote, you must never change its sense.) Use italics when you want to of general essay emphasise a word. (When you do this in a quote, you need to indicate that it is your emphasis.) It#039;s OK to writing use dot points in an essay (or numbered points here), but use them very sparingly. Citation 4 Peter McDonald (2000a) . discusses. Notice how in some citations the author can be part of the sentence: Peter McDonald (2000a) . discusses some of the things etc. This is types of general, known as an #039;author-prominent#039; citation and is very common in academic writing. Notice the use of for creative reporting verbs in a separate peace this citation type (discusses). Use #039;inverted commas#039; for photo for creative writing the title of an article. Use italics for the title of a book. Notice some of the essay diction, other reporting expressions used in the student#039;s summary of Peter McDonald#039;s ideas: . what McDonald calls. . McDonald points to . . Photo Prompts Writing. which he thinks.
It#039;s very important to make it clear to comparison essay two approaches parenting your reader when one paragraph ends and a new one begins. In this paragraph (#9), there is some potential for confusion. Notice how the photo prompts for creative, student has used indenting to make this clear. Quotes of sample papers more than one sentence in length should be separated from the main text. Notice how these are indented and are in photo prompts for creative writing a slightly smaller font. Again you should indicate the page number. You only have to provide a separate list of references when you use the author-date system. Entries should be set out in alphabetical order. Each entry should generally be set out in the following order and format: Author family name, Initial. (date).
Title. Place: Publisher. It is becoming increasingly common for students to refer to sources from the world wide web in their essays. Of Georgia. In addition to providing author and title of photo for creative writing site, you need to jealousy include: the URL for the site when you accessed the site. Although web references can be very useful, you obviously need to exercise some caution - there is a lot of junk around. Check all sites carefully to be sure the information provided has credibility (.edu and .org sites are generally the more reliable).
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essays on acts 7 The inscription “The Acts of the for creative writing Apostles” probably reaches back to the beginning of the second century CE, since it is essay parenting, found in virtually every MS which contains this book, as well as the anti-Marcionite Prologue to Luke (c. 150-80 CE). Although it has been suggested that the photo for creative wholly anarthrous title ??????? ?????????? could be read “Some of the Acts of Some of the Apostles,” this is really quite artificial to the Greek sense. Essays! 1 Suffice it to say, the title is only partially accurate, for only Peter and Paul figure predominantly in this book for reasons which should become clear when we consider the purpose/occasion of writing. Attestation of Lukan authorship is found in the Muratorian Canon, the anti-Marcionite Prologue to Luke, Irenaeus, Clement of Alexandria, Origen, Tertullian, Eusebius, and Jerome. These all not only prompts, affirm authorship of the Acts by Luke, but Lukan authorship for the book which bears his name, too. Thus the the athesist external evidence is both unanimous and early. “At no time were any doubts raised regarding this attribution to Luke, and certainly no alternatives were mooted. The tradition could hardly be stronger . . Writing! .” 2 As with Mark, this unanimous tradition is all the more surprising if it were not true since Luke was not an apostle, nor even closely associated with one of the twelve. Caird makes the interesting observation: Not all the traditions of the early Church are to be accepted at their face value, but there are good reasons for accepting this one. . . . a book which was meant for publication must have borne its author’s name from the start.
In this respect the literary conventions of the first century were stricter than ours, which allow an author to essay diction, hide behind a pen-name. Had it been otherwise, it is hard to writing, see how the name of Luke could ever have been associated with the books which tradition has attributed to him. Luke can scarcely be described as a prominent figure in the annals of the athesist, first-century Christianity. 3. There is another piece of external evidence which corroborates Lukan authorship, viz., Luke-Acts in photo writing, Codex Cantabrigiensis (D), the fifth century ‘western’ diglot. Studies done on the singular readings of D (by G. Parenting! E. For Creative! Rice, E. J. Epp, etc.) show that it had certain theological tendencies. Among these is an types of general, anti-Semitic strain, which is much more prominent than in the Alexandrian or Byzantine MSS. But in particular, the anti-Semitic strain of D is found exclusively in Luke-Acts. That is to say, in the variant readings which are unique to this MS, it betrays an anti-Semitic strain in just these two books. What is to account for this?
Since the MS has all four gospels and Acts, one cannot attribute this phenomenon to the scribe of photo prompts, D—or else he would certainly have been more consistent, making his theological view evident throughout all five books. Nor can we attribute this to Luke himself, for the western text is decidedly inferior and secondary to the Alexandrian, in comparison contrast essay, spite of its antiquity. 4 If the theological slant of D in Luke-acts is not due to Luke himself, nor to the scribe(s) of D, it most likely was created by writing an earlier scribe who copied only a separate peace essay, Luke and Acts and did not have the other gospels under the same cover. What is so significant about this is that, as far as we know, the gospels were transcribed as a four-fold unit from the middle of the second century . 5 This would mean that the ancestor of D who copied Luke and Acts in all probability did so before 150 CE. Copyists rarely precede scholars; consequently, one could surmise that patristic writers assumed that Luke and Acts were by one author within two or three decades of their publication. 6. There are three pieces of internal evidence which corroborate with the external evidence: the unity of authorship of Luke and Acts, evidence that the author was a traveling companion of Paul, and incidental evidence. Photo! 7. a. Unity of Authorship of essay two approaches parenting, Luke and Acts 8. There are five arguments which Guthrie uses to show common authorship: (1) Both books are dedicated to photo prompts, the same man, Theophilus; (2) Acts refers to the first treatise, which is most naturally understood as the gospel; (3) the books contain strong similarities of language and style; (4) both contain common interests; (5) Acts naturally follows on essays from Luke’s gospel . Photo! . . It may safely be concluded that the evidence is very strong for the athesist linking the photo prompts writing two books as the work of one man, a conclusion which few modern scholars would dispute. Comparison Contrast Parenting! 9.
In addition there is a sixth argument that could be used: there are remarkable parallels in structure and content between Luke and Acts. To take but one example, “not only is Jesus’ journey to Jerusalem parallel to that of Paul, but also the events that take place when the two men reach the city, and after, are similar.” 10 Talbert’s conclusion (which assumes unity of authorship) is that “the conclusion seems irresistible. This architectonic pattern which has Gospel and Acts correspond in content and in photo for creative writing, sequence at many points is due to the athesist, deliberate editorial activity by the author of Luke-Acts.” 11 The point is that the architectonic structure of Luke-Acts is so beautifully executed that to deny common authorship is to attribute as much genius to a second, anonymous writer (of Acts) as one should of the first writer (who wrote the gospel). Prompts For Creative Writing! 12. b. Evidence that the Author was a Companion of Paul.
The “we” passages in Acts (16:10-17; 20:5-15; 21:1-18; 27:1–28:16), prima facie , suggest a companion of sample papers, Paul. Photo Prompts For Creative Writing! On this supposition, this particular companion. (1) first joins Paul at Philippi [ sic : Troas]; (2) reappears on Paul’s return visit to Philippi; (3) accompanies the apostle on the journey towards Jerusalem and stays with Philip at sample papers Caesarea, and (4) after Paul’s two years’ imprisonment at Caesarea, during which time there are no definite data regarding the photo writing author’s whereabouts, accompanies Paul to Rome and experiences shipwreck with him. It would also mean that the author could not be any of those companions of Paul who are mentioned by name in these sections (Silas, Timothy, Sopater, Aristarchus, Secundus, Gaius, Tychicus, Trophimus). 13. c. Indirect Evidence in Support of comparison two approaches, Lukan Authorship. There are four main pieces of indirect evidence which support Lukan authorship. First, in Paul’s prison epistles, there are a number of photo, people who were with Paul while he was in a Roman prison.
There is a definite probability that the types author of Luke-Acts was one of them. Excluding those already mentioned by name in the “we” sections in Acts, the following names are mentioned: Mark, Jesus Justus, Epaphras, Demas, Luke, Epaphroditus. Second, “in none of the epistles written on the second and third journeys (Thessalonians, Galatians (?), Corinthians, Romans) is Luke mentioned, but since none of them was written during a period covered by a we-section this corroborates the tradition.” 14. Third, according to Col. 4:10 and Philemon 24, Luke and Mark were in close contact with one another.
Assuming Markan priority for the synoptic problem, this might explain how Luke got access to Mark’s gospel. 15 But there is more: Acts also betrays a ‘Markan flavor’ in the first few chapters. Fourth, Col. 4:14 calls Luke ‘the beloved physician.’ In 1882 W. K. Hobart wrote his celebrated The Medical Language of St. Luke in which he argued that where Matthew and Mark use common, everyday terms, Luke often used medical terms in describing Jesus’ healings. This, however, was challenged by H. J. Cadbury almost four decades later (1920), 16 who pointed out prompts that Luke’s language was no different than that of any educated person.
17 As Caird quips, if we should now appeal to Hobart’s tome, “this would make doctors of almost all the writers of antiquity . . . ” 18 Nevertheless, one should admit that Luke’s terminology is compatible with an educated person, and essay that a physician would fit this picture well. Further, when one compares Mark 5:26 with Luke 8:43, it is photo writing, interesting that whereas Mark mentions that the woman had spent her life’s savings on doctors and only grew worse under their care, Luke omits the jab. In sum, the internal evidence certainly has nothing against Lukan authorship, though it clearly falls short of proof. This is all the more reason to accept Lukan authorship, for this is the unanimous testimony from the fathers: “Granted that an ancient scholar might have deduced from the prologue to the Gospel that the author was not an apostle and sample papers from the photo prompts for creative writing ‘we’ sections of Acts that he was a companion of Paul, he still would have had no means of putting a name to the author if there had not been a valid tradition connecting the books with the name of essay diction, Luke.” 19. Assuming that Luke penned the gospel which bears his name, and the book of Acts, what do we know about him (apart from his occupation)? First, he was probably a Gentile since he is mentioned separately from the “men of the circumcision” in Colossians 4. 20 Second, he may have been from for creative writing Troas for sample papers the ‘we’ sections in Acts begin there. 21 Beyond this there is very little information within the NT. Prompts For Creative Writing! However, the Anti-Marcionite Prologue to Luke (found not infrequently attached to of georgia essays, Latin MSS of the gospel) adds some interesting information: (1) Luke was a native of Antioch, (2) he wrote the gospel in photo for creative, Achaea, (3) never married, (4) and died at age 84 in Boetia. since the sample papers same source adds other, extremely doubtful information, all of the for creative writing above is suspect as well.
22. 4. Arguments against Lukan Authorship. There are principally three arguments against types Lukan authorship. Many have pointed out apparent discrepancies between Paul’s biographical notes in his Hauptbriefe and other secure epistles with the information about Paul given in Acts. Three alleged discrepancies are particularly striking: (1) the number of photo prompts for creative writing, visits Paul made to comparison contrast, Jerusalem given in Acts and that given in Galatians, 23 (2) the make-up of the converts in Thessalonica, 24 and (3) Paul’s attitude toward the OT Law. Two points should be mentioned in response: (1) Even if such discrepancies were genuine, this would not necessarily argue against writing Lukan authorship, though it might say something about his reliability as a historian. 25 (2) All of the alleged discrepancies are capable of alternative explanations, thus rendering them “an insecure basis for rejecting the tradition.” 26. b. Different Interpretations of the “We” Sections. It is of course possible that the use of the first person plural was a literary convention, or even an uncorrected source which the author had used.
On the whole, German and a separate peace jealousy American scholars favor either of these options over photo prompts, the prima facie view (especially because of the alleged historical discrepancies), while British scholars favor the latter. Concerning the literary convention hypothesis, one wonders why it is employed so little (only in parts of five chapters), and why it begins only in chapter 16. As to the athesist, the diary hypothesis, if Luke used multiple sources for both his gospel and Acts why would we see the ‘we’ sections only here? Surely he received many first person reports (both written and oral) for the composition of photo prompts for creative, both books. 27 This view suggests that he was careful to change the first person plural all the way through both Luke and Acts until Acts 16! Although these views are possible, they raise far more problems than they solve.
This is of general, normally considered to be the most severe difficulty for maintaining Lukan authorship of Luke-Acts. There are two main difficulties to be dealt with: (1) Paul’s solution to the problem of the OT law; 28 and (2) the speeches attributed to Paul in Acts. 29. (1) A superficial reading of Acts suggests that the Paul of Acts is different from the Paul of the photo for creative writing epistles in his handling of the the athesist OT law. In Acts, for example, he has Timothy circumcised, while he denies the necessity of circumcision in Galatians. Photo! But two pieces of data must be kept in mind here: (a) the reason for Timothy’s circumcision in Acts was related to evangelistic opportunity , while in Galatians he is opposed to circumcision for those who wish to rest on it as essential for salvation . Both of these actions are totally consistent with Paul’s self-portrait in 1 Cor. 9:19-23 (where, for the sake of the gospel, Paul can either accommodate his lifestyle to that of the Jews or that of the comparison essay parenting Gentiles). (b) The purpose of Acts is for creative, different than the purpose of the epistles. Whereas Paul is eager to the athesist, dissociate himself from Judaizers (even with quite colorful language at times!), Luke’s purpose is to present Paul as a good Jew who also was a Christian and that in this one man there was no desire to start riots by inciting his own people.
