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Principles of Justice and Fairness. (Originally published July 2003, updated by Heidi Burgess June 2013 and again in 2017.) In the Core Concepts unit of our Conflict Fundamentals Massive Open Online Seminar (MOOS), we introduced the notion of reconciliation and examined John Paul Lederach's notion that reconciliation occurs through the meeting of 'peace, justice, truth, and mercy. But as becomes very clear in his exercise exploring these ideas, none of them are easy to understand. More. In the context of villain, conflict, the terms 'justice' and 'fairness' are often used interchangeably. Taken in its broader sense, justice is action in accordance with the requirements of some law. Some maintain that justice stems from God's will or command, while others believe that justice is inherent in nature itself. Still others believe that justice consists of rules common to all humanity that emerge out of essays in law, some sort of consensus. This sort of justice is often thought of as something higher than a society's legal system.
It is in hero villain essay, those cases where an action seems to violate some universal rule of conduct that we are likely to call it unjust. In its narrower sense, justice is school life, fairness. It is action that pays due regard to the proper interests, property, and safety of one's fellows. While justice in the broader sense is often thought of hero villain essay, as transcendental, justice as fairness is more context-bound. Parties concerned with fairness typically strive to work out something comfortable and adopt procedures that resemble rules of a game. They work to ensure that people receive their fair share of benefits and burdens and adhere to a system of fair play. School. The principles of heathcliff, justice and fairness can be thought of as rules of fair play for issues of social justice. Whether they turn out to be grounded in universal laws or ones that are more context-bound, these principles determine the way in which the various types of justice are carried out.
For example, principles of distributive justice determine what counts as a fair share of particular good, while principles of retributive or restorative justice shape our response to activity that violates a society's rules of fair play. Social justice requires both that the rules be fair, and also that people play by writing essays, the rules. Hero Essay. People often frame justice issues in terms of fairness and invoke principles of justice and fairness to explain their satisfaction or dissatisfaction with the organizations they are part of, as well as their state or government. They want institutions to treat them fairly and to operate according to essay, fair rules. What constitutes fair treatment and heathcliff hero, fair rules is often expressed by a variety of justice principles. The principles of equity, equality, and need are most relevant in the context of distributive justice, but might play a role in a variety of social justice issues. These principles all appeal to the notion of desert, the idea that fair treatment is a matter of thesis, giving people what they deserve. In general, people deserve to be rewarded for essay, their effort and productivity, punished for introduction of personal, their transgressions, treated as equal persons, and have their basic needs met. However, because these principles may come into essay, conflict, it is school, often difficult to achieve all of these goals simultaneously. Essay. According to the principle of equity, a fair economic system is one that distributes goods to individuals in proportion to their input.
While input typically comes in the form of productivity, ability or talent might also play a role. M.tech Labview. People who produce more or better products. Hero Essay. either by writing essays in law, working harder, or by being more talented, this argument goes, should be paid more for their efforts than should people who produce less. Note that this sort of distribution may not succeed in meeting the needs of all members of society. In addition, the hero villain essay idea that justice requires the unequal treatment of unequals is in concours paper, tension with the principle of equality. This principle of egalitarianism suggests that the fairest allocation is hero villain essay, one that distributes benefits and burdens equally among all parties. If there are profits of $100,000, and 10 people in the company, the principle of equality would suggest that everyone would get $10,000. This principle, however, ignores differences in effort, talent, and productivity. Also, because people have different needs, an equal initial distribution may not result in an equal outcome. A principle of need, on the other hand, proposes that we strive for an equal outcome in which all society or group members get what they need. Thus poor people would get more money, and richer people would get less. This principle is sometimes criticized because it does not recognize differences in productive contributions or distinguish between real needs and purported needs.
Some have suggested that equity, equality, and cliff, need are not principles adopted for their own sake, but rather ones endorsed to advance some social goal. For example, while equity tends to foster productivity, principles of equality and need tend to stress the importance of positive interpersonal relationships and a sense of belonging among society members. Impartiality, Consistency, Standing, and Trust. Principles of justice and fairness are also central to procedural, retributive, and hero essay, restorative justice. Such principles are supposed to labview, ensure procedures that generate unbiased, consistent, and reliable decisions. Here the heathcliff villain essay focus is on carrying out set rules in a fair manner so that a just outcome might be reached. Fair procedures are central to the legitimacy of decisions reached and individuals' acceptance of those decisions. To ensure fair procedures, both in the context of legal proceedings, as well as in negotiation and mediation, the life third party carrying out essay, those procedures must be impartial. This means they must make an honest, unbiased decision based on appropriate information. For example, judges should be impartial, and facilitators should not exhibit any prejudice that gives one party unfair advantages. The rules themselves should also be impartial so that they do not favor some people over others from the outset.
An unbiased, universally applied procedure, whether it serves to possible essay questions desire, distribute wealth or deliver decisions, can ensure impartiality as well as consistency. The principle of consistency proposes that the distinction of some versus others should reflect genuine aspects of personal identity rather than extraneous features of the differentiating mechanism itself. In other words, the institutional mechanism in question should treat like cases alike and heathcliff hero essay, ensure a level playing field for all parties. The principle of standing suggests that people value their membership in a group and that societal institutions and decision-making procedures should affirm their status as members. For example, it might follow from this principle that all stakeholders should have a voice in the decision-making process. In particular, disadvantaged members of writing essays, a group or society should be empowered and given an opportunity to be heard. When decision-making procedures treat people with respect and dignity, they feel affirmed. A central premise of restorative justice, for example, is that those directly affected by the offense should have a voice and representation in the decision-making process regarding the aftermath of the heathcliff offense--be it punishment and/or restitution.
Related to issues of respect and dignity is the principle of thesis, trust. One measure of fairness is whether society members believe that authorities are concerned with their well being and needs. People's judgments of procedural fairness result from hero, perceptions that they have been treated honestly, openly, and school, with consideration. If they believe that the authority took their viewpoints into account and tried to treat them fairly, they are more likely to hero villain, support and to kill notes essay, engage in the broader social system. What is So Important about the Principles of Justice. Heathcliff Hero. It may seem to be a simple matter of common sense that justice is central to any well-functioning society.
However, the question of what justice is, exactly, and how it is achieved are more difficult matters. The principles of school, justice and fairness point to ideas of fair treatment and fair play that should govern all modes of exchange and interaction in a society. They serve as guidelines for carrying out justice. Not surprisingly, each of the principles of justice and fairness can be applied in heathcliff essay, a variety of contexts. Essay. For example, the principle of desert applies not only to the distribution of wealth, but also to the distribution costs and of punishments. Hero Villain Essay. Environmental justice is a relatively new term that examines and challenges the social tendency to site noxious facilities (such as landfills or polluting industries) in poor areas, but not affluent areas. An unjust distribution of punishments is essays in law, suggested by heathcliff hero, the statistics that people of color are disproportionately represented in prisons and on death row. (In 2012, people of color made up about 30 percent of the streetcar named desire United States’ population, but accounted for 60 percent of those imprisoned.)  Likewise, the principles of impartiality and consistency might apply to hero, both an introduction, economic system and hero villain, a decision-making body. And the principle of need plays a central role in both distributive and possible essay desire, restorative justice. In addition, we can also understand conflict in terms of tension that arises between the heathcliff different justice principles. Conflict about what is just might be expressed as conflict about which principle of justice should be applied in a given situation or how that principle should be implemented. The ways of thinking about justice can have conflicting implications, leading to disputes about fairness. Introduction. For example, some believe that an equitable distribution is the most fair, while others insist that a society's assets should be allocated according to need.
A conflict may thus arise surrounding whether to base an economic system on productivity (those who work hardest should earn the essay most), identity (the rich are job makers and thus should get richer) or social welfare (the poor need help more, so the rich should get taxed to help raise the income of the poor). Similarly, some believe that those who violate the rights of high, others should receive their just deserts (paying a fine or going to prison), while others believe that our focus should be on the needs of victims and offenders (which can be protected through a restorative justice system). When principles of justice operate ineffectively or not at hero villain all, confidence in and organization's or the society's institutions may be undermined. Citizens or group members may feel alienated and withdraw their commitment to those unjust institutions. Introduction Essay. Or, they may rebel or begin a revolution in heathcliff hero villain essay, order to create new institutions. This was the essence of the Arab Spring uprisings that began in 2010 and continue today (2013); it is also the essence of uprisings that have occurred off and on (though with much less intensity and violence) in Europe over the same time period. Essays In Law. If justice principles are applied effectively, on the other hand, organizations and societies will tend to be more stable and its members will feel satisfied and secure.
In the Core Concepts unit of our Conflict Fundamentals Massive Open Online Seminar (MOOS), we introduced the villain essay notion of reconciliation and examined John Paul Lederach's notion that reconciliation occurs through the meeting of possible questions named, 'peace, justice, truth, and mercy. But as becomes very clear in his exercise exploring these ideas, none of them are easy to understand. Villain. Justice, perhaps, is the most difficult. Justice is often taken to mean fairness. Essay Questions Desire. But fairness to whom? Determined by whom? In Western cultures, justice is usually seen as just deserts--or getting what you deserve. If you break a law, you should be punished. If you work hard, you should be rewarded. Eastern cultures are more likely to embrace the notion of restorative justice, or restoring order to relationships, rather than punishment for heathcliff hero villain essay, misdeeds. Thesis. Different understandings of the meaning of heathcliff hero, justice underly a lot of the disagreements we see in the United States right now regarding topics such as immigration, taxes, and health care.
What is fair? Who should get what, and why? Who should pay for it? What should happen when people break the law (for instance., enter or stay in the US illegally)? Understanding the different definitions of justice is a start to sorting out what you think about these questions--and what is likely to create the outcomes you want and need. We will be exploring the different kinds of cliff essay, justice more later in the MOOS Fundamentals seminar, but this is an villain essay, ihntroduction, and curious readers can follow the links to more details right now. -- Heidi Burgess. April 27, 2017.  James. W. Vice, Neutrality, Justice, and m.tech labview, Fairness, (Loyola University Chicago, 1997).  Tom R. Tyler and hero essay, Maura A. Questions Named. Belliveau, Tradeoffs in Justice Principles: Definitions of heathcliff villain, Fairness, in Conflict, Cooperation, and thesis labview, Justice , ed. Heathcliff Hero Essay. Barbara B. Bunker and Jeffrey Z. Rubin, (San Francisco: Jossey-Bass Inc.
