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1996-1999: Lead SAP consultant representing big 4 firm, SAP America. 1994-1996: Project Leader with Largest Publishing Company, New York, NY. 1988-1994: Manager in Citicorp Software, a Citicorp company providing technology solutions worldwide. Project Management and Leadership. Project Integration Mgr. - SAP R/3 (Procure to effects of not exercising essay Pay – Corporate Shared Services) Currently managing large SAP implementation to support procure-to-pay functions across all Lockheed Martin business units.
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Prototyped procurement processes for editorial services integrated with projects. In first phase, I was involved in configuration and prototyping for MM-Purchasing and invoice verification. In Schools? Prototyped numerous procurement scenarios like material and service procurement, use of contracts, procurement source determination techniques, RFQ process etc. Developed an literature review on ratio analysis, innovative solution for asset procurement through parent company using a customized payment method in banning books essay accounts payable to studies take advantage of tax benefits. Developed integration test for purchasing and accounts payable and lead the execution. In early stages, worked on legacy systems analysis, overall functional mapping to books SAP and development of dashboard, implementation plan. Helped in adopting the implementation methodology and customize R/3 toolkit (a software engineering tool) to support various lifecycle stages. Project Leader - Contracts Imaging System, EDI, Process, Data Modeling.
Lead the process and data modeling efforts for books in schools, order processing, sales and distribution, credit and marketing cost tracking systems as an input to strategic planning. Improved EDI processes. Worked Citibank to develop and implement technology solutions for financial services across the management 21st essay, globe using leading edge technologies. Quickly learned new technologies and books in schools delivered results in highly demanding projects in various roles. Starting as developer, quickly advanced to management century team lead. The projects delivered include: 2/91 – 2/93 Project Leader - Imaging System for Check Processing for Citibank (Cash Mgmt.), Bombay. 7/90 – 1/91 Team Member - Securities Trading System - Citibank (Global Finance), Zurich. 3/90 – 6/90 Team Member - Marketing MIS - Citicorp Software, Bombay.
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Against Banning Books | Teen Opinion Essay | Teen Ink
Automated Essay Evaluation for English Language Learners:A Case Study of MY Access. Computer technology made its way into writing instruction and assessment with spelling and grammar checkers decades ago, but more recently it has done so with automated essay evaluation (AEE) and diagnostic feedback. And although many programs and tools have been developed in the last decade, not enough research has been conducted to support or evaluate the claims of the developers. This study examined the effectiveness of in schools, automated writing instructional programs in consistent scoring of essays and appropriate feedback to case studies, student writers. It examined the scoring and instructional program called MY Access! Home Edition , which has an error feedback tool called My Editor to address these issues. The study combined a quantitative study of agreement and correlational analyses with an analysis of content and topic. Participants included 114 English language learners who wrote 147 essays to three writing prompts, which were graded by trained EFL raters and MY Access . From the sample, 15 randomly selected essays were also used for banning in schools, an error analysis comparing My Editor with human annotations to examine My Editor ’s accuracy. The main findings were that MY Access scoring was only correlated moderately with human ratings. Furthermore, because MY Access scoring is limited to the recognition of content words, not how these words are organized at the discourse level, it did not detect slightly off-topic essays and plagiarism. Finally, My Editor ’s error feedback, with 73% precision and 30% recall, did not meet the expectations of an accurate tool.
In conclusion, the home edition of case, MY Access was not found to be useful as an independent instructional tool. These findings give us pause regarding the effectiveness of MY Access . Computer technology is banning books in schools essay, increasingly becoming part of language learning and writing, despite initial rejections and lingering skepticism over essays.ph dashboard, the last few decades (Dikli, 2006 Dikli, S. ( 2006 ). An overview of automated scoring of essays . Banning Books. The Journal of Technology, Learning, and Assessment , 5(1). Retrieved from http://ejournals.bc.edu/ojs/index.php/jtla/article/view/1640/1489 [Google Scholar] ; Xi, 2010 Xi, X. ( 2010 ). Automated scoring and case studies, feedback systems: Where are we and where are we heading? Language Testing , 27, 291 – 300 . doi: 10.1177/0265532210364643 [Crossref], [Web of Science #0174;] [Google Scholar] ). It was first used in writing classes with spelling and grammar checkers, which eased worries about “minutiae (such as how to spell minutiae) while composing, or even when revising and polishing” (Calfee, 2000 Calfee, R. ( 2000 , September ). To grade or not to banning, grade . In M. A. Hearst (Ed.), The debate on automated essay grading ( pp. 35–37 ). IEEE Intelligent Systems, 15 , 22–37. Essay Faced Farmers. Piscataway, NJ: IEEE Educational Activities Department. [Google Scholar] , p. Banning. 35). Recently, it has taken on a bigger role in writing assessment in the form of disaster case studies, automated evaluation of essays. This has attracted much attention from the assessment industry, writing instructors, and other stakeholders in an ongoing debate about the value of automated essay scoring, now known as automated essay evaluation (AEE).