Hence, Luke presents nascent Christianity as a movement which began very much within Judaism (one might even call it “Messianic Judaism” or “the Nazarene sect of Judaism”) with which other Jews have wrongly taken offense, while Paul is more concerned with reaching the Gentiles. This different perspective/purpose is nicely spelled out by Longenecker: 30. Undoubtedly there are differences between the Paul of photo prompts writing, his own letters and the Paul of a separate peace, his “biographer,” and undoubtedly Pauline Christianity and prompts writing early Jewish Christianity were distinguishable entities. But we play much too fast and loose with the evidence when we attempt to drive a wedge between them. Paul writes as an types of general, evangelist and pastor to his converts, affirming the essentials of his message within a context of personal humility, whereas Luke writes as an historian and admirer of the apostle, with a sense for the historical unfolding of the gospel and a desire to highlight the heroic. Photo For Creative Writing! While we must ask for the athesist a body of agreement in the respective portrayals, we cannot reasonably call for identity in details or uniformity in viewpoints. 31. (2) Paul’s speeches in Acts do not sound like his letters. Photo Prompts For Creative Writing! Some have argued that Luke’s historiographical model was Thucydides who invented speeches to add verisimilitude to his narrative. Essay Diction! However, this assertion neither does justice to Thucydides nor to Luke.
A careful reading of photo, Thucydides’ statement 32 reveals that he did not invent speeches ex nihilo , but occasionally summarized or put in his own words what was said on a separate peace jealousy specific occasions. Prompts! Thus if it is true that Luke patterned his work after those of Thucydides (and we believe it is), he did not invent speeches, though he certainly felt the right to shape them. 33 Still, what is the athesist, remarkable is that several of the speeches, especially those of Peter and James, have strong verbal parallels with the epistles alleged to be by the same authors (1-2 Peter and James). 34 Further, although most of Paul’s speeches in prompts writing, Acts show little resemblance to his epistles, the one speech given to believers (in Acts 20) does. Essay! 35. In sum, Lukan authorship for both the third gospel and Acts has excellent external credentials and corroborative internal evidence. Photo For Creative Writing! The difficulties to this view, though not altogether trivial, certainly fail to convince one of any other alternative. Indeed, it is precisely because there are theological and historical difficulties between Acts and Paul that the argument for sample papers Lukan authorship is the most plausible: what later writer (for those who deny Lukan authorship all put Luke-Acts late), who had access to Paul’s letters, would create so many discrepancies in the portrait of his hero, the photo for creative apostle Paul? 36. A number of factors and a separate presuppositions affect the date of photo writing, this book.
Among the most important are: (1) authorship; (2) the solution to the synoptic problem; (3) whether the Olivet Discourse was truly prophetic or a vaticinium ex eventu ; and especially (4) evidence internal to the book of Acts (i.e., not related to the gospel per se ). Though most scholars date the book c. 80-90, our conclusion is that it should be dated substantially earlier. (1) On the assumption of Lukan authorship, one cannot date this book too late. That is to say, since Luke was certainly an adult when he joined Paul in his second missionary journey, 37 he would have probably thirty to fifty years to have written this work. Essay! However, apart from F. C. Baur’s radical dating of Acts well into the second century, this span poses no problem for any plausible date. (2) In our solution to the synoptic problem, Matthew and Luke have independently used Mark. It is most probable that Matthew was unaware of photo prompts for creative, Luke’s work and Luke was unaware of Matthew’s. If so, then both were probably written at around the same time. If Matthew is essay diction, dated c. 60-65 CE, then Luke (and, therefore, Acts) in photo prompts for creative writing, all probability should be dated similarly. 38. (3) Was the Olivet Discourse a vaticinium ex eventu (a prophecy after the of georgia for application fact)? It is safe to say that the assumption that it was is the single most important reason for overturning an early date (pre-70) for prompts writing Luke-Acts (as it was for Matthew and Mark).
We have dealt with this in our discussion of Matthew’s date and simply need to summarize our two points here: (a) only a denial of the possibility of predictive prophecy on the lips of Jesus would necessitate a late date; (b) the synoptic gospels are both vague and imprecise in their prophecies assuming that those prophecies were fulfilled in the Jewish War , but if there is more to come, and if the Olivet Discourse was given before 66 CE, then the discourse makes sense. (4) There are several pieces of internal evidence within Acts which are most significant in fixing the date of this two-volume work. Guthrie lists six, 39 of which the last is the most significant. (a) The absence of reference to important events which happened between AD 60 and 70 . The fall of Jerusalem (66-70), the persecution of Christians by Nero (64), and the death of comparison two approaches, James by the Sanhedrin (62) are not mentioned. Photo Prompts! On this last point, it is a significant silence, for “no incident could have served Luke’s apologetic purpose better, that it was the a separate jealousy Jews not the Romans who were the real enemies of the photo for creative gospel.” 40. (b) The primitive character of the subject-matter . In particular, “the Jewish-Gentile controversy is dominant and all other evidence apart from essay diction Acts suggests that this was a vital issue only in the period before the writing fall of Jerusalem.” 41. (c) The primitive nature of the essay diction theology . Prompts Writing! Terms such as “the Christ,” “disciples,” “the Way,” and the reference to essay diction, the first day of the week for the time when Christian met together to break bread, all imply primitiveness. (d) The attitude of the state towards the church. The government is quite impartial toward the church, a situation which would not be true after 64 CE when Nero’s persecution broke out. It is significant that Luke ends this book by saying that the gospel was able to spread “unhindered” ( ???????? ). (e) The relation of Acts to the Paul ine epistles . Luke shows no awareness of Paul’s literary endeavors.
This would certainly suggest a date which preceded the collection of the Corpus Paulinum . Further, there is evidence that such a collection existed as early as the 70s CE. 42 In the least, this suggests that the purpose of Acts was not to reinstate Paul’s letters, as some have suggested. (f) The absence of reference to the death of prompts, Paul . Essay! The book of Acts, which begins with a bang and dies with a whimper, and which so carefully chronicles the prompts for creative events leading up to the trial of Paul in Rome, gives the distinct impression that Paul’s trial was not yet over. In other words, it is very doubtful that this book was written after 62 CE. Two counter reasons are often given as to why Luke would end the book here.  He did not want to mention the trial’s outcome. The opinions put forth for of georgia essays this refraint are very numerous—a telling argument against them. Some argue that it would put too much emphasis on the man rather than on his mission; that it would hint at a parallel with the death of Christ, which would be inappropriate; that the photo prompts for creative writing readers knew the rest of the story and hence Luke did not need to university essays, go on; etc. For Creative! As Guthrie remarks, “It is not sufficient, on of general essay the other hand, to propose a theory of the author’s intention without supplying an adequate motive for the intention, and it may be questioned whether this condition has been fulfilled.” 43.  Luke intended to write a third volume.
This was the view of Spitta, Zahn, Ramsey, and W. Photo Prompts For Creative! L. Knox. It is based on the use of ?????? in Acts 1:1—a word which, in classical Greek, indicated “first of at least three.” That it does not do so in hellenistic Greek is quite evident from the data supplied in contrast two approaches parenting, BAGD; further that Luke does not use the photo superlative as a true superlative is evident from his discussion of the first census of Quirinius in Luke 2:2: scholars have had enough trouble trying to locate two censuses of Quirinius, let alone three! Further, even if Luke did use ?????? as a true superlative on occasion, why would he break his three-volume work here? This explanation seems a quite desperate expedient. 44. All in essay diction, all, that Acts ends where it does is a great embarrassment to those who do not maintain a pre-64 date.
Robinson, who bases much of photo for creative, his Redating the New Testament on an early (62) date of Acts, argues ably for this view. Contrast Two Approaches Parenting! 45 In particular, he points out photo prompts for creative that Adolph von Harnack, “whose massive scholarship and sample papers objectivity of judgment contrast with so many who have come after him,” is still worth quoting precisely because “on this subject he was forced slowly and photo prompts writing painfully to sample papers, change his mind.” 46 Two snippets from Harnack’s The Date of Acts 47 will have to suffice: “Throughout eight whole chapters St. Luke keeps his readers intensely interested in the progress of the trial of St. Photo Prompts For Creative Writing! Paul, simply that he may in the end completely disappoint them—they learn nothing of the final result of the trial!” “The more clearly we see that the trial of St. Paul, and above all his appeal to Caesar, is the chief subject of the last quarter of Acts, the essay diction more hopeless does it appear that we can explain why the for creative writing narrative breaks off as it does, otherwise than by assuming that the trial had actually not yet reached its close. It is no use to struggle against this conclusion.” At the the athesist same time, one has to ask how much later Acts was than the photo prompts writing gospel. In our view, the essays two were virtually simultaneous, since they would no doubt have been written on scrolls. Photo Writing! 48 Customarily, the longest usable scroll was about thirty-five feet.
Luke and Acts each would take up well over twenty-five feet, and hence could not at essay diction all conveniently be fitted onto one scroll. This fact, coupled with the internal continuity between the two books, 49 strongly suggests that they were meant to be read virtually as a single document, written at almost the same time, bearing the prompts writing same purpose(s). 50. In conclusion, the following points can be made: (1) Luke depends on Mark and therefore should not be dated earlier than the 50s CE. The date of of georgia essays for application, Mark, then, provides the terminu a quo for the date of Luke-Acts. (2) Luke neither knew of Matthew’s work, nor Matthew’s of Luke’s. If Matthew is dated c. 60-65, then Luke-Acts was probably written within the same time frame. (3) Luke-Acts was written before the start of the for creative writing Jewish War because his Olivet Discourse includes vague and not-yet-fulfilled material. (4) Acts is to be dated c. 62 CE, principally because of the ending of the book in which Paul’s trial seems to have been still future. Our conclusion is that Acts was written just before the end of Paul’s first Roman imprisonment, c. 61-62 CE. Both the sample papers gospel and Acts are addressed to prompts writing, one Theophilus. He is called “most excellent” ( ???????? ), a term usually indicating some sort of government official, or at least high social rank. 51 It is essays for application, possible to view the name as symbolic (“lover of God,” or “loved by God”), as if the real addressee needed to be incognito for some reason. But since this name was well attested up to three centuries before Luke wrote, it may well have been his real name.
If Theophilus was a Roman official, then he certainly was a Gentile, and the contents of for creative writing, this gospel, as well as the the athesist Acts, bear eloquent testimony of a Gentile readership. 52 As we shall see in our discussion of the purpose of Acts, Theophilus was not only a Roman official (in all likelihood), but also was in Rome. Although Luke-Acts is addressed to photo writing, Theophilus, something must be said for the probability that Luke intended to have this work published and consequently envisioned an audience broader in scope than one man. His prologue to both the gospel and Acts emulates so much the ancient historians’ prefaces that it is a separate essay, quite evident that he wanted the work published. In this, it is probable, once again, that his intended audience was Roman Gentiles. However, whether they were to writing, be primarily believers or unbelievers is more difficult to assess. In fact, whether Theophilus was a believer or not is difficult to assess! 53 The key issue is the meaning of contrast essay, ????????? (“of what you have been informed” or “of what you have been taught”; from ??????? ) in photo for creative writing, Luke 1:4. The term can refer either to Christian instruction (Acts 18:25; Gal. 6:6) or simply information, even a negative report (Acts 21:21, 24). Thus, even in the key term there is an impasse.
In our view, there is something of a double entendre here: Theophilus is a high-ranking Roman official who is also a Christian. If his name is a separate peace essay, symbolic, then this is almost certainly the case. 54 But since he seems to be a government official, then he has been “informed” about photo prompts, Christianity. In our understanding of (one of) the purpose(s) of Acts , Luke was preparing a trial-brief for Paul’s upcoming court hearing. In this case, Luke would certainly want a Roman official who was as sympathetic as he could be, ????????? , then, seems to indicate that Luke wanted to set the record straight about the of georgia origins of photo, Christianity (thus, information) while “Theophilus” suggests that this particular recipient had been more than informed—he had believed. 55.
In our view, the specific occasion which precipitated this two-volume work was Paul’s upcoming court appearance in Rome. In our view, this is essays for application, part of the initial purpose as well, though it does not encompass the total purpose of Acts. Guthrie argues that “Luke’s primary purpose was historical and this must be considered as the major aim of Acts, whatever subsidiary motives may have contributed towards its production.” 56 Yet, Guthrie quickly adds five alternatives to the purpose of Acts (a narrative of history, a gospel of the Spirit, an photo for creative, apology, a defense for Paul’s trial, and a theological document [either written to address the triumph of Christianity or the delay of the parousia]). 57. Yet not all would even agree with Guthrie’s basic premise that the primary purpose was historical in a general sense, the real tension concerning the purpose of this work is between history and sample papers apologetic. Prompts For Creative Writing! However, more and of general more would conclude that history and for creative apologetic do not stand in tension, as if an accurate historian could not have an apologetic purpose, or that an apologist could not write accurate history. It has long been recognized that the historical positivism of Ernst Troeltsch of last century is passe—that is, that no history was ever written from an unbiased motive. If this is the case, then to charge Luke with an apologetic motive is not to deny his being an accurate historiographer. There can be no doubt that Luke intends to give a great deal of data concerning the early beginnings of the church—much of which would not necessarily fit into an apologetic mold. For example, how does the mention of the selection of the essay diction seven “table waiters” (Acts 6) figure into an apologetic piece? A greater problem is the fact that this is a two-part work—and the gospel of Luke must be reckoned into the overall scheme.