Publishers, 1995), 291. http://www.amazon.com/Conflict-Cooperation-Justice-Inspired-Deutsch/dp/0787900699.  For a discussion of justice in high school life experiences-essay, a recent, global context, see: Chris Armstrong, Global Distributive Justice: An Introduction (Cambridge University Press, 2012). http://books.google.com/books?id=LJU0djAZ1osC.  Robert Folger, Blair H. Sheppard, and Robert T. Buttram, Equity, Equality, and Need: Three Faces of Social Justice, in Conflict, Cooperation, and Justice , ed. Barbara B. Bunker and Jeffrey Z. Rubin, (San Francisco: Jossey-Bass Inc. Publishers, 1995), 262. http://www.amazon.com/Conflict-Cooperation-Justice-Inspired-Deutsch/dp/0787900699.  Folger, Sheppard, and Buttram, 272.  Folger, Sheppard, and Buttram, 272.  Folger, Sheppard, and Buttram, 273. Essay.  Tyler and Belliveau, 297. M.tech Labview.  Kerby, The Top 10 Most Startling Facts About People of Color and heathcliff hero villain, Criminal Justice in the United States: A Look at the Racial Disparities Inherent in Our Nation’s Criminal-Justice System. Center for American Progress. Published March 13, 2012. Accessed June 4, 2013 at a mockingbird essay http://bit.ly/PMeeAG.  Morton Deutsch, Justice and Conflict, in The Handbook of Conflict Resolution: Theory and Practice , ed. Heathcliff Hero Villain. Morton Deutsch and Peter Coleman (San Francisco: Jossey-Bass Publishers, Inc., 2000), 54. More recent edition (2011) available here. Use the following to cite this article: Maiese, Michelle.
Principles of Justice and Fairness. Beyond Intractability . Eds. Guy Burgess and Heidi Burgess. To Kill A Mockingbird. Conflict Information Consortium, University of Colorado, Boulder. Posted: July 2003 http://www.beyondintractability.org/essay/principles-of-justice. Please contact us if you encounter problems using the new site. Heathcliff Hero Villain Essay. You can also still use the old homepage.if you prefer. The Intractable Conflict Challenge. Our inability to constructively handle intractable conflict is making social problem solving impossible. Find out about the problem and how Beyond Intractability can help you help address it. An extensive collection of resources covering the writing paper destructive dynamics of intractable conflict, strategies for limiting those dynamics, and techniques for more wisely and equitably resolving disputes.
Concrete and realistic steps we LL can take to promote more constructive conflict processes and heathcliff villain, outcomes. This seminar takes a complexity-oriented approach to examining frontier-of-the-field issues related to difficult and writing, intractable conflicts Visit, follow, or join the heathcliff Conflict Frontiers Seminar (MOOS) to explore and discuss strategies for more constructively addressing these conflicts. Beyond Intractability in Context Blog. Placing conflict and peacebuilding in the larger context of wise and paper planes, equitable social problem-solving, this blog reports on news, opinion pieces, and reports that illustrate the hero villain challenges and successful responses to complex, intractable conflicts. Opportunities for becoming involved in a large-scale learning community working to promote more constructive approaches to conflict. Tell us what YOU are doing that relates to these efforts! Disclaimer: All opinions expressed are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect those of Beyond Intractability, the Conflict Information Consortium, or the to kill a mockingbird cliff notes essay University of Colorado. Beyond Intractability Essay. Copyright © 2003-2017 The Beyond Intractability Project, The Conflict Information Consortium, University of Colorado;
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L’application de la loi aux enfants et adolescents handicapés. Des sections locales ou spécialisées sont susceptibles d’être constituées(18). Villain! Cette possibilité est à mettre en rapport avec une autre précision donnée dans le même article : Les modalités et règles de majorité de vote (. Essay Questions Streetcar Named! ) peuvent être spécifiques à chaque décision en fonction de sa nature (19). Heathcliff Villain! Vue l’ampleur et la diversité des tâches attribuées à la commission des droits et de l’autonomie des personnes handicapées, on writing paper, peut supposer que les décrets d’application définiront de telles sections spécialisées, la commission générale étant probablement destinée à fonctionner surtout comme instance de recours. Villain Essay! Il faut en particulier s’attendre à voir définie une section spécifique pour les questions d’orientation scolaire, avec sa propre composition et ses propres modalités de fonctionnement. M.tech Thesis Labview! On voit mal en effet, par exemple, ce que les représentants des organisations syndicales générales viendraient faire dans une telle section spécialisée. En ce qui concerne la scolarisation des enfants et adolescents handicapés, la principale innovation est le principe de l’ établissement de référence : Tout enfant, tout adolescent présentant un handicap ou un trouble invalidant de la santé est inscrit dans l’école ou dans [l’établissement secondaire], le plus proche de son domicile, qui constitue son établissement de référence. Heathcliff! (20) Il s’agit bien là d’un établissement de référence , et pas nécessairement d’un établissement d’accueil , comme le précise la suite de cet article. Creative Planes! C’est une décision à portée symbolique forte, pas une remise en cause de la palette de modalités diversifiées de scolarisation et de prises en charge, heureusement héritée de notre longue histoire en ce domaine : intégrations individuelles en classes ordinaires certes, mais aussi classes spécialisées en milieu scolaire ordinaire et scolarisation en établissements spécialisés.
Sa principale portée pratique, à mes yeux, sera de faciliter une circulation souple des enfants et adolescents handicapés entre ces différentes modalités de prise en charge, en fonction de l’évolution de leurs besoins. Villain Essay! Cela devrait en particulier faciliter les scolarisations à temps partiel en établissement scolaire ordinaire d’enfants et adolescents accueillis principalement en établissement spécialisé. A Mockingbird Cliff Essay! Jusqu’à présent, cela relevait dans les faits d’accords de gré à gré reposant sur la bonne volonté des enseignants et établissements scolaires d’accueil, avec l’effet pervers de tendre à surcharger ces bonnes volontés, donc de finir par les user. Hero Villain Essay! La nomination obligatoire d’un établissement de référence, en permettant une institutionnalisation de ces pratiques, devrait les faciliter, les apaiser et les répartir plus équitablement. Il est ensuite précisé que, si ses besoins nécessitent qu’il reçoive sa formation au sein de dispositifs adaptés , l’enfant ou l’adolescent handicapé peut être inscrit dans un autre établissement scolaire dans lequel existent ces dispositifs adaptés , sur proposition de son établissement de référence et avec l’accord de ses parents ou de son représentant légal . Introduction Of Personal! En ce cas, cette inscription n’exclut pas son retour à l’établissement de référence (21). Villain Essay! La loi ne précise nulle part ce qu’il faut entendre par dispositifs adaptés . Questions Streetcar Named! On peut penser aux classes spécialisées, CLIS et UPI, mais l’orientation vers ces classes supposera une décision des commissions d’orientation(22), et non le seul accord de l’établissement de référence et des parents, comme le précise un autre article(23).
Il faut probablement aussi penser à des adaptations plus techniques, comme l’aménagement des locaux pour accueillir des élèves en fauteuil roulant, ou la présence de matériels spécifiques. Heathcliff Villain! D’ailleurs certains articles prévoient la prise en charge complète de frais de transports supplémentaires occasionnés par ce type de problèmes : Lorsqu’une scolarisation en milieu ordinaire a été décidée par la commission (. Possible Essay Questions Streetcar Desire! ) mais que les conditions d’accès à l’établissement de référence la rendent impossible, les surcoûts imputables au transport de l’enfant ou de l’adolescent handicapé vers un établissement plus éloigné sont à la charge de la collectivité territoriale compétente pour la mise en accessibilité des locaux (24). Heathcliff! Faute d’un cadrage suffisamment précis par un décret d’application, ce passage de la loi est manifestement susceptible de favoriser des frictions entre les familles et les autorités académiques. De même, lorsque l’enfant ou l’adolescent est pris en charge par un établissement médico-éducatif ou médico-social, son établissement scolaire ordinaire de référence peut être un établissement proche de cet établissement spécialisé, dans des conditions fixées par convention entre les autorités académiques et l’établissement de santé ou médico-social (25). Introduction! On a bien affaire ici à une législation qui devrait faciliter l’articulation entre une solide prise en charge des besoins particuliers des enfants et adolescents handicapés dans un établissement spécialisé et leur intégration scolaire en milieu ordinaire autant que faire se peut. Hors de ce point, la loi n’apporte pas de changements fondamentaux par rapport aux évolutions progressivement impulsées par la loi de 1975(26).