AEE applications include scoring engines with instructional programs in Criterion, MY Access , and WriteToLearn . These programs, with their combination of automated scoring, automated feedback, and writing instruction tools, have gained ground at different educational levels in the United States. Since the pioneering work on banning books, the Project Essay Grade by Ellis Page in 1965, many automated essay evaluation initiatives have emerged. These included ETS’ e-rater , Pearson’s Intelligent Essay Assessor (IEA), Bayesian Essay Test Scoring System (BETSY), and Vantage Learning’s IntelliMetric . Case Studies. A review of banning books essay, AEE developmental and research histories shows a tilted playing field toward the assessment industry that has dominated the debate. As Warschauer and Ware ( 2006 Warschauer, M. , Ware, P. ( 2006 ). Automated writing evaluation: Defining the classroom research agenda . Language Teaching Research , 10, 157 – 180 . doi: 10.1191/1362168806lr190oa [Crossref], [Web of Science #0174;] [Google Scholar] ) noted, the majority of research validating different AEE systems is vendor funded and carried out to literature analysis essays, “demonstrate that it [AES software] ‘works’ either in the sense that its ratings correlate with those of human ratings or that particular features or aspects function as desired” (p. 166). However, voices from the banning books in schools instructional side were first heard in Ericsson and effects, Haswell’s book (2006) Machine Scoring of Student Essays: Truth and Consequences in which many writing instructors reported AEE failures in in schools scoring essays satisfactorily. This study emerged from dashboard, a similar concern: that AEE systems are not able to do a satisfactory job as writing instructors would expect. It examined this concern with a study of MY Access , which uses Vantage Learning’s proprietary IntelliMetric scoring system.
We selected MY Access for analysis because it is a popular program in the United States. Researchers have adopted different terminology to books in schools essay, categorize AEE systems, depending on how they were developed. Brent and Townsend categorized ( 2006 Brent, E. , Townsend, M. ( 2006 ). Automated essay grading in the sociology classroom: Finding common ground . 200 Persuasive Essay. In P. F. Ericsson , R. H. Banning In Schools Essay. Haswell (Eds.), Machine scoring of essay on challenges faced, student essays: Truth and banning in schools, consequences ( pp. 177–198 ). Studies. Logan, UT : Utah State University Press . [Google Scholar] ) AEE systems as statistics-based and rule or knowledge-based approaches, whereas Ben-Simon and Bennett ( 2007 Ben-Simon, B. , Bennett, R. E. ( 2007 ). Toward more substantively meaningful automated essay scoring. The Journal of Technology, Learning, and Assessment, 6 (1). Retrieved from http://ejournals.bc.edu/ojs/index.php/jtla/article/view/1631/1475 [Google Scholar] ) categorized them based on methods, namely, brute-empirical and hybrid methods. Statistics-based programs create scoring models based on a large set of banning in schools, pre-scored essays of 300 or more. This input is literature review essays, processed by the scoring system, such as IntelliMetric or e-rater , which extracts the predictive features from texts that lead to the assigned ratings for books, new essays. The primary focus in statistics-based programs remains on linguistic considerations, such as mechanics, syntax, and writing conventions. Studies. The extracted features (usually more than 50) are then boiled down to books in schools, 8–12 most dominant ones that are analyzed by using linear multiple regression equations to decide their best weightings in predicting the ratings for new essays.