Nevertheless, there does seem to prompts for creative, be a very decidedly apologetic thrust to this work as well. Several have seen the apologetic tone going in different directions: to establish that Christianity is law-abiding, to show that Christianity is a world religion, or even to defend Paul’s apostleship in some way. It is a separate jealousy, our contention that Acts is photo prompts writing, both historical and apologetic, that Luke wrote the work both for sample papers Theophilus (as an photo, apologetic piece) and for secondary readers (both for apologetic and historical reasons). But the initial purpose—related to Theophilus—is decidedly apologetic. Specifically—and initially 58 —Acts was written to be a trial brief for of general essay Paul. The evidence is as follows: 1. The beginning of Luke, in which Theophilus is addressed as “excellent” ( ???????? ). Prompts Writing! We have already pointed out that this term is used of government officials. Types Of General! But there is more: the photo prompts for creative vocative is used almost universally in the papyri only in petitions , as far as my own cursory research reveals (an examination of the first two volumes on the papyri in LCL). If this is the sample papers case here, then a petition is implied in Luke-Acts, even though none is prompts, stated. 2. The ending of the book, which almost certainly dates it as just before the end of the athesist, Paul’s first Roman imprisonment. This ending would be very strange unless it were meant to serve as a prompt for Theophilus to for creative, do something on Paul’s behalf.
The date of Acts and the reasons for the book ending here are the most compelling reasons to essays for application, see this work as in some sense a trial brief for Paul. Photo Writing! A general apologetic could be written at any time; but a trial brief needed to be written now. 3. The mention of Paul being under house arrest for “two years” in of georgia for application, Acts 28:30. Although Cadbury made much of this, arguing that after two years a prisoner must either come to trial or be set free, the evidence is not nearly as neat as he supposed. 59 Nevertheless, one could appeal to the Roman law of a “speedy trial.” The point may be that Luke is reminding Theophilus that Paul’s case is about to be heard and that his defense needs to be prepared. Further, as Sherwin-White points out, there is no reason to believe that Paul’s accusers would be allowed to drop their charges. Prompts For Creative! They had to prepare the best case they could. The “two year” reference probably functions in a sympathetic manner: “Paul has been imprisoned long enough—see what you can do to the athesist, get him out!” 4. For Creative Writing! The remarkable parallels between Peter and the athesist Paul attest to an apologetic for Paul.
Even Guthrie admits that “the history before the narrative of Paul’s life and work is for creative writing, somewhat scrappy and the athesist gives the impression that the author’s purpose is to prompts for creative writing, get to Paul as soon as possible.” 60 C. H. Talbert has argued quite cogently that there is a strong architectonic pattern found in Luke-Acts, in which both books mirror each other, and the athesist both halves of Acts mirror each other. 61 The reason for this seems to be that Peter was already accepted by Theolophilus as a legitimate apostle while Paul needed credentials. Luke employed a deja vu approach, showing that Paul was every bit as much an apostle as was Peter—because he performed the same miracles and gave the same messages. Further, as we suggested, the reason Peter would have already been accepted by Theophilus is because he would have had access to Mark’s gospel in which Peter figured prominently. 5. Coupled with the remarkable parallels between these two great apostles is the fact that the last comment about Peter (apart from his message in Acts 15) is his release from certain death in Acts 12 (the narrative then picks up on Paul’s missionary journeys). This may well be intended to prompt Theophilus to “finish the story” for Paul in the same way. 6. Further evidence is seen in the incredible amount of space devoted to the trials/ hearings in which Paul was involved before he came to Rome. The last eight chapters of Acts (Acts 21–28) are devoted to prompts, a mere four years of history, while the first twenty chapters cover approximately twenty-four years of history.
The material is more than twice as compact because it now focuses on Paul’s trials and sample papers material which would be useful in photo for creative writing, proving his innocence. 7. Types Of General! The use of ?????? in Acts 1:1 might be a literary device similar to prompts for creative writing, the ending of sample papers, Mark (at 16:8), making the work open-ended. The suggestion of many older commentators was that this superlative was used as a true superlative—thus, “first of at least three.” If so, then Acts might have ended where it did simply because Luke intended to write a third volume. We have already discussed this view and photo found it wanting. However, a modification of it has some attractiveness to the athesist, it: Could it be that Luke intended Theophilus to “write the photo prompts third volume”—that is, do what he could to see that Paul’s ministry continued? Not much can be made of this possibility, however, because it suffers from the same linguistic fate that the older view suffers from, viz., Luke has already shown that he uses this superlative as a comparative, in accord with other Koine writers.
8. Finally, although Acts 27 ostensibly does not fit in with the trial-brief idea, recent scholars have pointed out that there was a widespread “pagan belief that survival at a shipwreck proved a man’s innocence.” 62. Taken together, these eight (or at comparison contrast least seven) reasons form a compelling argument that Acts was indeed intended to be a trial brief for Paul. At the same time, one criticism should be mentioned here: If Acts is really intended (in part) to be a trial brief for Paul, then how does Luke fit into this picture? Since both works really belong together, the writing purpose of Acts is seemingly the purpose of Luke-Acts. In response, it need only be mentioned that one of the comparison essay two approaches parenting purposes of Acts is the trial brief for Paul. It is true that Luke does not neatly fit into this purpose, though it does fit into the broader picture of apologetic of photo prompts, Christianity before the peace jealousy Roman government. The occasion for Acts necessitated the photo prompts for creative writing publication of Luke, but it did not thereby dictate the purpose of Luke. The theme of Acts is university of georgia, intrinsically bound up with its purpose. In a nutshell, the theme is photo, “The Beginnings of the university for application Church and the Expansion of the Gentile Mission.”
In volume two of Luke’s work, he picks up where he left off in the first volume, namely, with the ascension of the Lord (1:9-11). But he begins with a prologue (1:1-2) similar to that in the first volume. The ascension—recorded only by Luke—becomes a crucial motif for it is necessary if the disciples are to continue the ministry which Jesus began. Prompts For Creative! That is why Luke refers to volume one as detailing what “Jesus began to do and to teach until the day he was taken up into heaven” (1:1-2a). After this brief prologue, the body of the work commences.
It is possible to a separate essay jealousy, organize Luke’s thought in several different ways, all of which have a certain legitimacy. It could be organized personally —that is, centering on photo prompts writing Peter and Paul (thus having two halves). It could be organized geographically , from Jerusalem, to Judea and Samaria, and the ends of the the athesist earth (cf. 1:8) (thus having three sections). Or it could be organized according to Luke’s progress reports (thus having seven portions). Photo! The reason for this variety has to of general, do with Luke’s varied purposes. His work is both historical and apologetic.
And in writing, his apologetics he deals with the legitimacy of Paul, as well as with his mission. We will look at the book according to the progressive scheme, though recognizing the Luke’s organizational scheme is more multifaceted than that. In the progressive approach, there are seven units of thought, or “books.” In Book One, Luke touches on the birth of the Church in Jerusalem (1:1–2:47). Immediately, he gives us a glimpse of one of his organizational schemes, for the birth of the Church parallels the birth of Christ. Comparison Contrast Two Approaches Parenting! This can further be seen in photo prompts for creative, that at Jesus’ baptism, while he is praying, the Spirit descends in a physical form and while the the athesist disciples are praying, the Spirit again descends in a physical form.
Scores of other parallels can be detected between these two volumes, each of which carries different levels of conviction. 63 although these are significant sub-motifs, in our view they are not the photo prompts for creative writing overarching control. This is due to the fact that it is difficult to organize Luke and the athesist Acts (in terms of macro-structure) along the same lines. Nevertheless, there is something to the architectonic approach to Luke-Acts and we will occasionally interact with it in photo prompts for creative, our argument. This first Book, as we have said, continues the narrative from Jesus’ resurrection until the time of his ascension (1:3-11), a period of forty days. During this time he commissions the apostles to university essays, be his witnesses in ever-expanding circles (1:8). After his ascension, there is a ten-day wait—until the day of Pentecost (1:12-26). And during this waiting period the apostles likewise commission Matthias to join them as a replacement for photo for creative writing Judas (1:15-26). When the day of essay jealousy, Pentecost came the apostles were all together (2:1). The Spirit descends on photo them (2:1-13) like individual flames of fire (2:2-3).
The significance of this may be related to the athesist, the “already, not yet” of the kingdom. Prompts For Creative Writing! When the comparison contrast two approaches parenting Spirit descended on Jesus at his baptism, coupled with the heavenly voice declaring him to prompts, be God’s Son, this seemed to be an enthronement of sorts (similar to the use of the essays for application enthronement Psalms in the OT [cf. Prompts For Creative! especially Psalm 2:7!] and essay diction the motif of the Spirit abiding on the king [cf. Psalm 51]), thus inaugurating the kingdom. Before Jesus’ ascent into heaven, the photo for creative writing question heaviest on peace essay the apostles’ minds was, “Lord, are you at this time going to restore the for creative kingdom to Israel?” (1:6). Jesus’ response was “already, not yet”: when the Spirit comes they would be imbued with the power of the king, though the consummation of the kingdom was yet future.
God was surely doing a new work on sample papers the day of Pentecost. The apostles spoke in foreign tongues (2:4), though the crowd of pilgrims and photo writing residents wondered what this meant (2:5-13). Peter’s sermon explained what had happened and he seized the types of general moment to gain converts to Jesus of Nazareth (2:14-39). In this message there is an emphasis on the resurrection of Christ (2:23-32), and on the crowd’s guilt in the crucifixion (2:36-37), as well as the promise of the Spirit to those who would repent and believe (2:33-39). For Creative! It is evident that the Spirit had indeed descended on Peter, for about three thousand people believed his message (2:40-41). Book One concludes with the essay first progress report, after summarizing the unity and growth of the nascent Church (2:42-47a): “And the Lord added to their number daily those who were being saved” (2:47b). Book Two now deals with the expansion of the Church in Jerusalem (3:1–6:7). Luke arranges the material in an A B A B pattern. First, Peter heals a crippled man and this act has reverberations (3:1–4:31): he preaches to the crowd (3:11-26), gets arrested along with John (4:1-4), defends himself before the Sanhedrin and is released (4:5-22).
All this finds a parallel in the third part of Book Two (5:12-42): the apostles heal people, get arrested and escape (5:17-24), appear before the Sanhedrin (5:25-40), and are released (5:40). Clearly Luke shapes the two episodes to show that though Theophilus had accepted Peter as a messenger from God, the other apostles, deserved the photo same respect. Coming right after each of these episodes is a vignette on the community of the nascent Church, the the athesist first dealing with harsh discipline when wealth distribution was handled deceptively (4:32–5:11), the second dealing with correction when food distribution was handled poorly (6:1-6). Photo Prompts For Creative Writing! In both pericopae, the authority and priorities of the apostles are clearly displayed. Book Two concludes with the summary statement, “So the word of God spread.
The number of disciples in Jerusalem increased rapidly, and a large number of priests became obedient to the faith” (6:7). With this addendum on the priests’ conversions, it is as if Luke is saying that the apostles had now done all they could in Jerusalem. Essays! This is seen in the next section, Book Three, where it is evident that the religious leaders who had not obeyed were not about to. In Book Three we see the extension of the photo for creative writing church beyond the walls of Jerusalem, spreading out all the way to Judea and Samaria (6:8–9:31). This book focuses on three non-apostles: Stephen, Philip, and Saul. What is significant is that these three—more than all of the apostles combined—were instrumental in fulfilling the sample papers commission to be witnesses in Judea and Samaria (Acts 1:8). Just as the other apostles were seen to have all the “power” that Peter had (cf. Acts 1:8a), so these non-apostles were seen to photo prompts, be “witnesses” (cf. Acts 1:8b) every bit as much as the twelve. What is more, Saul is viewed as unwittingly helping to fulfill the Great Commission even before his conversion, for the Church first spread to Samaria and Judea because of his persecutions (8:1)! This Book’s purpose, then, is to foreshadow both the full apostolic status of Paul and his superiority over all the rest of the original apostles in carrying out the mandate of Acts 1:8.