Le parcours de formation de l’enfant et de l’adolescent devra faire l’objet d’un projet personnalisé de scolarisation assorti des ajustements nécessaires en favorisant, chaque fois que possible, la formation en milieu scolaire ordinaire (27). Heathcliff Essay! Il s’agit là d’une inscription législative de pratiques inscrites de longue date dans les réglementations. Essay Questions Streetcar Named Desire! La notion de projet était certes absente de la loi de 1975, comme de ses circulaires d’application(28). Heathcliff Hero Villain Essay! Cependant, dès 1982, une circulaire(29) conjointe des ministères de la Santé et de l’Éducation Nationale évoque déjà un projet d’intégration scolaire qui doit comporter des dimensions à la fois médicale, psychologique et sociale . Possible Essay Streetcar Named Desire! Une circulaire de 1983(30) reprend cette orientation en imposant que l’intervention des SESSAD se fasse dans le cadre d’un projet englobant à la fois les dimensions scolaire, éducative et thérapeutique . Hero Essay! La réforme des annexes XXIV des années 1988 et 1989 impose une généralisation du projet individuel pédagogique, éducatif et thérapeutique à tout enfant ou adolescent pris en charge dans les établissements médico-éducatifs régis par ces textes. Introduction! Une circulaire de 1991(31) charge les commissions de l’éducation spéciale de suivre la mise en œuvre des projets d’intégration qui concrétisent leurs décisions . Heathcliff Hero! Depuis lors, c’est toute la politique de prise en charge des enfants et adolescents handicapés, scolarisation comprise bien entendu, qui obéit à cette logique de projets individuels, supervisés ou décidés par les commissions d’orientation. On notera également que la formation en milieu scolaire ordinaire (31a) n’est pas posée comme un droit absolu, mais seulement comme une modalité à privilégier chaque fois que possible (31b) . A Mockingbird Cliff! On reste très proche des formulations prudentes de la loi de 1975, qui posait comme principe général que l’action poursuivie assure, chaque fois que les aptitudes des personnes handicapées et de leur milieu familial le permettent, l’accès du mineur et de l’adulte handicapés aux institutions ouvertes à l’ensemble de la population et leur maintien dans un cadre ordinaire de travail et de vie (32). Heathcliff Villain Essay! On est en particulier très en retrait par rapport à une circulaire incendiaire de Ségolène Royal qui affirmait en 1999, très largement au-delà des principes législatifs alors en vigueur : Tous les jeunes, quels que soient les besoins éducatifs qu’ils présentent, doivent trouver dans le milieu scolaire ordinaire la possibilité d’apprendre et de grandir avec les autres pour préparer leur avenir d’hommes et de femmes libres et de citoyens. Writing! (33) La nouveauté, relative, est l’inscription de ce projet de formation dans le cadre global du plan personnalisé de compensation du handicap imposé par la loi(34). Essay! Ce plan est élaboré, dans le cadre de la Maison départementale des personnes handicapées, par une équipe pluridisciplinaire , dont la composition (. Introduction Essay! ) peut varier en fonction de la nature du ou des handicaps de la personne handicapée dont elle évalue les besoins de compensation ou l’incapacité permanente (35). Villain! Cette équipe doit entendre les parents, ou leur représentant, comme cela était déjà le cas pour les commissions de l’éducation spéciale(36), mais il est aussi prévu désormais, explicitement, d’entendre l’enfant lui-même : Dès lors qu’il est capable de discernement, l’enfant handicapé lui-même est entendu par l’équipe pluridisciplinaire . In Law! Cette innovation mérite d’être soulignée : jusqu’à présent, l’enfant, handicapé ou non, était systématiquement exclu de tous les projets, pédagogiques ou autres, le concernant.
Même après la loi de 1989 le plaçant au cœur du système éducatif ! Bien sûr, le discours de l’enfant peut faire l’objet de toutes sortes de manipulations. Heathcliff Hero Villain Essay! Il n’en reste pas moins que, bien comprise et bien conduite, cette pratique de la consultation de l’enfant sur le projet de formation le concernant pourrait contribuer à humaniser les procédures d’orientation, voire les modalités des prises en charge. La commission chargée de piloter la réalisation de ce parcours de formation sera donc la commission des droits et de l’autonomie des personnes handicapées, ou plus probablement sa section spécialisée en ce domaine. Labview! Le remplacement de la CDES par cette nouvelle commission est susceptible de changer assez nettement la donne. Villain Essay! D’abord, la présence des représentants des personnes handicapées et de leurs familles est considérablement renforcée : au moins un tiers des membres dans la nouvelle commission ou ses sections spécialisées, contre un seul représentant dans la CDES, sur une douzaine de membres. In Law! Ensuite, cette nouvelle commission comptera des représentants des élus du département, dans des proportions qui restent à déterminer, alors que la CDES, commission préfectorale instituée avant les lois de décentralisation, était organisée autour de représentants de l’État.
Cette présence nouvelle des élus locaux, ou de leurs représentants, dans les commissions d’orientation devrait peser en faveur d’une meilleure prise en compte des souhaits des familles concernées. Heathcliff Hero Essay! Dans une certaine mesure au moins : les élus seront susceptibles d’être sensibles également à leurs responsabilités budgétaires, comme aux réactions possibles des familles non touchées par le handicap. Of Personal! Lors des débats parlementaires, le Sénat avait adopté une modification conditionnant l’intégration d’un enfant handicapé en milieu ordinaire à l’absence de mise en danger des autres enfants. Heathcliff Villain! Les associations de personnes handicapées et de parents d’enfants handicapés, bien relayées par certains députés, ont obtenu la suppression de cet amendement lors du vote final de l’Assemblée Nationale. Essay! Cette victoire douteuse est peut-être mal assurée : le Sénat est une émanation des élus locaux, et l’influence de ces élus dans les commissions risque fort de jouer dans le même sens que ce qu’aurait formalisé l’amendement voté par le Sénat. Surtout, les décisions de la CDES s’imposaient aux établissements concernés, mais on heathcliff, considérait généralement qu’elles restaient soumises à l’accord final des parents. Creative Paper Planes! La nouvelle commission a peut-être plus nettement le pouvoir d’imposer ses décisions aux parents. Heathcliff Hero Villain! Elle doit certes donner le choix entre plusieurs solutions adaptées, comme c’était déjà spécifié dans la loi de 1975(37). Writing Essays In Law! Elle doit également intégrer la préférence des familles pour un établissement ou un service à ses propositions, mais seulement lorsque cet établissement ou ce service entrent dans la catégorie de ceux vers lesquels la commission a décidé [d’orienter l’enfant] (38), toujours dans une logique très proche de la loi de 1975. Heathcliff Hero Villain Essay! Mais aucune des procédures de recours prévues(39) ne débouche sur une validation finale du choix des parents. Introduction! À vrai dire, la loi de 1975 ne prévoyait pas non plus explicitement une telle disposition. Essay! C’est seulement la circulaire d’application de 1976 qui précisait : à l’égard des parents ou des personnes responsables de l’enfant : le pouvoir de décision des commissions est seulement relatif (40).
Sans que cette relativisation débouche d’ailleurs sur une validation explicite du choix des parents en cas de conflit avec les commissions. Possible Questions Streetcar! Le poids des choix parentaux était assuré par le fait que leur recours face aux décisions de la commission avait un effet suspensif par rapport à ces décisions(41). Hero Villain! C’est toujours le cas dans cette nouvelle loi, dans des termes pratiquement similaires(42). Of Personal Essay! Le plus probable est que, faute de choix clair par rapport aux limites de la prise en compte des vœux des familles, cette loi débouchera sur les mêmes situations de conflit que l’on a vues se multiplier ces dernières années. Heathcliff Hero! Il est cependant vraisemblable que l’implication directe des politiques dans les commissions d’orientation leur donnera plus de poids et plus de légitimité que les commissions administratives que nous avons connues jusqu’à présent. La dernière nouveauté notoire dans le domaine de la scolarisation des enfants et adolescents handicapés est la création dans chaque département d’ équipes de suivi de la scolarisation (43). Possible Essay Desire! Chargées de suivre l’application des décisions de la commission d’orientation, ou avec l’accord de ses parents ou de son représentant légal, proposer à la commission (. Hero! ) toute révision de l’orientation d’un enfant ou d’un adolescent qu’elles jugeraient utile (44).
Leur composition est très peu précisée par le texte qui les institue, hormis par l’implication évidente de l’enseignant ou des enseignants qui ont en charge l’enfant ou l’adolescent . Possible Questions Streetcar Named! Il faudra attendre un probable décret d’application pour que cette innovation prenne vraiment forme. Essay! Équipes définies par un article du Code de l’éducation, chargées du suivi de la seule scolarisation, elles devraient être strictement internes à l’Éducation Nationale. Experiences-essay! Cela devrait en faire une structure très différente des actuelles commissions de circonscription, CCPE et CCSD, qui, étant des émanations de la CDES, sont des structures de type médico-éducatif, à pouvoir décisionnel. Heathcliff Villain Essay! Ces équipes devraient plutôt se rapprocher des innovations locales qui se sont répandues ces dernières années, hors de tout cadre réglementaire clair, comme les maîtres itinérants ou les maîtres d’aide à l’intégration . Possible Essay Desire! Je suis a priori assez sceptique quant à la pertinence de cette création institutionnelle. Hero Essay! Il existait déjà des structures vouées au suivi et à l’appui de la scolarisation des élèves handicapés. Introduction Essay! Ce sont les SESSAD(45), nullement remis en cause par ailleurs par la nouvelle loi. Heathcliff Essay! Là où ils avaient été créés, les maîtres itinérants ou les maîtres d’aide à l’intégration avaient des relations pour le moins mal clarifiées avec les SESSAD. Concours Writing Paper! Services médico-éducatifs, les SESSAD ont l’avantage évident de comporter un panel complet de professionnels, dont des enseignants spécialisés, et il me semble que le suivi de la scolarisation des élèves handicapés appelle des intervenants plus diversifiés que les ressources internes de la seule Éducation Nationale. Villain! Les actions des nouvelles équipes départementales de suivi de la scolarisation des élèves handicapés devront nécessairement s’articuler avec les actions des SESSAD. Essay Questions Streetcar Desire! Elles risquent fort de les chevaucher. Hero Villain! Il aurait certainement été préférable de renforcer les SESSAD, en particulier l’implication d’enseignants spécialisés dans ces structures.
Droit à compensation, guichet unique, renforcement de la représentation des personnes handicapées dans les institutions les concernant, inscription systématique dans un établissement scolaire de référence, la loi de 2005 comporte manifestement des avancées significatives en faveur des personnes handicapées. High Life! Mais les espoirs qu’elle suscite, parfois sur la base d’une lecture hâtive ou partielle, risquent fort de se heurter à ses limites, comme à ses implications politiques. Heathcliff Hero Villain! Le financement d’un droit à compensation, ouvert à l’extrême en principe, est fort loin d’être assuré, comme le montre déjà la tournure ubuesque qu’a pris la suppression d’un jour férié destiné pour une part à alimenter cette solidarité nationale vis-à-vis des personnes handicapées. Introduction Of Personal! Quant au domaine de la scolarisation des enfants et adolescents handicapés, hors de la symbolique de l’établissement de référence, la nouvelle loi ne fait guère qu’entériner les évolutions de ces dernières décennies, sans apporter de transformations décisives. Hero! Ce n’est pas nécessairement à regretter : l’immersion de tous les enfants et adolescents handicapés dans les classes ordinaires est une idée certes sympathique, mais ce n’est certainement pas la panacée. Possible Essay Named Desire! La longue expérience des résultats d’une telle immersion pour les élèves socialement ou culturellement défavorisés devrait inciter à considérer avec circonspection les avantages et les inconvénients des pratiques intégratives, comme cette nouvelle loi continue à nous y inviter. Professeur de philosophie chargé d’enseignement à l’IUFM de Paris. Formateur d’enseignants spécialisés.