The set of analysis essays, finalized predictive features varies from in schools essay, one scoring model to another. Until now, these models are prompt-based as the system is trained using different sets of essays.ph, graded essay responses to essay, specific prompts. Effects Essay. By this definition, ETS’ e-rater and Vantage Learning’s IntelliMetric are statistics-based because they extract features and their optimal weightings using statistical calculations instead of building on theory and indicators of good writing. Therefore, IntelliMetric belongs to the brute-empirical method . Rule-based or knowledge-based systems are trained on a large domain-representative text, such as textbooks or articles. The input for banning books, these systems is an expert knowledge base that results in a grading rubric detailing the 200 persuasive topics criteria to score constructed essay responses. IEA, a scoring machine for discipline-specific courses (now known as Knowledge Analysis Technologies), has at its core Latent Semantic Analysis (LSA), a machine-learning method that characterizes a word used in a sentence, passage, or essay based on semantic associations (Landauer, Foltz, Laham, 1998 Landauer, T. K. , Foltz, P. W. , Laham, D. ( 1998 ). Banning Essay. The intelligent essay assessor: Applications to educational technology. Interactive Multimedia Educational Journal of essays.ph, Computer-Enhanced Learning, 1 (2). Retrieved from http://imej.wfu.edu/articles/1999/2/04/ [Google Scholar] ). LSA claims to be the only evaluation system in which meaning is dominant. Simply put, “it promises to in schools, help teachers and on ratio analysis essays, learners by evaluating essays based on what their authors appear to know about a topic” (McGee, 2006 McGee, T. ( 2006 ). Taking a spin on the intelligent essay assessor . In P. F. In Schools. Ericsson , R. H. Effects Of Not Exercising Essay. Haswell (Eds.), Machine scoring of student essays: Truth and consequences ( pp.
79–92 ). Logan, UT : Utah State University Press . [Google Scholar] , p. 83). Finally, IEA and banning books in schools, the later versions of e-rater , with their smaller set of theoretically grounded features linked to good writing characteristics, are hybrid method- based systems. Hybrid methods start with a set of features that are judged by writing experts to be indicative of good writing skills. These features serve as the blueprint on which the scoring rubric of literature analysis, automated scoring systems is generated. Either a set of pre-scored essays or an expert knowledge base is used to extract the optimal weightings for different features in the final scoring rubric. The combination between theoretically based features and statistical calculations to generate a scoring model leads to what is called “hybrid approaches.” Objections to computer-automated essay evaluation. Despite all the advances, objections to banning in schools essay, computer-automated essay evaluation have been formidable. There are two main objections: humanist and defensive objections. First, there is the well-known objection from the literature on ratio essays Conference on College Composition and Communication ( 2004 Conference on College Composition and banning books essay, Communication. ( 2004 ). CCCC position statement on teaching, learning, and of not exercising, assessing writing in digital environments . Retrieved from books, http://www.ncte.org.ezp.lib.unimelb.edu.au/cccc/resources/positions/digitalenvironments [Google Scholar] ): “Because all writing is social, all writing should have human readers, regardless of the purpose of writing” (p.
36; cited in Carr, 2014 Carr, N. ( 2014 ). Computer-automated scoring of writing responses . In A. J. Kunnan (Ed.), The companion to language assessment ( pp. 1063–1078 ). Malden, MA : Wiley . [Google Scholar] ). Generally, various studies on AEE systems have responded to humanist objections, mainly challenging the validity of fairly strong relationships between human ratings and AEE ratings in in the 21st century essay several corporate-conducted studies. In Schools. But the literature review analysis correlations and books, agreement studies have not always shown high indices. Liu and Kunnan ( 2016 Liu, S. , Kunnan, A. J. ( 2016 ). Investigating the applications of automated writing evaluation to Chinese undergraduate English majors: A case study of essays.ph dashboard, WritetoLearn . Banning Essay. CALICO Journal , 33, 71 – 91 . [Google Scholar] ) reported that correlations between human ratings and automated scoring by three AEE systems are high: .79 to 200 persuasive, .87 for e-rater (Burstein et al ., 1998 Burstein, J. , Braden-Harder, L. , Chodorow, M. , Hua, S. , Kaplan, B. , Kukich, K. , … Wolff, S. ( 1998 ). Computer analysis of in schools, essay content for automated score prediction (Research Report 98-15). Princeton, NJ : Educational Testing Service . [Google Scholar] ), .93 (average) for Intellimetric (Vantage Learning, 2006 Vantage Learning. ( 2006 ). Research summary: Intellimetric scoring accuracy across genres and grade levels . Retrieved from of not, http://www.vantagelearning.com/docs/intellimetric/IM_ResearchSummary_IntelliMetric_Accuracy_Across_Genre_and_Grade_Levels.pdf [Google Scholar] ), and banning in schools, .76 to .95 for IEA (Foltz, Lochbaum, Rosenstein, 2011 Foltz, P. W. , Lochbaum, K. E. , Rosenstein, M. R. ( 2011 , April).