The first cameo of Book Three is essay diction, of Stephen, the first martyr of the Church (6:8–8:1a). Like the writing apostles before him, he is arrested because of his miracles and proclamation (6:8-15). But unlike the apostles, his appearance before the Sanhedrin results in his death, not his release. University Essays For Application! In his defense (7:2-53) he outlines the nation’s history (with a focus on the patriarchs, Moses and David) up until their murder of “the Righteous One” (7:52), thus paralleling Peter’s sermon on the day of Pentecost. Although Stephen was thus every bit as much a witness as was Peter, 64 the response to him was different. Photo Prompts For Creative! With the death of Stephen, Luke is indicating that fruitful ministry in the athesist, Jerusalem had come to an end. The transition to for creative writing, the second cameo, that of Philip (8:1b-40), is via Saul (8:1): because of his role in Stephen’s death and subsequent role in persecuting the Church, Philip and others “were scattered throughout Judea and essays for application Samaria” (8:1). Philip, like Stephen, performed miracles and proclaimed Christ (8:4-8). But, unlike Stephen, there was a very positive response to his ministry in prompts for creative writing, Samaria (8:7-8, 12).
But not every response was positive. Even though Philip was very powerful in sample papers, his preaching, a certain sorcerer named Simon “believed” only to prompts for creative writing, gain the power which he saw in Philip (8:13). The apostles Peter and John came down from Jerusalem to Samaria to investigate the phenomenal response of the people (8:14). They laid hands on them, causing them to receive the Spirit (8:15-17). Through this event Simon’s wickedness was exposed (8:18-24), and Peter’s and John’s perspective was enlarged (8:25). Luke then gives two other vignettes about Philip’s ministry, showing how the gospel was spreading (8:26-40).
Saul’s conversion concludes this third Book (9:1-30). Luke spends much time telling his audience about Saul’s conversion (it is rehearsed three times in the book of Acts), with a special emphasis on the revelation of the risen Lord to Saul (9:4-5) as well as the Lord’s disclosure to Ananias that Saul had truly converted and would be the “chosen instrument to carry my name before the Gentiles” (9:10-15). Thus Saul is seen not only to have a remarkable conversion experience, but also from the essay diction first to be the one who would exemplify the mandate of Acts 1:8. Book Three, which began with an expanding church because of persecution now concludes with the words, “Then the church throughout Judea, Galilee and Samaria enjoyed a time of prompts writing, peace. It was strengthened and encouraged by the Holy spirit and it grew in numbers, living in the fear of the Lord” (9:31). To make sure that Theophilus would not be forced to choose between Peter and Paul Luke now demonstrates, in essay diction, Book Four, that Peter too promoted the Gentile mission (9:32–12:24). But it was not just Peter who promoted this; it was the Lord himself. Luke begins by affirming Peter’s apostleship in that he healed Aeneas (9:32-35) and even raised Dorcas from the writing dead (9:36-43). Sample Papers! While in photo, Joppa (where Dorcas had been raised), Peter saw a vision of types of general essay, unclean animals descending from heaven accompanied by a voice which bid him to kill and photo for creative eat (10:8-23a). The message was clear: the essay “unclean” Gentiles should not be shut out of the prompts writing kingdom (10:15, 28).
Peter subsequently went to the house of the athesist, a Roman centurion named Cornelius and proclaimed the gospel to photo prompts for creative, him and his friends (10:23b-48). Of Georgia! The response of the Gentiles was the prompts for creative same as that of the first hearers on the day of Pentecost (10:44-48); the Gentiles even received the gift of the Spirit. Peter was thus convinced that the Gentile mission was from God. Not only did Peter have to be prepared for the Gentile mission; the Jerusalem church did, too (11:1-18). Sample Papers! Since Peter was recognized by all as a legitimate spokesman for God, his recounting of what happened at Cornelius’ house was enough to convince the photo Jewish believers. Chapter 11 concludes with the account of the sample papers birth of the church at Antioch (11:19-30)—a birth which paralleled the birth of the Jerusalem church. To show that there was no animosity between the two churches, the Antiochian Christians sent financial aid to the Jerusalem church via Saul and Barnabas (11:27-30). Book Four, which began with peace in Judea and Samaria, now reaches an ironic climax with persecution in Jerusalem (12:1-23). This time, rather than Saul, Herod is the one persecuting the church.
First, he executes James (12:1-2), then arrests Peter (12:3-19). But Peter miraculously escapes (12:6-11) and Herod dies (12:20-23). This is the last we see of Peter in his evangelistic efforts. 65 The stage is thus set for photo for creative writing the comparison and contrast with Paul, the man with whom the rest of Acts is concerned. What may be of significance is that there is no parallel with Paul—within the pages of Acts—with Peter’s final arrest and essay diction release . It is our conviction that Luke has written his book in such a way to beckon Theophilus to “write the final chapter.” Book Four concludes with the photo prompts words, “But the word of God continued to increase and spread” (12:24). The Fifth Book addresses the essay diction extension of the prompts Church to Asia Minor, but might just as properly be called “The Book of the Establishment of Paul’s Apostleship” (12:25–16:5). Here we begin to see the deja vu pattern emerge once again. But rather than between Luke and Acts, or Peter and of georgia the other apostles, this Book now compares Peter and Paul.
The Fifth Book opens with the commission of Barnabas and Saul by the Spirit to take their first missionary journey (12:25–13:3). Saul, who was also called Paul (13:9), has his apostleship authenticated on Cyprus and in Pisidian Antioch. On Cyprus (13:4-12), he is photo prompts for creative, seen to types, be just as much a “witness” as was Philip—and to have the same power of discernment as Peter, for in Paul’s confrontation with a sorcerer (13:6-12 cf. 8:9-13), he, like Peter, pronounces judgment on the man—accompanied by writing a miraculous blinding. In Pisidian Antioch (13:13-52) Paul is seen to peace jealousy, be just as much an orator as Stephen and Peter (13:14b-41). In fact, his message is an amalgamation of both Stephen’s speech and for creative Peter’s sermons. In these first two stories we see that Paul, by himself was equal to both Philip and Peter, and then Stephen and Peter. When Paul travels to South Galatia (13:51–14:21a), to essay diction, the city of Lystra (14:8-18), he is seen to have the photo prompts for creative writing same miraculous powers as Peter (cf.
3:1–4:31). The parallels are hard to miss: (1) both Peter and Paul healed a man crippled from birth (3:1-8/14:8-10); (2) there was a positive response from the crowd (3:9-10/14:11-14); (3) both addressed the crowd (3:11-26/14:15-18); (4) both were accompanied by another apostle (John, Barnabas); and (5) both suffered at the hands of the Jews, though Paul’s suffering was far worse (4:1-4/14:19). Clearly, Paul was just as much an apostle as was Peter. Peace! 66. After a brief return to Antioch (14:21b-28) where the issue of the Gentile mission came to a head (15:1-5), Paul goes up to Jerusalem to prompts, where the apostles and elders met to a separate peace essay jealousy, consider the matter. Here Paul’s mission is rat i fied by the Jerusalem Council (15:6-21)—a council in which Peter plays a part (15:7b-11).
Paul and Barnabas are selected as letter-bearers (15:22), and are to bring the good news of the Council’s decision back to Antioch and elsewhere. This stands in photo for creative, bold relief against the last time Paul carried a letter for a Council (9:2)! The second missionary journey (15:36–18:22) begins after a brief rest in Antioch, but Paul took Silas instead of Barnabas and Mark because of Mark’s earlier desertion in Pamphylia (15:36-41). On this journey Paul takes the northern route, allowing Barnabas and of general essay Mark to retrace their steps by going to Cyprus once again (15:39b). The journey begins with a confirmation of the churches in South Galatia (16:1-4). On this positive note, Book Five concludes: “So the churches were strengthened in the faith and grew daily in the numbers” (16:5). On Paul’s second missionary journey, his own widening net now extended as far as the Aegean region, the topic with which Book Six (16:6–19:20) is occupied. Having established that Paul was an authentic apostle and that his message was ratified by Peter himself, Luke now concentrates especially on the historical side to his tome.
There is no dichotomy between the history and apologetic of prompts for creative writing, Luke, but the emphasis now is on the former, while through Book Five it was on the latter. Still, there are parallels to be seen between Paul and Peter even here (cf. e.g., Paul’s vision to come to Macedonia [16:8b-10] with Peter’s vision of accepting “unclean” Gentiles [10:8-23]; the twelve disciples of John in of georgia for application, Ephesus speaking in tongues when they receive the Spirit [19:1-7] with the twelve apostles speaking in tongues on the day of Pentecost when they receive the Spirit [2:1-4]; etc.). Paul’s missionary travels take him to Philippi (16:6-40) in Macedonia, where a small church is planted. Luke then records that Paul and Silas bypass Amphipolis and Apollonia (17:1a) because there was no synagogue there. Photo Prompts For Creative Writing! This becomes a motif throughout the rest of Acts: Paul consistently went to the Jews first and then the essay diction Gentiles, even till the prompts for creative very end (28:17-28). Sample Papers! Yet, equal to this motif, is Jewish hostility wherever the prompts for creative apostle went.
The next stop was the thriving metropolis of Thessalonica (17:1-9), where Paul preached for three Sabbaths before being driven from the city. A short stay at Berea (17:10-14)—again due to persecution initiated by the Jews—resulted in his trek to Athens (17:15-34). After a relatively unsuccessful ministry with the philosophers there, he traveled to Corinth (18:1-18a), where he was able to settle down for the first time because of God’s protection of his ministry (18:5-11). Essay Jealousy! After a court appearance before the photo proconsul Gallio, in which the case was dismissed (18:12-18a), Paul returned to Antioch, his home base (18:18b-22). After a very brief stay in Antioch, Paul began his third missionary journey (18:23–21:16). Sample Papers! He had left Priscilla and Aquila, two of his co-workers, in Ephesus on photo writing his return trip to Antioch. Now he returned to Ephesus, by the athesist way of the South Galatian region (18:23). Altogether he would stay there almost three years and Ephesus would effectively become what Antioch had been: a base of operations for writing his missionary endeavors.
Book Six ends with Paul having a successful ministry in Ephesus, though not one lacking in essays, conflict (cf. 19:8-9a, 11-19). but because of a final victory over one opponent, namely, the prompts occult, “the word of the Lord spread widely and grew in power” (19:20). After disclosing some of the missionary endeavors of sample papers, Paul in the Sixth Book, primarily with a historical purpose in mind, Luke now returns to his apologetic emphasis. But rather than further comparison of Paul with Peter, his primary thrust is to prepare a trial brief for Paul. Since Theophilus was apparently an influential Roman official, and one who had had at least a sympathetic ear toward Christianity, especially in its Petrine forms, 67 he needed to have as much information at his disposal which would be helpful in court. Book Seven (19:21–28:31) provides just such information. The Book begins with Paul’s announcement to go to photo prompts for creative, Rome (19:21-22) and ends with him getting there. But there is essay parenting, irony seen here, for Acts began with the growth of the church being stimulated by the persecutions of Saul the Jew; it closes with the Church reaching all the way to prompts for creative, Rome because of the imprisonment of Paul the the athesist Christian. A riot at Ephesus over the adverse impact Paul’s gospel was having on idolatry (19:22-41) provides the photo for creative catalyst for Paul to a separate peace jealousy, move on. But before he could go to Rome, the capital of the photo for creative writing Gentile world, he felt it necessary to go to Jerusalem, the capital of the Jewish world. Surely this was in keeping with his own missionary principle, “To the Jew first, and then to the Greek.”
The journey to Jerusalem (20:1–21:16) involves a circuitous route in which Paul comforted his converts along the way. He went through Macedonia and Greece (20:1-6) and university came to Troas, where he raised Eutychus from the dead (20:7-12; cf. 9:36-43). From there he sailed for Miletus and met the photo Ephesian elders for the last time (20:13-38). From Miletus Paul traveled to Tyre (21:1-6) and then to Caesarea (21:7-14). At Caesarea Agabus predicted that Paul would be imprisoned if he went on to Jerusalem (21:10-14). Agabus’ prophecy came true.
When Paul arrived in Jerusalem he was arrested in the temple on trumped up charges of the athesist, violating the temple by bringing in a Gentile (21:27-36). The recounting of his conversion (22:1-21) only angered the Jewish crowd more (22:22), which prompted him to seek protection on the basis of prompts writing, his Roman citizenship (22:23-29). The Athesist! There follows a series of trials, all properly documented to reveal Paul’s innocence. First, Paul was brought before the photo for creative writing Sanhedrin (22:30–23:10) who almost broke out in sample papers, a riot themselves (22:30–23:10). A Jewish plot to kill him (23:12-22) led to writing, more protection by the Romans (23:23-30) as they escorted him to essay diction, Caesarea to be tried before the Roman governor, Felix. Paul was then successively tried before Felix (24:1-26), Festus (24:27–25:12) and Agrippa II (25:23–26:32) over a period of two years.
Ironically, he would have been found innocent but because he had appealed to Caesar (26:22-23), he would have to go to Rome (26:30-32). Most likely, Paul made such an appeal because he believed he would get fairer treatment from the Roman government than from his fellow countrymen. Throughout Acts, in fact, Luke seems to embrace the same position. The voyage to Rome (27:1–28:10) commences with a shipwreck (27:1-44) in which Paul is seen both as survivor and prompts savior. Essay Diction! The pagans of the day believed that those who survived shipwrecks must be innocent. 68 Whether or not Theophilus held to this superstition, it could certainly come in photo prompts, handy in the trial.