Décembre 2005-Avril 2006. (1) Le texte intégral de cette loi est disponible sur le site Légifrance. Heathcliff Hero Villain! Il est également disponible sur mon site personnel, avec un sommaire dynamique complet : (4) En particulier dans les nouvelles certifications des enseignants spécialisés : le SH du CAPA-SH et du 2CA-SH évoque la scolarisation des élèves en situation de handicap . Possible Named Desire! Décrétées en janvier 2004, ces appellations sont d’ores et déjà hors la loi ! (5) Patrick Declerck , Les naufragés (Avec les clochards de Paris) , Col. Heathcliff Hero Villain! Terre Humaine, Plon, 2001, Page 293. (12) Article 16 de la loi, et articles modifiés L. Essay! 821-1 et suivants du Code de la sécurité sociale. (13) Article 68 de la loi, et articles modifiés L. Hero Essay! 541-1 et suivants du Code de la sécurité sociale. (22) En l’occurrence, la commissions des droits et de l’autonomie des personnes handicapées décrite plus haut, ou une de ses sections . (28) En particulier la circulaire n 76-156 et n 31 du 22 avril 1976 sur la composition et le fonctionnement des commissions de l’Éducation spéciale et des commissions de circonscription . (30) Circulaire n os 83-082, 83-4 et 3/83/S du 29 janvier 1983 sur la mise en place d’actions de soutien et de soins spécialisés en vue de l’intégration dans les établissements scolaires ordinaires des enfants et adolescents handicapés, ou en difficulté en raison d’une maladie, de troubles de la personnalité ou de troubles graves du comportement . (40) Circulaire n 76-156 et n 31 du 22 avril 1976 sur la composition et le fonctionnement des commissions de l’Éducation spéciale et des commissions de circonscription , point 12.130.
(45) Service d’Éducation Spéciale et de Soins À Domicile. Cet article est donné en référence dans un article de Pierre Baligand, Inspecteur honoraire de l’éducation nationale, initialement publié dans la Revue Médecine thérapeutique Pédiatrie , n 4, consacré au thème Handicap de l’enfant : quelles prises en charge ? , juillet-août 2006, pages 211-221 et repris sur le site Intégration scolaire partenariat.
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Is Heathcliff a hero or a villain? | eNotes
Analytical essay endnotes Treatment of the notion of hero villain, sexuality. Treatment of the notion of sexuality is an important aspect of the society. As Michel Foucault aptly pointed out in his book “History of Sexuality”, sexuality is introduction of personal placed within the villain power discourse and possible named desire, used to promote the existing power relations. If the state needs to sustain or increase its population, thus it promotes the institution of family, which legalizes sex for the sake of child-bearing; as a result, heterosexuality realized in marriage is considered “normal”, while the other sexual practices are announced to be “deviant”. This report looks into the nature of the notions of hero villain essay, hetero- and homosexuality, and argues that both these concepts are social constructs, and so are the notions of sexual “norm” or “deviation”, connected with them.
This thesis is confirmed by research into the history of the terms, briefly mentioned in the report; then the paper proceeds to exploration of the controversial social implications of homosexual subculture, which on the one hand positions itself outside the conventional society and on the other hand reiterates its gender norms and structure. To start with, the definition of heterosexuality as normal is not so established as it may seem for a typical Westerner. For instance, the sexual ethos of the Arabo-Muslim world is characterized by unique continuity that takes its roots from Greek and Roman antiquity and emphasizes “general importance of male dominance, the m.tech labview centrality of penetration to conceptions of sex [and] the radical disjunction of active and passive roles in villain, male homosexuality”, which has been inherent to the Middle Eastern societies from the 9th century and up to now. In the Arabo-Muslim tradition, thus, heterosexual relations are not marked as the only norm, whereas both homo- and heterosexual relations are merely fit into the power discourse in in law, terms of heathcliff hero villain essay, domination or submission: for instance, female sexuality is in law assumed to be passive and submissive, so that it asserts male activity and domination. Need essay sample on Analytical essay endnotes Treatment of the notion of sexuality ? We will write a custom essay sample specifically for you for only $12.90/page. Thus, the notion of “normalcy” in the Arabic sexual ethos is totally different from the European one: it is embedded in terms of domination and submission, rather than hetero- and homosexuality. This leads us to question heterosexuality as a universal biological norm for the humanity. This doubt in the immutability of heterosexuality as the norm further urges us to heathcliff hero villain question the writing in law “abnormality” of homosexuality. Can the opposition of villain essay, hetero- and homosexuality be regarded in terms of high school, norm and deviancy? If this is the hero villain essay case, then are biological norms applicable here? Recent research indicates that both hetero- and homosexuality are not biologically preset patterns, but rather social constructs, the implications of which vary in different societies and on different stages of historical development.
The terms “hetero-“ and “homosexuality” were the inventions of the 20th century. They emerged, because sexual relations are firmly embedded into the power discourse, as the government of the country needs to control the birth rate of the population. This practical consideration is the primary factor that influences the decisions of the authorities with regard to regulation of sexual relations. School Life? If the sexual act leads to heathcliff hero villain essay reproduction, it is labelled as positive, because it has a practical benefit – birth of a new citizen. Conversely, if sexual relations end up in m.tech thesis, “non-productive” emotional attachment to another person, it is condemned as sinful. Thus, sinful were not only homosexual acts, but also heterosexual sexual contacts, which did not bring about childbirth. As Jonathan Katz aptly points out, psychologists like Freud and Krafft-Ebing initially used the hero villain concept of “heterosexuality”, in order to denote sexual perversion (but not the norm, as the widely-spread belief asserts), which implied non-procreative sex between male and female. Later the concours creative writing paper planes definition was widened so as to include “fruitless” eroticism, which emerged between representatives of heathcliff villain, the opposite sex. In other words, just a century ago it meant deviation, which refutes all the claims of heterosexuality for essay being the only biologically and historically established “norm”. Hero Villain? In fact, the situation was vice versa: heterosexuality denoted a pathology, which was later justified, because it was proved that the m.tech thesis couple may have sex just for pleasure, but not with the only aim of heathcliff villain, conceiving a baby. Thesis Labview? Thus, hetero- and homosexuality cannot be considered to be historically and biologically standards of hero, norm and deviation, first of all due to the fact that the terms themselves emerged only a century ago.
Moreover, although cases of hetero- and homosexual encounters took place for centuries, these terms appeared in the power discourse only in the 20th century (for example, in 1892 the term “lesbian” simply didn’t exist); as Lisa Duggan found out, “feminine partners in developing lesbian relationships…, along with pairs joined in concours writing planes, romantic friendships, were not perceived as lesbian until the mid-twentieth century and later”. These newly-invented terms were aimed at regulating the sexual behaviour by labeling it normal or abnormal. Moreover, the definitions of norm and deviance legitimize certain social relations and condemns the others, as Chauncey points out. Thus, the heterosexual relations were proclaimed to be normal, whereas homosexual ties were stigmatized. The abnormality, which the power discourse started to assign to homosexuality, can be graphically traced in the newspaper materials, as mass media are known to express the dominant, mainstream culture, supported by the authorities. As Duggan discovered, the narratives about lesbian love in newspapers were invariably depicted as violent. She remarks that “the late-nineteenth century newspapers narratives of lesbian love featured violence as a boundary marker: murders or suicides served to abort the heathcliff hero forward progress of the tale, signaling that such erotic love between two women was not only tragic but ultimately hopeless… the stories were thus structured to emphasize that no real love story was possible”. Furthermore, the abnormality of homosexual relations was asserted by the dominant culture, whereas the “queers” themselves were not allowed to life have access to any channels of authority and heathcliff hero villain essay, thus the authorities limited “their means of direct public self-representation”. The next step towards constructing the homosexuality as deviation was to concours creative planes condemn it as rooted in biological malfunction and thus subject to heathcliff villain medical regulation.
As Duggan notes, the sexologists did not invent their theories of sexuality, but rather formulated it on the basis of analysis of empirical material; they undertook to formulate the creative paper definition of deviance; “their determination to interpret behaviors rooted in hero villain essay, changing and contesting social relations as biologically based and properly subject to medical regulation”. This was Freud did. In the beginning of the 20th century this talented Austrian psychoanalyst further elaborated this matter and defined heterosexuality as natural and healthy, and homosexuality as “sinful”. Thus, heterosexuality became a socially constructed norm, supported by the power discourse, whereas homosexuality was defined as deviation that emphasized the labview norm and stipulated for its existence. Furthermore, although the notion of homosexuality has evident social implications, however its nature is rather complex. On the heathcliff hero villain one hand, the high school experiences-essay gay subculture positions itself outside the boundaries of the hero villain “normal” heterosexual society. This subculture created a specific locus, where the people who have felt “different” for all their life could put aside their conventional role of a biological male or female. As George Chauncey discovered as a result of his analysis of the Newport gay gang (discovered in the infamous investigation into creative writing paper, homosexuality in the American navy in 1919), the heathcliff hero essay existence of such gay subculture gave men who “felt effeminate or otherwise “different” most of their lives” an opportunity of “structuring their vague feelings of sexual and gender difference into distinctive personal identities”. Furthermore, as this inversion contradicted to the conventions of the dominant sexual culture, the gay subculture “facilitated people’s exploration and organization of m.tech labview, their homosexuality by offering them support in the face of social opprobrium and providing them with guidelines for how to organize their feelings of difference into a particular social form of homosexuality, a coherent identity and way of life”. On the one hand, such support enabled the effeminate men to explore social roles, which they assumed to be more suitable for them than the traditional ones.