The book of Acts then concludes with Paul meeting his final destination, Rome (28:11-31). Once there, although in chains, he first proclaims Christ to the Jews (28:16-24), then to the Gentiles (28:25-28). Book Seven ends with Paul imprisoned for two years (28:30), though “Boldly and without hindrance he preached the kingdom of God and taught about the Lord Jesus Christ” (28:31). That the outcome of the trial is not mentioned is no accident: it had not happened yet. But like Peter’s angel in for application, chapter 12, Luke wants Theophilus to do what he can to get Paul out of prison that the gospel might continue to spread.
After all, the Gentiles “will listen” (28:28). Thus in a masterful series of Seven Books, Luke has not only photo for creative writing, shown how the Church grew from its humble beginnings, but he has also vindicated both Paul’s apostleship and comparison parenting his innocence. His literary labors to get Paul free were successful: the apostle to the Gentiles was released; he ministered for three more years and wrote three more epistles before his beheading by Nero in the summer of 64 CE. I. Book One: The Birth of the Church in photo prompts, Jerusalem (1:1–2:47) B. Anticipation: From Resurrection to Pentecost (1:3-26) 1. From Resurrection to university of georgia for application, ascension: Christ’s Forty Day Ministry (1:3-11) a. The Apostles’ Commission (1:3-8) b. The Ascension (1:9-11) 2. From Ascension to for creative writing, Pentecost: The Apostles’ Ten Day Wait (1:12-26) a. Praying in the Upper Room (1:12-14) b. Selecting a Replacement for Judas (1:15-26) C. Realization: The Day of the athesist, Pentecost (2:1-41) 1. The Descent of the Spirit (2:1-13) a. The Response of the Apostles: Speaking in Tongues (2:1-4) b. The Reaction of the Crowd (2:5-13)
2. Photo Prompts For Creative! The Proclamation of Peter (2:14-39) a. Introduction: Fulfillment of Prophecy (2:14-21) b. Of General! Body: Jesus Is the Messiah (2:22-39) 1) Proof: Miracles (2:22-32) a) During His Life (2:22) b) After His Death: Resurrection (2:23-32) 2) Promise: Holy Spirit (2:33-39) 3. The Response of the Crowd (2:40-41) D. For Creative Writing! Conclusion of university for application, Book One (2:42-47) II.
Book Two: The Expansion of the Church in Jerusalem (3:1–6:7) A. A Healing by Peter and Its Consequences (3:1–4:31) 1. The Healing of a Man Crippled from Birth (3:1-8) 2. The Response of the photo prompts Crowd (3:9-10) 3. The Message of Peter (3:11-26)
4. The Arrest of Peter and university John (4:1-4) 5. Peter and John before the Sanhedrin (4:5-22) a. Peter’s Defense (4:5-12) b. The Debate in the Sanhedrin (4:13-17) c. The Release of Peter and John (4:18-22) 6. The Thanksgiving of the Saints (4:23-31) B. Community and Discipline (4:32–5:11) 1. Photo Writing! The Sharing of All Possessions (4:32-37)
2. The Deception of Ananias and Sapphira (5:1-11) C. Healings by the Apostles and their Consequences (5:12-42) 1. Healings of the Apostles, Responses of the Crowds (5:12-16) 2. The Arrest and Escape (5:17-24) 3. The Apostles before the Sanhedrin (5:25-40) a. The Sanhedrin’s Rebuke (5:25-28) b. The Apostles’ Defense (5:29-32) c. The Debate in the Sanhedrin (5:33-39) d. The Release of the Apostles (5:40) 4. The Rejoicing of the Apostles (5:41-42) D. Community: Distribution and Administration (6:1-6) E. Conclusion of Book Two (6:7) III. Book Three: The Extension of the Church to Judea and Samaria (6:8–9:31)
A. Stephen’s Martyrdom (6:8–8:1a) 1. His Arrest (6:8-15) 2. His Defense (7:1-53) a. The High Priest’s Question (7:1) b. Stephen’s Response (7:2-53) 1) The Patriarchal Age (7:2-8) 2) The Nation in Egypt (7:9-19)
3) The Rejection of a separate peace essay jealousy, Moses by the Nation (7:20-39) a) Moses’ Early Years (7:20-29) b) Moses’ Call by God (7:30-34) c) The Nation’s Rejection in the Wilderness (7:35-39) 4) The Rejection of the Nation by God (7:40-43) 5) The Tabernacle and the Temple (7:44-50) 6) The Rejection of Christ by the Nation (7:51-53) 3. His Death (7:54–8:1a) B. Philip’s Ministry (8:1b-40) 1. Setting: the Persecution by Saul (8:1b-3)
2. Philip in Samaria (8:4-25) a. Photo For Creative Writing! The Activities of sample papers, Philip (8:4-8) b. The Response of Simon (8:9-13) c. The Coming of photo for creative, Peter and John (8:14-25) 1) The Reception of the Spirit by university of georgia essays for application the Crowd (8:14-17) 2) The Wickedness of for creative, Simon the Sorcerer Revealed (8:18-24) 3) The Return of the the athesist Apostles to Jerusalem (8:25) 3. Philip and photo for creative the Ethiopian on the Road to Gaza (8:26-39) 4. Philip on the Coast of Palestine (8:40) C. Saul’s Conversion (9:1-30) 1. Of Georgia For Application! Setting: On the photo prompts for creative Road to Damascus (9:1-2) 2. The Conversion of Saul on the Road (9:1-9) 3. The Coming of Ananias in Damascus (9:10-19) 4. The Confrontations with the Jews in types essay, Damascus (9:20-25)
5. The Coming of Saul to writing, Jerusalem (9:26-30) D. Conclusion of Book Three (9:31) IV. Book Four: The Extension of the Church to Antioch (9:32–12:24) A. Comparison Contrast Parenting! The Preparation of Peter for the Gentile Mission (9:32–10:48) 1. Peter in photo prompts for creative writing, Western Judea: With Aeneas and Dorcas (9:32-43) a. In Lydda: The Healing of the athesist, Aeneas (9:32-35) b. In Joppa: The Raising of Dorcas (9:36-43) 2. Peter in Caesarea: With Cornelius (10:1-48) a. Cornelius’ Vision: Send for Peter (10:1-7) b. Peter’s Vision: Receive the Gentiles (10:8-23a) c. Peter at photo Cornelius’ House (10:23b-48)
1) Setting (10:23b-27) 2) Recounting of Peter’s Vision (10:28-29a) 3) Recounting of Cornelius’ Vision (10:29b-33) 4) Peter’s Message (10:34-43) 5) The Gentiles’ Response (10:44-48) a) Gift of the Spirit (10:44-46) b) Water Baptism (10:47-48a) c) Fellowship (10:48b) B. The Preparation of the Leaders of the Jerusalem Church for the Gentile Mission (11:1-18) 1. The Accusation of the Jewish Believers (11:1-3) 2. The Explanation of Peter (11:4-17) a. Essay! Recounting of Peter’s Vision in photo prompts for creative, Joppa (11:4-10) b. The Athesist! Recounting of Peter’s Visit to Cornelius in Caesarea (11:11-16) c. Prompts For Creative! Recognition of the Legitimacy of the Gentile Mission by Peter (11:17) d. Response of the Jewish Believers (11:18) C. The Preparation of the Church at Antioch for a separate essay jealousy the Gentile Mission (11:19-30) 1. The Birth of the Church in Antioch (11:19-21) 2. The Response of Jerusalem to Antioch: The Sending of Barnabas (11:22-24)
3. Barnabas and Saul at Antioch (11:25-26) 4. The Response of Antioch to Jerusalem: The Sending of Barnabas and Saul (11:27-30) a. Photo Prompts! The prophecy of Agabus: Worldwide Famine (11:27-28) b. The Poverty of the Judean Churches: A Collection Taken (11:29-30) D. Herod’s Persecution of the Church at Jerusalem (12:1-23) 1. The Martyrdom of James by Herod (12:1-2) 2. The Arrest of Peter by Herod (12:3-19) a. The Arrest and of general Imprisonment (12:3-5) b. The Angel and Escape (12:6-11) c. The Response of the prompts Church (12:12-16) d. The Withdrawal of Peter (12:17) e. The Reaction of Herod (12:18-19) 3. The Death of Herod (12:20-23) E. Conclusion of Book Four (12:24)
V. Book Five: The Extension of the Church to Asia Minor (12:25–16:5) A. The Commission of Barnabas and Saul at Antioch (12:25–13:3) [Paul’s First Missionary Journey (13:4–14:28)] B. The Mission of Barnabas and Paul In Asia Minor (13:4–14:28) a. From Antioch to Seleucia to Cyprus (13:4) b. On the Island of Cyprus (13:5-12) 1) At the Synagogue in Salamis (13:5) 2) At Paphos: Confrontation with Bar-Jesus the Sorcerer (13:6-12) 2. Pisidian Antioch (13:13-52) a. From Paphos to Perga in Pamphylia: John Mark’s Departure (13:13) b. From Perga to Pisidian Antioch (13:14a) c. In Pisidian Antioch (13:14b-52) 1) Paul’s Message on the Sabbath (13:14b-41) a) Setting (13:14b-15) b) Introduction (13:16) 1] Preparation for Christ in the OT (13:17-22) 2] Proclamation of Christ to the Hearers (13:23-37) d) Application (13:38-41) 2) Initial Jewish Response to Paul’s Message (13:42-43) 3) Later Gentile Response and Jewish Opposition to Paul’s Gospel (13:44-50)
3. The Athesist! South Galatia: Iconium, Lystra, Derbe (13:51–14:21a) a. In Iconium: Jewish and Gentile Response (13:51–14:5) b. In Lystra and Derbe (14:6-21a) 1) From Iconium to for creative writing, Lystra and Derbe (14:6-7) 2) A Healing in Lystra (14:6-18) a) The Healing of a Man Crippled from Birth (14:8-10) b) The Response of the Crowd (14:11-14) c) The Message of Paul and Barnabas (14:15-18) d) The Stoning of Paul (14:19) 3) Escape to Derbe (14:20-21a) 4. A Separate Jealousy! Return to Antioch (14:21b-28) C. The Council at Jerusalem Concerning the Gentile Mission (15:1-35) 1. The Occasion: Judaizers in Antioch (15:1-5) 2. The Meeting of the Apostles and for creative writing Elders at Jerusalem (15:6-21) a. The Setting (15:6-7a) b. Peter’s Message (15:7b-11) c. Barnabas’ and Paul’s Testimony (15:12) d. James’ Concluding Thoughts (15:13-21) 3. The Council’s Letter to Gentile Believers (15:22-35) a. The Selection of Barnabas and Paul as Letter-Bearers (15:22) b. The Contents of the Letter (15:23-29) c. The Response in Antioch (15:30-35)
D. The Athesist! The Confirmation of the photo prompts for creative writing Churches in Asia Minor (15:36–16:4) [Paul’s Second Missionary Journey [15:36–18:22] 1. The Dispute between Paul and Barnabas over John Mark (15:36-41) a. Essay Two Approaches Parenting! The Desire to Return (15:36) b. Prompts! The Discussion over John Mark (15:37-39a) c. Barnabas and Mark Depart for Cyprus (15:39b) d. The Athesist! Paul and Silas Depart for Tarsus (15:40-41) 2. Writing! In South Galatia (Derbe, Lystra): Timothy Joins Paul and Silas (16:1-4) E. Conclusion of essay diction, Book Five (16:5) VI. Book Six: The Extension of the Church to the Aegean Area (16:6–19:20) A. Philippi (16:6-40) 1. Throughout the Phrygian-Galatian Region (16:6) 2. To Troas in Mysia (16:7-8a) 3. Paul’s Vision: Come to Macedonia (16:8b-10) 4. Troas to Samothrace to Neapolis to Philippi (16:11)
5. In Philippi (16:12-40) a. The Conversion of Lydia (16:12-15) b. Prompts For Creative Writing! The Exorcism of a Slave Girl (16:16-18) c. Essays! The Conversion of a Philippian Jailer (16:19-34) 1) Paul and Silas Arrested (16:19-24) 2) An Earthquake: Shackles Released (16:25-28) 3) The Response of the for creative Jailer (16:29-34) d. The Release of Paul and Silas (16:35-40) B. Thessalonica (17:1-9) 1. Through Amphipolis and Apollonia (17:1a)
2. In Thessalonica (17:1b-9) a. Paul’s Proclamation in the Synagogue (17:1b-3) b. The Conversion of Some Jews and Greeks (17:4) c. The Hostility of other Jews (17:5-9) D. Athens (17:15-34) 1. Discussion in sample papers, the Agora (17:15-18) 2. Dispute on the Areopagus (17:19-34) a. Paul’s Message (17:19-31) b. The Athenians’ Reaction (17:32-34) E. Photo Writing! Corinth (18:1-18a) 1. With Aquila and Priscilla: Tentmaking and Preaching (18:1-4) 2. With Silas and Timothy: Eighteen Months of university of georgia, Ministry (18:5-11) 3. Photo Writing! Before Gallio (18:12-18a) F. Types Essay! Return to Antioch (18:18b-22) 1. From Cenchrea to Ephesus to Caesarea (18:18b-22a) 2. Photo Prompts For Creative Writing! Arrival in university of georgia, Antioch (18:22b)
G. Photo Prompts! Ephesus (18:23–19:19) [Paul’s Third Missionary Journey (18:23–21:16)] 1. Of General! Return to the Galatian-Phrygian Region (18:23) 2. Prompts! Apollos in Ephesus: Forerunner to Paul (18:24-28) a. Apollos’ Arrival in Ephesus (18:24) b. Apollos’ Instruction by Aquila and Priscilla (18:25-26) c. Apollos’ Departure for Corinth (18:27-28) 3. In Ephesus (19:1-19) a. A Separate Peace Jealousy! With Twelve Disciples of John (19:1-7) b. In the Synagogue of the Jews (19:8-9a) c. In the Lecture Hall of Tyrannus (19:9b-10) d. Prompts! In Conflict with the Occult (19:11-19) H. Conclusion of Book Six (19:20) VII. A Separate Peace Jealousy! Book Seven: The Extension of the Church to Rome (19:21–28:31)
A. The Plan Announced (19:21-22) B. The Riot in Ephesus (19:22-41) 1. The Accusations by the Silversmiths (19:22-27) 2. The Demonstration in the Theater (19:28-34) 3. The Quieting of the Mob by the Town Clerk (19:35-41) C. Photo! The Journey to a separate essay jealousy, Jerusalem (20:1–21:16) 1. Through Macedonia and Greece (20:1-6)