On the other hand, it also gave them the strength to oppose the villain existing conventions and even publicly deny them. For example, in the beginning of the writing in law twentieth century in New York the hero essay gay “fairies” made their presence provocatively visible to the “straight” (i.e. heterosexual) population by gathering in public places and making their sexual orientation explicit, despite the fact that they ran the risk of possible essay named, a violent response. Hero Villain Essay? As Chauncey points out, “often fairies did not encounter such hostile reaction [as chasing and to kill a mockingbird cliff notes, beating by hero essay, “straight” men], but their willingness to risk it should be regarded as a form of defiance and resistance to a heterosexist cultural system”. Similarly, in the Newport navy some queers “flaunted their difference rather than trying to conceal it, addressing each other with “feminine names,”… and “publish[ing] the fact that they were prostitutes and such stuff as that”. This willingness to make their presence visible can be regarded as means to challenge and defy the traditional social conventions. The attitude of the “straight” population was equally defiant. In the 1910-ies the New York policemen regarded “fairies” as “male prostitutes” and arrested them as ““degenerates” who solicited “normal” men for writing essays in law sex”. Thus, in this aspect, the homosexual community positioned itself outside the villain society and defiantly challenged the possible questions streetcar desire dominant sexual culture by flaunting their difference – and heathcliff villain essay, incited a similar defiance among the “normal” population. However, at the same time the homosexual community duplicated the social structure and conventions, which it seemed to deny. The case is much the same with the attitude of the oppressed to their oppressors; the life resistance of the former often takes place within the same power discourse and thus only strengthens it.
Similarly, although queers rejected social conventions, they organized their own communities, which reproduced the gender rules of the society that they seemed to villain have escaped from. First and foremost, as Newport trial revealed, the high experiences-essay gay subculture has developed into a complex system of heathcliff hero villain essay, structured relationships; the identity of the participants of these relations was determined not on the basis of preference for male sexual partners, but on the basis of gender roles. To be specific, “only men who sharply differentiated themselves from other men, labeling themselves as “queer,” were those who assumed the sexual and other cultural roles ascribed to women; they might have been termed “inverts” in the early twentieth-century medical literature because they not only expressed homosexual desire but “inverted” (or reversed) their gender role”. In other words, only men who assumed female roles were considered to planes be gay. Furthermore, they had to enter the system of heathcliff villain essay, relations inside the gang by clarifying their role as “fairy” (also called “cocksucker” or “French artist”), “pogue” (men who preferred to be anally penetrated) or “two-way artists” (i.e. Introduction Of Personal Essay? combining both). Another substantial part of the gang were “husbands”, i.e. “straight” men who entered into relationships with the hero villain queers, who weren’t considered to be homosexual. At the same time, this definition of “queer” served as a means of protection for those relations, which could be identified as homosexual.
However, the strict definition of abnormal queer behaviour prevented such charges. Introduction Essay? This protective function became clear, when the second Newport trial accused the minister of being gay and eventually questioned the definition of queer, thus endangering both the identity of “the ministers who were intimate with their Christian brothers or the sailors who had sex with effeminate men”, who were secure before, “because neither group conformed to the dominant image of what a queer should be like”. This leads us to heathcliff the conclusion that the definition of deviation (homosexuality) was crucial for thesis existance of the norm (heterosexuals, who were sure of their “normal” identity, even if they were intimate with men or even had occasional sex with them). Thus, homosexuality is a social construct, although its nature is hero villain rather controversial. On the one hand, the m.tech thesis homosexual subculture denies the dominant culture, positions itself outside the boundaries of “normal” society, and even in some cases actively flaunts the difference. On the other hand, within this subculture the hero villain essay homosexuals developed a system of relations, which duplicated traditional gender roles of male and female. Similarly, lesbian relationships, as presented in school life experiences-essay, newspapers and analyzed by Lisa Duggan, were also described in terms of invariable and villain, traditional “masculine/feminine contrast” between lovers, for instance, between mannish Marie Hindle, the female impersonator, and her “wife”.
To conclude, both hetero- and homosexuality are not biologically preset patterns, but rather social phenomena, the implications of which vary in different societies and on different stages of notes essay, historical development. The dividing line between normalcy and abnormality is imposed upon hetero- and homosexuality by heathcliff hero, the power discourse promoted by the dominant culture. Thus, on mature reflection, hetero- and homosexuality are both social constructs, and creative writing paper planes, so it the notion of sexual “norm” or “deviation”.  Michel Foucault, The History of Sexuality, Vol. I: An Introduction, translated by Robert Hurley, Pantheon, New York, 1978. Hero?  Bruce Dunne, “Power and Sexuality in the Middle East”. Middle East Report, no.206 (Spring 1998), 8. M.tech Labview?  Jonathan Katz, “The Invention of Heterosexuality” Race, Class, and Gender in the United States: An Integrated Study. Ed. Paula S. Rothenberg New York: St. Martin`s Press, 1998, 55-67.  Lisa Duggan, “Alice Mitchell as a Case of Sexual Perversion”.Signs. Summer 1993: 808.  George Chauncey, “Christian Brotherhood or Sexual Perversion? Homosexual Identities and hero villain essay, the Construction of Sexual Boundaries in the World War One Era”. Gender and American History since 1890.
Ed. B. Melosh New York: Routledge, 1993, 98. Essay?  Chauncey, “Christian Brotherhood…”, 79.  George Chauncey, “‘Privacy Could Only be Had in hero essay, Public’: Forging a Gay World in the Streets” in Gay New York”. School Life Experiences-essay? New York: BasicBooks, 1994, 187.  Chauncey, “Christian Brotherhood…”, 81.  George Chauncey, “‘Privacy Could Only be Had in Public…”, 186.  Chauncey, “Christian Brotherhood…”, 76.  Lisa Duggan, “Alice Mitchell as a Case of Sexual Perversion”.Signs. Summer 1993: 802.
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Comparison And Analysis About Next Plc Accounting Essay. Making decision on investment in which company needs to consider about several different aspects of the companies and make related comparisons. Heathcliff Villain Essay? As a Financial Analyst working in a firm of stockbrokers which is a London based company, in order to provide the useful advice on investment opportunities in Debenhams Plc. or Next Plc. for a major potential investor, this report will be carried out to analyse these two companies to combine the practise with theories. M.tech Labview? Both Plc. and Next Plc. are UK based retailing company which are primarily sell clothing and home products. To be specific, the analysis will be developed into four main areas to look at different aspects of villain essay, these two companies, which are Financial Performance, Financial Position, Corporate Governance and Corporate Social and high school life experiences-essay, Environmental Reporting. The brief descriptions of these four areas are presented as follows. Financial performance primarily applied to estimate how well the company use its assets to generate revenue.
On this respect, it will focus on the income statement of each company to seek out which company performs better. The general methods to measure companies' financial performance is through some profitability and investment ratios of company, such as net profit margin and return on equity. It is a good measure that can be used to compare companies located in the same industry over heathcliff villain essay, a given period of time for school assessing the company's the overall financial health. Financial position of a company is determined by its assets and its liabilities. In addition, it also includes the shareholders' equity. Accordingly, to estimate a company's financial position requires looking into heathcliff essay, the company's balance sheet. The related information can help the investors to m.tech assess the strength of company's financial position. The company with a stronger financial position represents it has stronger ability to meet its liabilities, which means its shareholders or investors will undertake a lower risk for investing in this company. In addition to the financial aspects, corporate governance of essay, company is also a significant aspect that investors should consider about.
Corporate governance is a kind of regulatory, policy and legal mechanisms to help direct, manage and control the company. Essay Questions Streetcar Named? It indicates the relationships between the management of a company and its shareholders and other stakeholders, and also presents the goals that the company is hero essay going to achieve (Williamson, 2002). The corporate governance of a company can be found in the company's annual report, which could be used to appraise the possible essay questions named, company's management performance and check that does the company meet its goals. Currently, an heathcliff hero villain essay, increasing number of companies begin to pay more attention on developing corporate social responsibility, which is another significant factor that the investors should focus on. According to the description made by high school life, McWilliams and Siegel (2001), CSR is defined as actions that appear to hero essay further some social good, beyond the interest of the firm and that which is required by law. The CSR reporting, involving in environmental reporting, will tell the investors how the essays in law, company treat and heathcliff hero, be responsible to its stakeholders.
Generally, a good CSR performance would have a positive impact on the company's performance, because it usually represents good reputation and faith from customers. This report will break down into these for broad areas to compare and analyse the related performance between Debenhams Plc. and Next Plc. The recommendations and high school life, conclusion about which company should be chose to invest in will be given in the final part. In order to estimate companies' financial performance, it needs to look into the companies' financial statements. Literature Reviews (Theory and Practise) In the past several decades, a lot of studies have been carried out to evaluate company's financial performance. Financial performance uses figures to represents the company's performance in the company's financial statements, including the income statement, balance sheet and cash flow statement.
In general, investors would like to make investment decisions based on assessing companies' financial performance as it is a direct method to understand the companies' performance through figures. According to the statement made by Mokhtar, Karbhari and Naser (2005), the financial performance can be used to represent a company's profitability, health and eventually its survival. Indeed, companies with high financial performance usually are regarded as success stories with efficient and effective operation management that investors will be confident to invest in. Heathcliff Hero Villain? On the other hand, the companies with lower financial performance mean they are lack of efficient management which are unlikely to bring benefits to investors (Makhamreh, 2000). There are different methods that have been employed in the literature to questions streetcar named measure companies' financial performance in practice.
The instruments involve in some related ratios to figure out the companies' profitability and heathcliff essay, rate of return, such as net profit margin and return on equity, and some analysts would like to look deeper into the cash flow statement to of personal essay check the situation of cash in the company (Heras et al., 2002; Haversjo, 2000; De With, 1996). The survey carried out by Sankaran (2002) applies a series of financial ratios, including liquidity, profitability, solvency and return on investment, to measure ten major international pharmaceutical companies' financial performance. He also pointed out heathcliff villain there are several factors that is likely to essays contribute to the financial performance of heathcliff hero essay, multinational corporates. Essay Questions Desire? For example, the hero villain, high net and gross profit margins were resulting from the rise in sales and life experiences-essay, better control of costs (Sankaran, 2002). Comparison and Analysis about heathcliff essay, Next Plc. and Debenhams Plc. in Financial Performance. Under this report, it will employ a number of ratios involving sales growth rate, profitability ratios and investment ratios to evaluate the financial performance of Next Plc. and Debenhams Plc. The ratios can be seen from the Table 1 below. Sales growth rate. Gross profit margin.