2. In Troas: The Raising of Eutychus (20:7-12) 3. From Troas to Miletus (20:13-17) 4. In Miletus: Farewell Message to the Ephesian Elders (20:18-38) a. Paul’s Message (20:18-35) b. The Elders’ Response (20:36-38) 5. Photo Prompts For Creative Writing! From Miletus to Tyre (21:1-6) 6. From Tyre to Caesarea (21:7-14) a. Staying with Philip (21:7-9) b. The Prediction of Agabus (21:10-14) 7. Essay! Arrival at Jerusalem (21:15-16) D. Paul In Jerusalem (21:17–23:30) 1. The Meeting with James and the Elders (21:17-26) 2. The Arrest of Paul in the Temple (21:27-36) 3. The Address of Paul to the Crowd (21:37–22:21) a. The Request to Speak (21:37-40) b. Recounting His Conversion (22:1-11) c. Recounting His Call (22:12-21) 4. The Disclosure of Paul’s Roman Citizenship (22:22-29)
5. Writing! Paul before the Sanhedrin (22:30–23:10) a. Confrontation with the High Priest (22:30–23:5) b. Dispute over the Resurrection (23:6-10) 6. Types Essay! Night Vision of the Lord (23:11) 7. Writing! The Plot to Kill Paul (23:12-22) a. The Plot by the Jews (23:12-15) b. The Revelation to the Romans (23:16-22) 8. The Protection of the Romans (23:23-30) a. Protection provided (23:23-24) b. Cover-Letter Written (23:25-30) E. Paul in Caesarea (23:31–26:32) 1. A Roman Escort to Caesarea (23:31-35)
2. The Trial before Felix (24:1-26) a. Accusations of the Jews (24:1-9) b. Defense of Paul (24:10-21) c. Adjournment by Felix (24:22-23) d. Intermittent Interviews by Felix (24:24-26) 3. The Trial before Festus (24:27–25:12) a. Essay! Felix Replaced by Festus (24:27) b. Photo For Creative! Arrival of Festus in Jerusalem (25:1-5) c. Paul before Festus: Appeal to Caesar (25:6-12) 4. Consultation of Festus with Agrippa II (25:13-22) 5. Paul before Agrippa (25:23–26:32) a. The Briefing by Festus (25:23-27) b. The Defense by the athesist Paul (26:1-23) 1) Introduction (26:1-3) 2) The Jewish Hope of Resurrection (26:4-8) 3) Paul’s Persecution of Christians (26:9-11) 4) Paul’s Conversion (26:12-18) 5) Paul’s Commission to the Gentiles (26:19-20) 6) Paul’s Arrest in Jerusalem (26:21) 7) Concluding Appeal (26:22-23) c. Interchange between Festus, Paul and Agrippa (26:24-29) d. Paul’s Innocence and the Irony of his Appeal to Caesar (26:30-32)
F. The Voyage to Rome (27:1–28:10) 1. The Shipwreck (27:1-44) a. Setting (27:1-12) 1) From Caesarea to Myra (27:1-5) 2) From Myra to photo for creative, Fair Havens in Crete (27:6-8) b. Warnings of Imminent Shipwreck (27:9-26) 1) The Season: After the Day of Atonement (27:9a) 2) Paul’s Warning (27:9b-12) 3) The Storm (27:13-20) 4) Paul’s Vision (27:21-26) c. Sample Papers! The Shipwreck on Malta (27:27-44) 1) A Foiled Escape by the Sailors (27:27-32) 2) A Last Meal on Board (27:33-38)
3) The Ship Runs Aground (27:39-41) 4) All Safe Ashore (27:42-44) 2. On Malta (28:1-10) a. Paul’s Snake Bite (28:1-6) b. Paul’s Miracles (28:7-10) G. Paul In Rome (28:11-31) 1. Arrival at Rome (28:11-16) 2. Paul’s Proclamation to the Jews (28:16-24) 3. Paul’s Proclamation to the Gentiles (28:25-28) H. Conclusion of writing, Book Seven (28:30-31) 1 In particular, Apollonius’ Canon and its corollary suggest that (1) in Greek, normally both the nomen regens and the nomen rectum either have the article or lack it; and (2) when both lack it, the sense is still usually definite for essay jealousy both (hence, “ The Acts of the Apostles”).
2 Guthrie, 114. For more arguments on prompts writing Lukan authorship based on the athesist external evidence, cf. our discussion of Luke. 3 G. B. Caird, Saint Luke , 16-17. 4 Cf. the for creative writing various studies by Hort, Metzger, Aland, Snodgrass, Holmes, and two approaches parenting especially Thomas Geer. 5 So B. M. Metzger, personal conversation (March 1989); cf. also his The Canon of the New Testament and The Text of the New Testament . 6 Although ancillary to this paper, this conclusion also helps to establish the photo writing Western text as very early—going back deep into the second century ( contra Aland-Aland, Text of the New Testament ). 7 See Guthrie for an expanded treatment, 115-19. This section is merely a distillation of Guthrie’s arguments.
8 For an additional piece of (external) evidence for common authorship, cf. the last paragraph in our discussion of external evidence. 10 C. Contrast Essay Parenting! H. Talbert, Literary Patterns, Theological Themes and the Genre of for creative, Luke-Acts , 17. Talbert notices, for a separate example, that both Jesus and Paul are well received by the populace; they both enter the temple in a friendly manner; the prompts for creative writing Sadducees do not believe in the resurrection, but the essay diction scribes support Jesus/Paul; they both “take bread, and after giving thanks, break it”; a mob seizes Jesus/Paul; Jesus/Paul is photo writing, slapped by the priest’s assistant; each undergoes four trials. 11 Ibid., 23. Although we would affirm this statement of Talbert, there is one caveat : Talbert goes on to suggest that Luke created much of his material, while we would argue instead that he selected and arranged it. The purpose for this will be seen when we look at essays for application Acts, but suffice it to say here that it would certainly create in Theophilus a sympathy for Paul. 12 This can be further seen in prompts writing, that the contrast gospel itself displays an prompts writing, incredible internal structure, as does Acts. Thus the types of general supposition that two different authors wrote these books means that the mimic is prompts writing, even more brilliant than the original author! 15 This is doubtful, however, since only in c. A Separate Peace! 60 would Luke have met Mark, if Mark had been in Rome since the mid-50s. Nevertheless, upon meeting him after having employed his gospel to write his own, Luke would have certainly become his friend. Luke’s favorable attitude toward Mark—not just personally but as a reliable source on the life of Jesus—might be implied in his calling Mark an photo for creative writing, “assistant” ( ???????? ) in Acts 13:5. “Luke’s term frequently designates a man who handles documents and delivers their content to men . . Contrast! .” (Lane, Mark , 22).
Lane goes on to mention Acts 26:16 where Paul is appointed as a ???????? and witness to the truth, and Luke 1:1-2 where “the evangelist links the servants [ ???????? ] of the word with those who were the eyewitnesses and guarantors of apostolic tradition.” The connection of ???????? with both Mark and Luke’s sources suggests that Mark’s Gospel may well have been one of those sources which Luke used to prompts, compile his gospel—and one which he himself deeply appreciated. 16 Style and Literary Method of Luke. 17 It has been frequently quipped that Cadbury earned his doctorate by taking away Luke’s! 20 There is another subtle indicator of Luke’s race. In Acts 16, after the beginning of the first “we” section (16:11-17), Luke mentions that he was with Paul in Philippi up to the athesist, the time that Paul cast out the evil spirit from the servant girl (v. 17—“she followed Paul and prompts us”). Then, in 16:19, the person changes from first to types of general, third (“her owners . . For Creative Writing! . seized Paul and Silas”). In vv.
20-21, the reason why Paul and Silas were singled out becomes clear: “These men are Jews and they are disturbing the city. They advocate customs which it is not lawful for us Romans to accept or practice.” On the assumption that the “we” sections should be taken at face value, and that Luke was a Gentile, the fact that Luke was not seized makes perfect sense—for the point of vv. 20-21 has its sting in the fact that Paul and Silas are Jews . (What may further confirm this is comparison contrast two approaches parenting, that Timothy is not mentioned here [though he might not have been with the missionaries in Philippi] And Timothy was a half-Jew.) In the least, if one wants to deny that Luke was a Gentile, he must explain why the photo prompts first person plural is used in sample papers, 16:17, but is immediately switched to third person when the Philippians make their accusation against the missionaries on the basis of their race. 21 Guthrie mistakenly says that Luke was possibly from Philippi, supposing that the ‘we’ sections start there (118-19). 22 However, more than one church father thought that Luke came from Antioch. Even codex D suggests this, for it begins the ‘we’ material at prompts writing Acts 11:28! 23 We will deal with this issue in our introduction to Galatians. 24 We will deal with this issue in our introduction to 1 Thessalonians.
25 The customary approach in critical circles when faced with such discrepancies is to the athesist, give the benefit of the doubt to Paul, since his material is autobiographical. No doubt this is partially legitimate, though one ought not discount the fact that Luke is selective in his portraiture of Paul—and, in fact, that Paul is photo prompts for creative writing, selective in what he wants to say, too! If they make different selections, this does not prove either one at fault necessarily. 27 One thinks in particular of Luke 2:19 (“Mary kept all these things in her heart”), in essay, which Luke probably used the mother of Jesus as his source for the early life of the Messiah. (This is not only prompts, suggested by Luke 2:19, but it is corroborated by the highly Semitic Greek of these first two chapters, which disappears once Luke gets to chapter 3.) 28 This also is a historical problem, as we saw earlier, though it is essay diction, sufficiently difficult to warrant a discussion here. 29 There is photo, another discrepancy (or silence) between Paul and Luke-Acts that has been bantered about at SBL meetings in sample papers, recent years: the lack of a substitutionary atonement in Luke-Acts (note in particular Luke’s omitting of Mark 10:45), while Paul is photo, quite strong on this point. It may be that either this was not the key to types, Christ’s death for Luke, even though he embraced it; or he may have not fully grasped its significance; or he perceived that Theophilus would not appreciate its significance (or even that it was ancillary to the thrust of Luke-Acts). 30 R. Photo Prompts For Creative Writing! N. Longenecker, The Acts of the Apostles , in a separate peace essay jealousy, vol. 9 of The Expositor’s Bible Commentary, 226. Prompts! It should be noted that Longenecker is emphasizing a different perspective (he is dealing with history rather than theology per se , and Paul’s autobiographical statements as opposed to university of georgia essays, Luke’s biographical remarks regarding Paul’s miracles), but his point is still valid for theological concerns as well.
31 Longenecker adds a helpful analogy: “The situation is somewhat comparable to Plutarch’s treatment of the members of the Roman family Gracchus in his Parallel Lives and prompts writing Appian’s depiction of these same leaders in his Civil Wars . While both wrote in the second century A.D., Plutarch was interested in the Gracchi primarily as statesmen whereas Appian was interested in them as generals. So their differing interests drastically affected each writer’s selection and shaping of the material and the athesist the impact of photo for creative writing, each one’s work. Yet there is also a large body of agreement between Plutarch’s and Appian’s treatment of the Gracchi” (226-27). 32 Thucydides I.22:1-4 is the essay diction relevant text (my translation follows): “And concerning whatever each of these men actually said, either when they were about to engage in battle or when they were already in it, the precise accuracy of what was said has proved itself difficult to photo prompts, remember—both for me, of what I myself heard, and regarding those things which were reported to me from other locales. The Athesist! But as it seemed to me that since each of these men had something especially fitting to say concerning the prompts ever-present circumstances, by adhering as closely as possible to the general intent of essay diction, what was truly said, [the speeches] were thus recorded.”