Net profit margin. Return on equity. Earnings per share (p) Dividend per high share (p) (Calculating based on the annual reports of Next Plc. and Debenhams Plc.) First of all, looking at the sales growth rates for these two companies from the year 2010 to the year 2012, it is villain essay obvious to find out a decreasing trend of m.tech thesis labview, sales in Debenhams Plc. from villain, 10.7% in 2010 to 0.9% in 2012. Referring to the Next Plc., even though there is writing a sharp drop in sale growth in heathcliff villain 2011 which is a negative growth, the growth rate of sale for the company has increased back to 4.3% in 2012, which shows a good trends. It means Next Plc. might have done some improvement to stimulate its sales growth. At the second place, the profitability ratios indicate how well the companies use their cost or asset to generate revenue. On this respect, both Next Plc. and Debenhams Plc. perform well with relatively stable gross profit margins and net profit margins for introduction essay these three years and actually there exist light increasing trends in these two margins, which mean these two companies have continuously enhanced the efficiency of costs and management.
However, what needs to be mentioned about is that these two margins for Next Plc. are much higher than Debenhams Plc.'s for the recent three year. In other words, it may result from the higher effectiveness of costing and management in Next Plc. In terms of the heathcliff, return on equity, it is obvious that the Next Plc. has much higher figure in this ration for introduction essay the recent three years, which all exceed one hundred per cent and in 2010 the return on equity was over 200%. The too much higher ROE does not always represent good things as the company may have too many liabilities so that the shareholders' equity would be lower. Then the company would present an unhealthy financial leverage and investors would undertake a higher risk. On the other hand, although the Debenhams Plc. has a normal return on equity at around 19%, looking deeper into the balance sheet, it figures out that the Debenhams Plc. presents too much intangible assets valuating over £800 million, which accounts around fifty per cent of total asset. The too much intangible assets will also bring a higher risk for hero villain essay investors as the value of intangible assets is volatile.
In addition, the investment ratios for these two companies reveal that the Next Plc. with higher earnings per introduction share and dividend per share is heathcliff hero villain essay likely more attractive to writing essays investors rather than Debenhams Plc. Referring to assessing the companies' financial position, it needs to check the assets, liabilities and villain, shareholders' equity form balance sheet. Literature Reviews (theory and practice) To evaluate companies' financial position, it needs to look at to kill cliff notes essay, the companies' status of the assets, liabilities, and hero villain essay, shareholders' equity (Kieso, Weygandt and Warfield, 2007), which are reflected in the balance sheet of companies financial statements. Generally, the analysts will analyse the comparative financial position through some indicators that are mainly reflected by related ratios (Sohl et al., 2009). The related ratios involve in m.tech thesis liquidity ratios and solvency ratios. Liquidity ratios are applied to heathcliff hero villain essay assess the companies' ability to use their assets to meet short term liabilities (less than one year) and solvency ratios are applied to evaluate whether the companies are able to use their assets to meet long term liabilities (more than one year) (Tracy, 2004). These indicators will make investors understand the strength of labview, companies' financial position.
A strong financial position or condition will lower the risk that the essay, investors need to undertake and investors will be confident to contribute their money in the company. In the real world, banks can be treated as one of the major investors for most companies. If a company tent to make loan from bank, it needs to provide its financial statement to show its financial position. In the balance sheet, there will be a list of to kill a mockingbird notes essay, significant assets and a list of significant liabilities of company. Heathcliff Hero Villain? Then the bank would use this information to appraise the strength of financial position.
In other words, the bank wants to make sure the company have the sufficient ability to repay the loan in the future. A Mockingbird Essay? The bank would lend money to the company based on the value of assets so as to prevent the loss of default from company. Similar with banks, all investors would not like to undertake a higher risk. Therefore, it is important to assess the companies' financial position before making a decision for investiment. Comparison and villain, Analysis about concours paper, Next Plc. and Debenhams Plc. in Financial Position. For the purpose of villain essay, comparing and analysing the financial position of concours writing paper planes, Next Plc. and Debenhams Plc., it will carry out through using liquidity ratios and solvency ratios, including current ratio, quick ratio and gearing ratio. The relevant ratios can be seen from the heathcliff, Table 2 below. (Calculating based on the annual reports of Next Plc. and school experiences-essay, Debenhams Plc.) Current ratio equals to current assets over current liability, which measures the company's liability to meet short term liabilities.
The better current ratio should be at heathcliff villain, around two, which means the company has enough ability to repay its current liabilities. On this respect, Next Plc. Of Personal Essay? with current ratios over one for all the recent three years performs better than Debenhams Plc. Even though there is an increasing trend in the current ratio for Debenhams Plc., it is still much lower than Next Plc.'s. Moreover, as both Next Plc. and Debenhams Plc. are retailing company primarily providing clothing and home products, they have a large number of inventories as current assets which are not easy enough to heathcliff villain essay transfer into cash. Therefore, it is significant to calculate the life experiences-essay, quick ratio for them to find out the truer liquidity condition of heathcliff essay, these two companies. The quick ratios of Debenhams Plc. for the recent three years are all under 0.2. It means Debenhams Plc. A Mockingbird Notes Essay? are likely unable to repay its short term liabilities. Essay? On the other hand, Next Plc. plays much better with quick ratio at around 1. However, in concours creative writing paper terms of the ability to villain repay the long term liabilities, Next Plc. has showed a much worse figure.
The gearing ratios, also the debt to equity ratios, of Next Plc. are 463.5%, 256.6% and 296.2% for paper 2010, 2011 and 2012 respectively. The higher gearing ratio means Next Plc. has a higher degree of leverage, which is considered riskier if investors tend to essay invest in. Compared with Debenhams Plc. with a lower gearing, Next Plc. would be more vulnerable to introduction of personal go downturns in business cycle as it has to heathcliff hero villain essay use its revenue to repay its liabilities and need to try to continuously increase sales. The corporate governance is reflected in the corporate governance report from the company's annual report. Literature Reviews (theory and practice) Corporate governance is topic that investors and other stakeholders pay an increasing attention on. Sifuna (2012) defines the corporate governance as a system of law and sound approaches by concours creative paper, which corporations are directed and controlled focusing on villain essay the internal and external corporate structures with the intention of monitoring the actions of management and directors and thereby mitigating agency risks which may stem from the misdeeds of writing essays in law, corporate officers. Based on a recent research made by Mercer Investment Consulting, forty-six per cent of institutional asset owners have considered about the heathcliff essay, corporate governance of company when they tend to make investing decisions (Fombrun, 2006). There are several core components that constitute good corporate governance. It consists of board structure, audit and financial control, executive compensation, shareholders' rights and market for control (Pierce and Waring, 2005).
Good corporate governance would support the company to run in the best long-term interests of its shareholders. Currently, in order to help investors and other stakeholders of company to make relevant decisions, there are three main organisations that provide governance rating, which are Governance Metrics International (GMI), Institutional Shareholder Services (ISS) and m.tech thesis, The Corporate Library (Fombrun, 2006). Almost 3200 international corporates have been rated by Governance Metrics International and 33 of them obtain the top governance rating score of ten. A large number of companies would like to heathcliff essay improve their corporate governance because investors may be likely to contribute more money in the companies with higher level of governance rating. Possible Essay Questions Named Desire? Indeed, according to the report carried out by McKinsey Company, investors are willing to heathcliff hero essay contribute a premium of twelve to introduction of personal essay fourteen per cent to the companies with better corporate governance in Western Europe and North America, and the premium rate will be even higher in new developing areas. Comparison and heathcliff essay, Analysis about Next Plc. and Debenhams Plc. in Corporate Governance. The comparison and analysis about the corporate governance for Next Plc. and Debenhams Plc. will be primarily developed into questions streetcar, three core areas that investors will focus on, which have discussed before: board structure, audit and financial control and shareholders' rights (Pierce and villain, Waring, 2005). Both Next Plc. and writing essays, Debenhams Plc. have a clear board structure includes Executive Directors and Non- Executive Directors.
For Next Plc., it has five Executive Directors involve one Chairman and four independent Non- Executive Directors. Hero Villain? Compared with Next Plc., Debenhams Plc. has less Executive Directors which are two and more Non- Executive Directors which are 6 within 5 independent Non- Executive Directors. The more independent Non- Executive Directors in Debenhams Plc. means it may better represent and contact with shareholders rather than Next Plc. With the purpose of providing clear, accurate and essay streetcar desire, timely financial disclosure, both Next Plc. and Debenhams Plc. have established audit committee with independent outside auditors. The audit committee of Debenhams Plc. appoints PricewaterhouseCoopers LLP as its external auditors and Ernst Young LLP has been the Next Plc.'s auditors for over 20 years. Additionally, the two companies' external auditors also provide non-audit services to heathcliff hero essay enhance the independence and objectivity of external auditors. The better audit control will guarantee the financial statements offered by these two companies are true and introduction of personal essay, faithful. On the respect of shareholders' rights, both Next Plc. and Debenhams Plc. claim that all the ordinary shareholders are entitled to villain attend the Annual General Meeting and have voting rights with the ability to select or reselect directors.
The shareholders' rights will promote the directors to more actively communicate with shareholders and be responsible for them. In addition to these three aspects, their corporate governance reports also include other aspects, such as remuneration strategies and risk management. All of these components constitute overall good corporate governance for these two companies. Corporate Social and Environmental Reporting. Literature Reviews (theory and practice) There are a number of theories discussing on the corporate social responsibility. Milton Friedman (1970) descried an introduction of personal, agency theory the CSR is a signal of agency problem of company which would misuse the company's sources to heathcliff villain essay some values-added internal projects. Freeman (1984) added more positive view on CSR that the management of company should consider about different stakeholders such as workers and suppliers and satisfy them so that influence the company's outcome. After that, the stakeholder theory had been expanded by Donaldson and Preston (1995). Then McWilliams and Siegel (2001) had carried out a research within two companies.
These two companies provide identical products but one company has done some corporate social things on its products. As a result, this company's products are higher valued by customers and other stakeholders. Therefore, McWilliams and Siegel (2001) concluded that the creative writing, CSR activities may bring positive influence to companies. In their following study, they introduced resource-based view of firm. Hero Essay? They believe that if CSR strategies are supported by political strategies, it will be used to generate sustainable competitive advantage for companies (McWilliams and Siegel, 2002). At present, managers of most big international corporates devote more efforts on developing good corporate social responsibility. School Experiences-essay? According the relate research, more than fifty per cent of the Fortune 1000 companies issue CSR reports every year (Tsoutsoura, 2004). Addition, it usually also includes the environmental reporting as the company without care about environment will have a negative on the social. Heathcliff Hero Villain? It is known that the oil spill of essay questions named desire, BP in Gulf of Mexico in 2010 has not only the serious negative influences on villain essay the environments and the people living around that disaster, but has extremely bad effects of the company's reputation, which make the company lose a lot. Therefore, the named, Corporate Social and Environmental Reporting is also significant to evaluate by investors when they tend to hero villain essay make investment decisions. Comparison and Analysis about concours paper planes, Next Plc. and Debenhams Plc. in hero villain essay Corporate Social and high school experiences-essay, Environmental Reporting.
Next Plc. conducts Corporate Social Responsibility report annually, which involves in Environmental reports. Its CSR report indicates how the company use CSR activities to support it business activities' success and continuously growing with responsibility to all its stakeholders, including suppliers, customers, employees, environments and community. Next Plc. announces that the business will be run in a responsible way through acting in heathcliff villain an ethical manner, considering about their employees, being responsible and taking care about the impact they made on the environment, providing supports by charitable contributions and delivering faithful value to their customers. On the basis of its good performance in Corporate Social Responsibility, Next Plc. has been selected as one of 2012 London Olympics Games partners. In addition, on the respect of environment, Next Plc. In Law? continued to fulfil its objectives of reducing impact on environment and obtained some achievements in 2012, which include reducing the use of energy by villain, 5% compared with last year, overall 85% operational waste having been recycled and 9% reduction of distribution compared with last year. Compared with Next Plc., Debenhams Plc. does not carry out an individual Corporate Social Responsibility report. It just provides its corporate social activities as sustainable review in the company's annual report, but it does not mean that Debenhams Plc. does not care about its stakeholders, which also includes suppliers, customers, employees and environments. In their annual report, Martina King who is the chair of sustainability committee claims that being environmentally and socially responsible is embedded into the business and into everyone's role. Writing Essays In Law? In terms of the environmental area, Debenhams Plc. Heathcliff? also aims to concours paper reduce impact on environments to support sustainable business. In addition, Debenhams Plc. has their own environmental strategies: a fresh approach of waste, energy efficiency in store, driving down impacts and managing climate change. However, no matter the Corporate Social Responsibility activities or environmental activities, Debenhams Plc. did not present sufficient details to explain how they conduct these activities and have what achievements.
Conclusion and hero villain, Recommendations. To sum up, taking the performance of all these four areas into account, investors should choose Next Plc. to questions streetcar named invest in. From the perspective of heathcliff villain, financial performance, Next Plc. has a better performance rather than Debenhams Plc. Streetcar Desire? Next Plc. Heathcliff? has an increasing trend in sales growth rate but Debenhams Plc. has decreasing trend. The profitability ratio and investment ratio also can be treated as indicators that Next Plc. will bring more benefits to investors. Especially, the high life, earing per share and dividend per share of Next Plc. are much higher than Debenhams Plc.'s. After that, through the analysis of financial position for these two companies, it can conclude Next Plc. Heathcliff Hero Villain Essay? has a stronger ability to essay questions named desire meet its short-term liabilities with relatively higher current ratio and even the quick ratios for the recent three are all at around 1. Heathcliff? Compare with Next Plc., Debenhams Plc. performs much worse in its liquidity.
In particular, the quick ratio is even lower under 0.2. In terms of the corporate governance, both of in law, these two companies have a good presentation with clear board structure, good audit and financial control and fulfilled shareholders' rights. Finally, on the respect of Corporate Social and Environmental Reporting, Next Plc. has conduct an individual Corporate Social Responsibility report including environmental report detailing the activities the company did and is going to heathcliff essay do in the future to support ethical and successful business, which did better than Debenhams Plc. as well. On the other hand, even though Next Plc. has an overall better performance in different areas, there still exist some potential problems that should pay attention on if investor is going to invest in. High School Experiences-essay? The most significant problem is that Next Plc. has an hero villain essay, extremely higher return on equity and a higher level of leverage (gearing), which means investors will undertake a higher risk if they contribute money in.
What is to kill more, the heathcliff hero villain essay, company has fewer independent Non-Executive Directors rather than Executive Directors. The insufficient independent Non-Executive Directors may be not enough to represent shareholders. Life? Therefore, the company had better to increase the number of independent Non-Executive Directors, which will be more beneficial for heathcliff shareholders.
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Is Heathcliff a hero or a villain? | eNotes
CDCR to resume accepting applications for Correctional Officer on May 2. In September 2015, the Office of Peace Officer Selection (OPOS) announced the temporary suspension of continuous filing for Correctional Officer applications effective Oct. 1, 2015. On May 2, 2016, OPOS will resume accepting applications for Correctional Officer. If you are interested in applying and have questions, call (916) 255-2500 for heathcliff additional information. The application suspension was initially announced for two months and then extended four months to to kill cliff, April 1, 2016 to heathcliff, reduce backlogs in concours writing paper planes processing.
During March and April, OPOS is implementing Computerized Voice Stress Analysis (CVSA) in heathcliff hero essay the selection process for all applicants. CVSA digitally records and analyzes micro-tremors in the human voice to detect deception and creative writing planes, is considered a “best practice” in peace officer hiring. During the application suspension, OPOS continued testing at a reduced rate for applicants who applied prior to the suspension. Testing will resume at full capacity effective April 1, 2016. Cadet hiring has also continued as CDCR’s Office of Training and Professional Development (OTPD) has started an hero essay academy every four weeks during the application suspension. I’ve took the hearing test one time and the Doctor at the clinic set me up with an audiologist. Will this be a disqualification? I was struggling with the 4000 hz and writing essays in law, 6000 hz on left ear.
My right ear was better than normal on all hz. This been on my mind for the last week, please any info is greatly appreciated. Right here is the perfect blog for anybody who would like to. find out about this topic. You understand a whole lot. It’s almost hard to argue with you (not that I personally would want to…HaHa). You certainly put a brand new spin on heathcliff hero villain, a subject that has been discussed for decades. Wonderful stuff. Questions Desire? Just great! Informative comments – I am thankful for the insight – Does someone know if I can get ahold of a sample IRS 1099-MISC copy to hero villain, complete ? I got a DUI in 2007 and then a second one in 2011 (which I am still in the process of finishing).
I know driving record is a big factor in the selection process. I have no felonies just those 2 misdemeanors. Is it worth going throught the process? I just received my test date for 9/26/16. Hi I wanted to ask if being a female with a height of 5’2 and weighing 135 plus being already 38 yrs old would affect trying to be a CO. Is there any height, weight, or age limitations?? Can MTA’s roll over to Correctional Officers?
Or do we have to reapply? most of concours creative, my jobs have been seasonal, also my highschool was a private school that is no longer accredited which I didn’t find out hero villain essay, until college would I have to get a GED now that my diploma is not valid. I was arrested for a felony 8yrs ago but no charges were ever filed but was booked in the county jail i made bail the very same day but no charges were ever filed.. To this day i call the m.tech, court and ask what i can do and heathcliff essay, there is nothing due to essays, the fact i never entered a plea or charges filed.. Basically my question is heathcliff villain, do you think that will disqualify me..
all you can do is contact the court and see about of personal getting the record expunged. But it will more than likely depend on if it was a violent crime, and why it was dismissed if it was dismissed. Hello, I’m in the process of getting my GED and heathcliff villain, is wondering if I have the same chance of getting hired as somebody with a high school diploma. Writing? Also what do they look for heathcliff hero villain with job history and credit? just apply. all they can tell you is no. if don’t ever apply, you won’t ever know.
and its a high school diploma or a GED. GED and felony free is what they look for. On background check, they are checking to make sure your credit history doesn’t look like swiss cheese, and that your ducks are in a row. For job history, they want to make sure you aren’t out there quitting jobs every 20 minutes or getting fired every other week. The best way to concours paper planes, describe it would be a square…they are looking for squares. Someone with their head on their shoulders with a good history behind them. Im 23 year old, i meet all the requirements the only thing im concern is that im 4’10” and about 115 lbs. is heathcliff hero villain, there a special requirement about height and weight . Hello, I am 18 and will be turning 19 soon. I am well aware that you need to of personal, be at least 21 years old to hero essay, become a correctional officer.
I was just wondering if I could still put in an application? If so, will my application be stored and on hold until I am 21? Or do I have to wait until I am 21 to submit an application? Your application is only good for 2 years, and they will not hold onto it for writing those 2 years to wait for you to turn 21. I believe you have to be 20 1/2 years old at hero, the earliest to apply, because you will be 21 by the time you get through everything.
Is it still worth applying and writing in law, going thought the process if i got arrested when i was 18,(currently 24now),in the border,it wasnt drug’s it was a person, i never had court nor did i do time,do they still count it as a felony. I would recommend finding out whether you have a felony on your record first, before getting tangled up into a lengthy process only to find out you won’t pass. Even if you didn’t think it was that bad of heathcliff hero villain, a crime, if the court system ruled it as a felony then you should not apply. Possible Questions Streetcar? GED and felony free are the two main factors in starting a career with CDCR. I got live scanned in heathcliff hero July of 2015 and haven’t heard anything since October I got the to kill a mockingbird cliff, stress email. The entire process may take up to 2 years.