Contrary to the popular conception held by photo prompts for creative many NT scholars, it is evident from this statement that Thucydides did not invent speeches ex nihilo. My reading of this text suggests that speeches really were made, though their precise wording was often too elusive to get down on paper. Sample Papers! Yet, as difficult as it was to record the ipsissima verba , Thucydides did attempt to give the ipsissima vox . 33 Plutarch is another parallel of photo, one who sought to give the ipsissima vox , though not necessarily the sample papers ipsissima verba . Cf. Plutarch’s Lives: Alexander 1.1-3 (my translation follows): “In this book we are writing about the life of Alexander the king and that of Caesar, [the latter] by photo for creative whom Pompey was destroyed. Types Of General! Because of the vast number of acts which are to prompts for creative, be set forth, we will say nothing beforehand other than that we ask the sample papers readers not to criticize [our efforts] if we do not report everything in writing, precise detail of sample papers, their well-known deeds, but abridge most of them. For we are not writing histories but biographies. For Creative Writing! And in the most distinguished deeds [of these men] there is not always evidence of excellence or of evil. But often a small deed or a quip or some pastime has made an impression [on me] of one’s character far more than battles in which tens of the athesist, thousands die, or even than the greatest campaigns or sieges of cities.
Therefore, in the same way that those who paint the prompts writing likenesses of one’s face and of facial features—by which one’s character is revealed—draw their picture reflecting minimally on the remaining parts [of the the athesist body]; so also one must allow us to penetrate the windows of the soul and, through these windows, to portray each life, leaving the highs and lows [of these individuals] to others.” The key statement here is that Plutarch felt it thoroughly appropriate not “to report everything in precise detail . . . but [to] abridge most of them.” 34 See our discussion of some of the linguistic similarities in the introduction to those books. 35 Guthrie writes: “The only photo, Acts speech which bears any analogy to the situation behind the Pauline epistles is Paul’s address to the Ephesian elders at Miletus. And it is significant that this speech approximates most closely to Paul’s epistles in language and thought” (123, n. 5). 36 I have not seen this argument in sample papers, print, though I believe it bears quite a bit of force. It is rather obvious that the photo writing author of Acts had an extremely high view of Paul. If so, and if he had access to Paul’s letters (a supposition that becomes increasingly probable the a separate peace jealousy later this book is dated), why would he seemingly contradict Paul at so many points?
If we are to photo, believe the skeptics, he has contradicted Paul—but he’s also written at least thirty years after Paul’s genuine epistles (the Hauptbriefe ) were published? This is a blatantly self-contradictory supposition. Further, the parenting argument that some suggest, viz., that Acts was written to reinstate Paul’s letters among the churches, suffers from the photo for creative writing same self-destructive inconsistency—except that here an explicit knowledge of Paul’s letters is assumed! 37 It is certainly doubtful that he became a physician afterwards ! 38 This is not nearly as weighty an argument as the converse, viz., that Matthew should be dated near to the time of Luke. University Essays! Some circularity is photo prompts writing, surely involved if neither gospel has better arguments in favor of an early date than this! In our view, however, the internal evidence within Acts becomes the single most important factor in the dating of the synoptic gospels. And since Acts is directly related to Luke, the argument of Luke’s date derived from when Matthew was written carries less weight (though still, some weight should be given to the difficulty of placing Matthew’s Gospel after 70 in light of the special problems involved in his Olivet Discourse). 42 See our discussion of the authorship of 2 Peter for data.
44 There may be some merit to the suggestion, however. Luke might have intended ?????? to indicate a third volume—rhetorically, not literally. Essay! For the photo details of this proposal, see our discussion of purpose/occasion. 47 As quoted by types of general Robinson, 89-90. 48 The codex form was not invented until the middle of the first century. Thus although it is possible that Luke employed it, it is extremely doubtful—especially since his prologue to Acts mentions “the first book” in photo for creative writing, conscious imitation of ancient historians who wrote their multi-volume works on scrolls. Further, although almost all of the extant NT MSS are in codex form (all but three), the earliest is c. 100-150 (P 52 ), giving no help to first century practices. Finally, the vast bulk of extant second century (secular) writings is in scroll form, indicating that even though the codex might have been invented in the first century, it really did not “catch on” until the essay two approaches second or third. (Incidentally, the great probability that Mark was written on a scroll nullifies any notion that the end of his gospel was somehow lost. Photo Writing! He meant to end it at 16:8.) 49 The Gospel ends with the ascension and the Acts virtually begins with it.
50 In fact, there is really no substantial reason to deny that Luke and Acts might have been sent to Theophilus at exactly the same time. That there is some transition between Luke and Acts (the repetition of the types of general essay ascension) would be only natural if Luke expected the work to be copied onto two scrolls; but this repetition does not need to prompts for creative writing, suggest any gap in date any more than a modern author’s initial paragraph at the beginning of , say, chapter four summarizing the conclusion of chapter three implies any interval. 51 Cf. its use in Acts 23:26; 24:3; and 26:25 of the Roman governors Felix and Festus. 52 In particular, the exoneration at a separate peace almost every turn of the Romans and photo for creative the heavy blame on the Jews throughout both works, coupled with a quite universal outlook (culminating in the legitimacy of the Gentile mission of Paul—especially after repeated attempts to bring the gospel in university, each town first to the Jews), render this judgment certain. 53 Cf. the helpful discussion in Caird, Luke , 44. 54 Although Theophilus could mean “loved by God,” since the NT nowhere speaks of God having ????? , ????? toward unbelievers, to call this man “loved by God” probably implies that he was a believer. On the other hand, if Theophilus means “one who loves God” then this, too, suggests that he is a believer. Prompts! That Luke plays on names in his second volume (cf. Talbert’s work, and classnotes of student in Zane Hodges’ “Acts” [Dallas Seminary, 1978]) suggests that the name here is symbolic, too. 55 The issue is quite complicated and sample papers cannot be divorced from a carefully nuanced view of the photo prompts for creative writing multiple purposes of both Luke and Acts. One of the issues which seems to sample papers, have been neglected is the amount of photo prompts for creative writing, time Luke spends on Peter in Acts, and then parallels this with events in the life of Paul.
It is as if Luke is trying to university, show that Paul is as much an apostle as is Peter. If so, then this presupposes that Theophilus had already embraced a Petrine form of Christianity . We will discuss this in our look at photo the purpose of Acts, but suffice it to essay diction, say here that Theophilus is in all probability a believer, though he had had doubts about prompts for creative writing, Paul. 57 See Longenecker’s treatment for an expanded list of a separate essay jealousy, options. 58 Again, this does not deny a more long-range perspective on the part of Luke which included a more general apologetic as well as a historical aim. Photo Prompts! Our contention, however, that the catalyst for the writing of of georgia essays, Acts was the upcoming trial of Paul. 59 See especially A. N. Sherwin-White, Roman Society and Roman Law in the New Testament , 108-19.
61 C. H. Talbert, Literary Patterns, Theological Themes and the Genre of Luke-Acts . 62 Guthrie, 373. Guthrie cites D. Ladouceur, “Hellenistic Preconceptions of Shipwreck and Pollution as a Context for Acts 27–28,” HTR 73 (1980) 435-49; and G. B. Miles and G. Trompf, “Luke and Antiphon: The Theology of photo writing, Acts 27–28 in the Light of Pagan Beliefs about Divine Retribution, Pollution and Shipwreck,” HTR 69 (1976) 259-67. 63 For the best treatment on this subject, cf. C. Essays! H. Talbert, Literary Patterns, Theological Themes and the Genre of Luke-Acts , 15-23. 64 It seems to be Luke’s intention to draw out the parallel.
At the conclusion of photo for creative writing, each message, the author tells us that “they were cut to the heart” (2:37; 7:54, though a different verb is used each time). The point seems to be that the reason for Stephen’s death lay not with him, but with his audience which responded incorrectly. 65 His appearance in Acts 15 is for the purpose of sanctioning the Gentile mission. He is not there functioning as a “witness.” 66 That this reading of Acts is derived from the author’s intention can be seen by his establishment of this very motif in Acts 10–11: since the Gentiles had experienced the same thing as the Jewish believers, their faith must be just as genuine.
In fact, it is probable that the Cornelius incident, since Peter was involved both times (the event and its retelling), is Luke’s way of setting up Theophilus for accepting the legitimacy of Paul and his mission. 67 See introduction for a more detailed discussion of our views. 68 See our introduction (under “Purpose”) for discussion and bibliography. 69 There are several different ways to outline Acts, all of sample papers, which yield satisfactory results: (1) personally: centered on the two main apostles, Peter and Paul; (2) geographically: from Jerusalem, to Judea, to photo for creative, Samaria, to essay diction, the ends of the earth; (3) progressively: centering on Luke’s seven “progress reports.” Each one of these is legitimate and, as we have suggested for other NT books, Luke’s organizational scheme is more multiple-concentric than straight-linear. Prompts Writing! That is to say, Luke is essays for application, developing three distinct motifs all at once: the role of Peter and Paul (thus, two main sections can be detected), the expansion of Christianity according to the outline seen in Acts 1:8, and progression at certain climactic moments. The ideal way to outline this book—as with so much of ancient literature—would be to draw three overlapping circles, each of which expands concentrically as the prompts book unfolds. Any straight-linear outline (such as the one used here) cannot adequately handle all of the motifs.
70 The outline from this point on the athesist will be geographical, focusing on Paul’s missionary journeys. At times it will be quite pedantic (with even a sub-point repeating the same content as a main point). But this should highlight the major places Paul visited, as well as show the route he took to get there.
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Finland Essay Research Paper Finland by Chris. Author: Justin Biber. Finland Essay, Research Paper. Chris Stott World Geography. Your assignment: Pick one country in Eastern Europe. Give a brief history of the country before and photo for creative writing after the break up of the Soviet Union. Sample Papers. As you explore your country, consider the following:
What were the major political and economic forces at writing work when the Soviet Union wielded power in the region, and how have those forces played out over the last 10 years? I have chosen to write about Finland for my trip. As you can see Finland is located at the far north of this map and it shares boarders with Russia, Sweden and Norway. Finland’s traces of human settlement date back to the thaw of the last Ice Age some 10,000 years ago. The Finns’ ancestors seem to have dominated half of northern Russia before arriving on essay diction, the north of the photo prompts for creative, Baltic coast well before the Christian era. By the end of the Viking Age, Swedish traders and chieftains had extended their interests throughout the Baltic region. Peace Essay Jealousy. Over the centuries, Finland has sat precariously between the Protestant Swedish empire and Eastern Orthodox Russia. For seven centuries, from the 12th century until 1809, it was part of Sweden.
Finland was blighted by constant battles with Russia, and severe famines. Prompts For Creative Writing. From 1696-97, famine killed a third of all Finns. What are the a separate peace jealousy, ethnic, religious and cultural issues in that country, and how have they changed or been effected over time? Tove Jansson, the prompts, author of the Moominland stories, probably has the highest international profile among contemporary Finns, although you cannot escape the design work of Alvar Aalto in public buildings, towns and furniture. Jean Sibelius, one of the greatest of modern composers, wrote recognisably Finnish pieces for the glorification of his people and in defiance of the university of georgia essays, Russian oppressors. Sibelius and the nationalistic painter Akseli Gall?n-Kallela fell under the spell of photo for creative, Karelianism, a movement going back to the folk songs Elias L?nnrot compiled for the national epic, the Kalevala in the 1830s. The Kalevala is an essay diction epic mythology that includes creation stories and the fight between good and evil. Aleksis Kivi founded modern Finnish literature with Seven Brothers, a story of brothers who try to escape education and photo for creative writing civilisation in favour of the forest. Finnish is a Uralic language and belongs to the Finno-Ugric group.
It is closely related to Estonian and Karelian, and has common origins with Samoyed and the languages spoken in the Volga basin. The most widely spoken of the Finno-Ugric languages is Hungarian, but similarities with Finnish are few. With 6% of the population speaking Swedish, Finland is officially a bilingual country. Finlandssvenska, or ‘Finland’s Swedish’, is very similar to the language spoken in Sweden, but local dialects have many Finnish words. As a travel writer, what would you recommend other Young Spiffy Americans Abroad see and do in this country? What precautions should they take when traveling? Visas: Most western nationals, including Americans, citizens of EU countries, Australians, Canadians, New Zealanders, Malaysians, Singaporeans and most South Americans do not need a visa. Health risks: Slippery pavements. If you’re mushroom picking, make sure you know what you’re eating.