After 2 years you have to heathcliff essay, apply again. The shortest process I have ever seen is 2 months. In the meantime, stay clear of trouble, exercise often, pay down your debt and creative paper planes, turn in any paperwork or call you are requested ASAP. Heathcliff Hero Villain? Medical physical/mental depends on drs. Does having hearing aids make it hard to essays, make it through the academy? I am hard of heathcliff villain, hearing but I can still hear and writing essays, respond to heathcliff hero villain, sounds. With your hearing aids in, can you pass a hearing test? The one where they put those 1970’s headphones on and you listen for the beeps? I wouldn’t see why not if that were the case. Of Personal? Lots of hero, guys with contacts/glasses got in just fine, I don’t see why you wouldn’t be able to either.
*passed all the introduction of personal essay, tests, background, psych vision and got stuck with color . Heathcliff Hero Essay? Minimum requirement didnt say anything about in law that ( Color Blindness) – so now what ? What can I do ? I went thru the essay, long 1 1/2 year process just to be eliminated like this ..please advise … Can I be considered for any other positions since I have back ground and all cleared ? Minimum requirements to concours creative, become a Correctional. U.S. citizenship (or application) Must be at least 21 years old. U.S. high school diploma/GED. Good physical condition. No felony convictions.
Eligible to own/possess a firearm. Hi, I did my CVSA test early March, anyone else? I haven’t heard anything since then. Villain? Just curious if anyone was in the same boat as me? Are tattoos acceptable because I was told that they’re not suppose to be visible? As a part of labview, your personal history packet (that big packet with all the heathcliff villain, information you will have to fill out) the last part of it asks you to list all of your tattoos, where they are located, what they mean, and include photos as well. High Life Experiences-essay? I have 5 tattoos, and all were just fine.
Lots of people have tattoos here, it seems like it’s almost a requirement these days! If you have them or are planning on getting them, keep them clean, keep them free of heathcliff essay, gang affiliations, and you should be just fine with them. Hi, I applied in August of 2015 and had a email stating that I was accepted for the process, and writing essays, that it would take about 6months to hear anything again, this is saying I’m still good correct? I do not have to apply again? You are fine Sergio, just remember that there was a freeze in the process which delayed everything a few months.
The process could take nearly 2 years as a result of it. My process was not delayed and heathcliff hero villain, start to introduction, finish took 19 months to get to the academy. Heathcliff Villain Essay? I believe after 2 years you have to reapply, but you are far from introduction essay that mark. Hello, I am 20 years of age and currently enrolled in college . I have always been interested in heathcliff hero villain law enforcement and is what I am currently studying being a co is a great opportunity and a mockingbird cliff, a great way to start . my only problem is that I am not a U.S cirizien not Resident but I do have my employability visa would I still be able to apply or no? If you failed the background check when can you reapply the date you originally applied? Or the year after you failed background?
I was a CO but took some time off and heathcliff hero villain, then took some time off and thought I retired now I’m wanting to go back what do I have to do? Do I have to go back to the Academy and if I do what do I need to do to concours creative writing paper, get there. I believe if it’s been more than 6 months (could be a year, don’t quote me) then you need to go back through the academy. Heathcliff Villain? That means you must apply and go through the entire process all over again. I had a gentleman in the academy with me who did 7 years, retired, became an high life RN, got bored, and hero villain essay, came back. He went throught the same process I did as a new hire. I am planning in moving out to Southern California, will It be better for me to introduction essay, apply here in Sacramento go through the process and hopefully get placed down South, or should I apply once I am settled in Southern California?
I would apply where you are at, unless you are in no rush to get hired and can wait for an offer near where you want to live. I accepted my first offer and it was an heathcliff 8 hour move North from a mockingbird San Diego. Getting an heathcliff hero villain essay offer for a facility near where you live is not guaranteed. Writing In Law? Be ready, or open to relocating. The process also takes approx 18 months. Apply now, do not hesitate on that part. Essay? You need to get the ball rolling asap. You will not have to worry about any institution talk for atleast a year, until you have passed all of your tests and whatnot.
Then they will email you and let you know you’ve been cleared, and they will ask you to provide 3 choices for your institution. By then you will be settled in and can make a better decision as to where you’d like to go. Hi I’m new to possible desire, this I haven’t got assigned to a bi and it’s been about 7-8 months now since my livescan any idea why it’s taking so long? I got an email in October about a cvsa but never heard anything since. I did my testing in heathcliff hero villain essay October and receieved the same Email as well. I haven’t been assigned a BI yet. Thesis Labview? They told me 6-9 months is the waiting period now for hero essay a BI. I read that officers at certain prisons, such as Pelican Bay, receive a pay incentive, is this true, and how does that work?
You are correct, there are a handful of institutions that receive a pay incentive. I do not remember which facilities they are off the top of my head, but from what I understand the possible essay questions streetcar named, incentive is due to the fact that they are far away from villain civilization, so to speak. I believe ironwood has an concours writing paper incentive because under most circumstances it’s nearly 2 hours away from a main california city. On top of heathcliff, that, you get a night and weekend differential on your pay if you work those hours also. It’s not much, but it adds up by the end of the month. For me, it pays for concours paper half of my month’s gas for hero villain essay my travel. Yes it’s true, it’s about 2600 or so. It use to possible essay streetcar named desire, be a one lump some but will now be broken up into 2 payments. Hi I’m in the process to heathcliff hero villain, get my GED, can I still filed my application for school life CO. I believe a part of the application asks about what level of education you have. Hero Essay? If you do not have your GED yet, I would advise you to of personal essay, call one of the headquarters and heathcliff hero villain, find out first hand.
You can be felony free with GED and still make corrections, so don’t let that discourage you. I understand there’s an age minimum of cliff, 21, but is heathcliff hero essay, there a top age limit to apply? I was in the academy with a gentleman who was 46 years old (he actually out-performed most of creative paper planes, our class on PT!), and he was not the oldest by heathcliff villain essay, far. One gentleman was in his early 60s if I recall when I was there. I hope there is no age limit for new applicants. No, I went in at 47 and did very well. You just have to make it through the academy so make sure you are in tip-top shape prior to thesis, going in. Hero? I recommend you meet with a personal trainer 12 months prior to writing essays, the academy date and do the hero essay, best you can. I saw guys as late as their 60s going in for streetcar desire the first time and I have of older guys than that.
I was thankful that there are no age limits just need a clean record as well. hi, i am very interested in hero villain essay applying, not sure how though. How and to kill a mockingbird essay, when do i need to apply? After May 2nd just come back to this same site cdcr.gov, it should definitely show a cover page now accepting applications for, peace officer’s. Once you click on there page source, it would take you directly into the application. Its pretty basic once there, it would ask your age status and a supplement questionably form of villain essay, around 50 questions or so. I am interested in applying as an out of high school experiences-essay, state applicant and I was inquiring if applications are not being accepted until May 2nd, 2016? In September 2015, the Office of Peace Officer Selection (OPOS) announced the temporary suspension of hero villain essay, continuous filing for Correctional Officer applications effective Oct. Of Personal Essay? 1, 2015.
On May 2, 2016, OPOS will resume accepting applications for Correctional Officer. I had understood on April,1 2016 applications for Correctional officer would be back up and running? it got pushed back again? In September 2015, the Office of Peace Officer Selection (OPOS) announced the hero, temporary suspension of continuous filing for writing essays Correctional Officer applications effective Oct. 1, 2015. Heathcliff Villain? On May 2, 2016, OPOS will resume accepting applications for Correctional Officer.
When can i apply to creative writing paper planes, self schedule?? I’m so lost because i thought it was going to open on April 1st?? In September 2015, the hero villain essay, Office of Peace Officer Selection (OPOS) announced the temporary suspension of continuous filing for Correctional Officer applications effective Oct. 1, 2015. On May 2, 2016, OPOS will resume accepting applications for Correctional Officer. Hi I didn’t pass my written exam , I received a letter stating that my amended letter be emailed . I misplaced my letter what is the email I’m suppose to send it to?
hello. I previously submitted an application and was asked to schedule a test date. however, I was unable to test at in law, that time. is my application still valid, or do I need to submit a new one? Do you need to go to an academy? Or can you just apply? If so where can I apply? Need some detailed information. If you actually took the time to navigate this website and read then you’d get your answer. I was told my application was accepted. I’m still waiting for a test date.
How many months before you are 21 years old can you submit your application? 6 months. You have to be 20 1/2 usually. Some departments allow you to even be 20 1/2 in the academy as long as you turn 21 by heathcliff hero villain, the time of graduation. I received that I passed everything and now just waiting on writing, an offer to a prsion and I’ve been waiting months. I think it took me about 5-6 months before I heard anything from an institution. Also depends on what your choices were. There’s a chance that those prisons just weren’t hiring at the time you were cleared. From the day I submitted my application online to the day I stepped foot into the academy was just a hair over hero villain essay, 19 months. Use your patience accordingly.
I have a question for. You because i did. Introduction Of Personal Essay? Not pass my test so what you recommend to study i don’t know wich book to study. I received an email saying my application was accepted and I will be getting a date for heathcliff hero essay my test but it’s been months and haven’t received anything? I applied in writing May of 2015. Villain Essay? I didnt get a test date until September. Did my testing in October and writing in law, now waiting on a BI. They told me the process is hero villain, taking 6-9 months just to get a BI. The process entirely is taking up to 2 years.
What are the chances of the suspension being pushed back even longer after May 1st? Well they were supposed to introduction essay, start accepting applications again in December, but literally the day of people found out it was pushed back. Villain? Then they said they’d start up again in April but that was recently pushed back as well. Concours Paper Planes? So there’s a chance it could happen again. Just keep checking. You mean you applied BEFORE the heathcliff hero villain essay, suspension period? During the suspension period they were/are not accepting applications.
They are still processing the m.tech labview, applications received before 10/1/15. Keep checking your email. They said in heathcliff hero essay this article that they will resume testing at possible essay questions streetcar, full capacity on April 1st. What if I applied during the heathcliff hero villain, suspension period of the CDCR, do I need to reapply after April 1st or May 1st?