Time: GMT/UTC plus two hours. Electricity: 220V, 50Hz. Weights #038; measures: Metric. Tourism: 2.5 million visitors per year. Currency: markka (mk), euro. ? Top-end: US$22 and upwards. ? Top-end: US$90 and upwards. Finland was declared the world’s most expensive country in 1990, right before it was hit by recession. Since then the markka has been reasonably low and prices are much more bearable.
If you’re travelling on a tight budget you should be able to get by on around $25 a day. This would cover hostel accommodation, self-catering and sample papers no alcohol or bottled drinks. If you want to prompts for creative have a slightly more user-friendly holiday, a budget of around $50 a day should do it, and for a few more luxuries, such as your own bathroom, taxis and a restaurant meal or two a day, you’ll need about US$100 a day. Finland’s three national banks have offices all over a separate peace, the country, but they will charge you slightly more for exchanges than private exchange bureaux. Travellers cheques are expensive to change. Many Finnish ATMs will accept foreign cards on the Visa or Plus system, but if they don’t take your plastic rest assured that credit cards are accepted all over the country. Tipping is generally not necessary anywhere.
Service charge is usually included in restaurants’ listed price. Prompts Writing. Bargaining will get you nowhere in most shops, but could come in handy if you’re after trekking equipment or used bikes, when you might get a 10% discount if you ask nicely. Things to Do in Finland? Whatever time of year you visit Finland, there’s something happening. Most museums and galleries are open year-round, and there is a separate essay jealousy, as much to do in the depths of winter as there is at the height of prompts writing, summer. Nevertheless, you’ll probably have a better time if you come in the warmer months, either in summer or anytime from May to September. As well as the advantages of warm weather, summer is the time of the university of georgia essays for application, midnight sun. Winter north of the Arctic Circle is a chilly confluence of strange bluish light and prompts writing encroaching melancholy. Despite snow falls from November, it stays pretty sludgy until late winter: skiing isn’t great until February, the sample papers, coldest month, and you can ski in Lapland right through to June.
Midsummer’s Day (Juhannus) is the most important annual event for Finns. People leave cities and towns for prompts, summer cottages to celebrate the longest day of the year. Bonfires are lit and essay diction lakeside merrymakers swim and row boats. Enthusiastic alcohol consumption is also a feature of midsummer partying. The Pori Jazz Festival in July is prompts for creative, one of the country’s most popular festivals, but the Savonlinna Opera Festival, held at medieval Olavinnlinna Castle, is the most famous. Some of the best (and the most international) festivals are the sample papers, most remote: check out chamber music in Kuhmo, or folk music in Kaustinen (near Kokkola). For rock, there are big festivals during the photo, Midsummer weekend, and types big annual events, such as Ruisrock, the longest-running of rock festivals, at Turku in July. On the photo writing, lighter side, check out the Sleepyhead Day, where on 27 July the laziest person in the towns of Naantali and essays Hanko is thrown into the sea. Finland’s strangest event is the annual wife-carrying championship held every July in tiny Sonkaj?rvi. Other Interesting Facts.
Finland (Finnish name Suomi) is a republic which became a member of the European Union in 1995. Its population is 5.2 million. The capital Helsinki has 555 500 residents. Finland is an advanced industrial economy: the metal, engineering and electronics industries account for 50 % of export revenues, the forest products industry for 30 %. Prompts. Finland is said to be ‘the most on-line nation in sample papers, the world’, with more mobile phones and Internet connections per capita than any other country. Forests cover three quarters of the country’s surface area of 338 000 sq. km. Other outstanding features of Finland’s scenery are some 190 000 lakes and approximately as many islands. Prompts For Creative. The principal archipelago and the self-governing province of the ?land Islands lie off the south-west coast while the main lake district, centred on Lake Saimaa, is in the east.
Finland is situated in northern Europe between the 60th and 70th parallels of latitude. Types Of General. A quarter of its total area lies north of the photo for creative, Arctic Circle. Finland’s neighbouring countries are Sweden, Norway and Russia, which have land borders with Finland, and a separate peace Estonia across the Gulf of Finland. Much of the country is a gently undulating plateau of photo prompts writing, worn bedrock and boreal forests, presenting a striking mixture of wooded hills and waters. Peace. High rounded fells form the landscape in Finnish Lapland, the photo prompts writing, most northerly part of the country. The climate is marked by cold winters and essay diction warm summers. The mean annual temperature in the capital, Helsinki, is photo for creative writing, 5.3 degrees Celsius. The highest daytime temperature in southern Finland during the summer occasionally rises to almost 30 degrees. During the winter months, particularly in university essays for application, January and February, temperatures of minus 20 Celsius are not uncommon.
In the far north, beyond the Arctic Circle, the sun does not set for about 73 days, producing the white nights of prompts writing, summer. In the same region, during the dark winter period, the essay diction, sun remains below the horizon for 51 days, creating the polar night known in prompts writing, Finnish as kaamos. The population of Finland is approximately 5 200 000. Finland is the sixth largest country in Europe in area, with a low population density of 17 persons per square kilometre. Most Finns, some 65 %, now live in urban areas, while 35 % remain in a separate, a rural environment. The three cities of Helsinki, the capital, population 555 500, Espoo, 213 300, and Vantaa, 178 500, form the fast growing Helsinki metropolitan region, which is now home to roughly a sixth of the country’s total population. Other important cities are Tampere, 195 500, Turku, 172 500, and in the north Oulu, 120 800.
There are about 1.5 million families in Finland. Among families with children the average number of photo prompts for creative, offspring is 1.8. In 1960 the figure was 2.27. Essay. In 1998 women made up 48% of the writing, total work force of 2.5 million. Their average earnings were 81 % of average male earnings. Women on average outlive men in a separate peace essay, Finland. Average life expectancy for females is 81 years and for for creative, males 74 years. Of General. In the parliamentary elections of 1999 women won 73 of the 200 seats.
The Finnish language is a member of the Finno-Ugric linguistic family that includes, in photo for creative, one branch, Finnish, Estonian and a number of sample papers, other Finnic tongues, and in the other, Hungarian, by far the biggest language of the Ugric group. The official languages of Finland are Finnish and Swedish, the latter spoken as a mother tongue by about 6 % of the photo writing, people. Another indigenous minority language is Sami, spoken by the Sami people (also known as Lapps) of two approaches parenting, Lapland. The official status of Swedish has historical roots in the period when Finland was a part of the Swedish realm, a period that lasted from the photo for creative, beginning of the 13th century until 1809. The number of foreign citizens living permanently in Finland was about. 85 000 in 1999.
The biggest groups were from the neighbouring countries Russia, Estonia and Sweden. There has been complete freedom of worship in Finland since 1923. The Evangelical Lutheran Church is the country’s biggest denomination : 89 % of the people are baptised as Lutherans while 1 % belong to the Finnish Orthodox Church. Christianity, represented by the Roman Catholic Church, reached Finland before the end of the essay diction, first millennium but the Church was not firmly established in prompts for creative, the country until the 12th century. This followed a missionary expedition to south-west Finland led by King Erik of Sweden accompanied by the English-born bishop Henry.
The influence of the Orthodox faith spread into the country from the of general, east. Some important dates in the history of Finland: 1155 The first missionaries arrive in Finland from Sweden. Finland becomes part of the Swedish realm. 1809 Sweden surrenders Finland to Russia. The Czar declares Finland a semi-autonomous Grand Duchy with himself as constitutional monarch represented by a governor general.
1917 Finland declares independence from prompts Russia on a separate, December 6. 1919 The constitution is adopted and Finland becomes a republic with a president as head of state. 1939 – 40 The Soviet Union attacks Finland and the Winter War is fought. 1941 – 44 Fighting between Finnish and Soviet forces resumes in the Continuation War. Some territory is ceded to the Soviet Union but Finland is never occupied and preserves its independence and sovereignty. 1955 Finland joins the United Nations and in 1956 the Nordic Council. 1995 Finland becomes a member of the European Union.
2000 New constitution of Finland entered into force on March 1. The head of state is the President of the Republic who is elected for a period of six years and may serve a maximum of two consecutive terms. Writing. President Tarja Halonen was elected in 2000, prior to which she was Minister for Foreign Affairs. Sample Papers. The President is chosen by direct popular vote, with a run-off between the two leading candidates to emerge after the first round of photo prompts for creative, voting. The government must enjoy the confidence of parliament (the Eduskunta) which has 200 members elected by universal suffrage every four years. After the elections of 1999 the Social Democratic Party had 51 parliamentary seats, the Centre Party 48, the National Coalition 46, the Left Wing Alliance 20, the Swedish People’s Party 12, the Greens 11 and the Christian League 10.
The Rural Party and the Reform Party had one each. The multiparty coalition government formed in 1999 is essay diction, headed by Prime Minister Paavo Lipponen, the leader of the Social Democratic Party. As a member of the European Union since 1995, Finland is part of an influential body in world politics. Within the agenda of European and global responsibilities, Finnish foreign policy promotes democracy, the for creative writing, rule of law and human rights, in line with long-established Nordic values. To benefit from of georgia for application solidarity and common security, Finland is prompts for creative, adhering to the core of the EU and advocates improvements in its efficiency. Finland joined the Third Phase of Economic and Monetary Union (EMU) and adopted the common currency, the euro, in 1999. While remaining militarily non-allied, Finland works actively for sample papers, the strengthening of the EU’s common foreign and security policy and photo for creative writing its capability to act in crisis management.
Finland supports enlargement of the EU. Based on the principles of the United Nations, the the athesist, Organisation for Security and Cooperation in Europe (OSCE) and the Council of photo for creative, Europe, the EU’s policy of comparison contrast essay two approaches, partnership and assistance is supporting reform and extending stability throughout Europe. On Finland’s initiative, the Union is pursuing a Northern Dimension policy whose aim is to writing enhance cooperation with Russia and other partners in economic management, energy, the environment and other fields. Together with the other Nordic countries, Finland has a close partnership with Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania and contributes to sample papers the Baltic Sea, Barents Sea and Arctic collaborative forums. Finland is a leading participant in UN peacekeeping activities. To accomplish new tasks, Finland is photo prompts for creative writing, upgrading the capacity of its forces for crisis management and for application cooperation within NATO’s Partnership for Peace programme.
Challenges to photo for creative security range from ethnic conflicts to environmental hazards. Through assistance to developing countries, Finland seeks to improve equality, democracy and human rights and consolidate civil society and effective governance in the recipient states. Finland has 56 newspapers that are published 4 to 7 times a week and 158 with 1 to 3 issues per types essay, week. The total circulation of all newspapers is 3.3 million. Photo Prompts. In terms of sample papers, total circulation related to population Finland ranks second in prompts writing, Europe and sample papers third in the world. Most newspapers are bought on for creative, subscription rather than from news-stands.
There are about 2 600 registered periodicals with a total circulation of around 18 million. The best selling newspaper is Helsingin Sanomat, circulation 473 000 and in the Swedish language Hufvudstadsbladet with 59 000. The Finnish Broadcasting Company, YLE, is the biggest national radio and television provider. Contrast Parenting. YLE is photo for creative, a non-commercial public service broadcaster that operates two television channels with full national coverage. There are two privately owned TV channels with national coverage and some thirty local TV stations. The only radio broadcaster with full nationwide coverage is YLE. It transmits on four national channels in Finnish and two in essay diction, Swedish and on various regional channels, including one in the Sami language in Lapland. There are more than 60 private, local radio stations, two of which cover almost 60 % of the population. YLE’s TV Finland is broadcast to most of Europe by satellite.
Radio Finland can be heard all around the world. The importance of electronic media is growing fast. Prompts For Creative Writing. Internet connections per capita in Finland were the university essays for application, highest in the world in 1999 with 25 Internet users per 100 inhabitants. Education and Research. All children receive compulsory basic education between the ages of 7 and 16. Education beyond the age of 16 is voluntary, taking the form of either a three to four-year course in upper secondary school or 2 to 5 years at prompts for creative a vocational school.
There are 21 universities or institutes of higher education, with a total student population of essay diction, around 135 000, of whom 52 % are women. Prompts Writing. 56 % of the population have completed post-primary education and 13 % have a university degree or equivalent qualification. In recent years there has been national focus on research and product development, with special emphasis on information technology. R#038;D expenditure in relation to GNP has risen continuously and reached 2.9 % of a separate peace essay, GNP in 1999. Industry and the Economy. Finland’s road to industrialisation started in the 19th century with the harnessing of forest resources. Forests are still Finland’s most crucial raw material resource, although the engineering and for creative high technology industries, led by Nokia, have long been the leading branches of manufacturing. The most important export product today is the mobile phone and comparison essay two approaches Finland is for creative writing, one of the few European countries whose exports exceed imports in data and communications technology. Finland has more mobile phones per capita than any other country, some 65 cellular phones per 100 inhabitants.
Today, Finland is a typical advanced industrial economy. The net wealth of Finnish households is at the average level for member states of the European Union. In 2000, Finland’s GNP per capita was around 25 500 euros (ca. 22 600 USD).