Analysis of student ELA writing performance for effects exercising, a large scale implementation of banning essay, formative assessment. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the National Council of Measurement in Education , New Orleans, Louisiana . Disaster Studies. [Google Scholar] ). She also noted that exact agreement percentages are 45–59% for e-rater and 76% for Intellimetric (Attali Burstein, 2006 Attali, Y. , Burstein, J. Essay. ( 2006 ). Automated essay scoring with e-rater® v.2 . Journal of Technology, Learning, and Assessment , 4(3). 200 Persuasive Essay Topics. Retrieved from http://ejournals.bc.edu/ojs/index.php/jtla/article/view/1650/1492 [Google Scholar] ) and 50–81% for IEA (Foltz et al ., 2011 Foltz, P. W. , Lochbaum, K. E. , Rosenstein, M. R. ( 2011 , April). Books Essay. Analysis of student ELA writing performance for a large scale implementation of formative assessment. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the National Council of Measurement in case studies Education , New Orleans, Louisiana . [Google Scholar] ) but for adjacent agreements the percentages are very high: 87–97% for e-rater , 99% for banning essay, Intellimetric , and 91–100% for IEA (from the same authors). Furthermore, it is widely known that high reliability or agreement does not equal validity. Landauer, Laham, and management essay, Foltz ( 2003 Landauer, T. K. , Laham, D. , Foltz, P. In Schools Essay. ( 2003 ). Automated essay assessment . Assessment in Education , 10, 295 – 308 . doi: 10.1080/0969594032000148154 [Taylor Francis Online] [Google Scholar] ) commented on this problem, “The fact that all these disparate methods [human judges and automated essay scoring] produce similar results at least raises the suspicion that one could get acceptable reliability results with the use of variables that are not conceptually valid [emphasis added]” (p.
305–306). As Koskey and Shermis ( 2013 Koskey, K. L. K. , Shermis, M. D. ( 2013 ). Scaling and norming for automated essay scoring . In M. 200 Persuasive. D. Shermis , J. Burstein (Eds.), Handbook of automated essay evaluation: Current applications and new directions ( pp. 199–220 ). New York, NY : Routledge . [Google Scholar] ) pointed out, the scoring of essays by automated essay evaluation is based on mainly quantitatively assessing the observed variables in essays. These variables are often referred to as “proxies” as opposed to “trins,” which are the latent and real underlying variables that we are interested in measuring. They cited a system that claims to in schools essay, count the number of times “but” is used in an essay as a proxy for sentence complexity. Literature On Ratio Essays. Moreover, because developers usually publicize scoring rubrics but choose to keep the weightings of these variables confidential, Coniam ( 2009 Coniam, D. ( 2009 ). Experimenting with a computer essay-scoring program based on ESL student writing scripts . ReCALL , 21, 259 – 279 . Banning Books In Schools. doi: 10.1017/S0958344009000147 [Crossref], [Web of Science #0174;] [Google Scholar] ) commented in his study with BETSY that “despite high correlations with a human rater, computer programs still lack transparency in terms of how they achieve the grades they award. This creates a validity problem as we do not know how ratings are achieved” (p. Dashboard. 276). Second, defensive objections are more problematic.
McGee’s ( 2006 McGee, T. ( 2006 ). Taking a spin on the intelligent essay assessor . In P. F. Ericsson , R. H. Haswell (Eds.), Machine scoring of student essays: Truth and banning, consequences ( pp. 79–92 ). Logan, UT : Utah State University Press . [Google Scholar] ) experiments challenged all the claims about exercising, IEA. He found the “meaning” implicated by IEA to totally disregard cohesion and coherence, which are of great importance to the meaning construction of any text. Such findings make sense, because the most well-known approach to assign ratings to essays in essay AEE systems is the regression approach to predict the quality of an essay. However, the scoring of content always poses a bigger challenge for these systems than other observed variables, such as the number of commas, the number of sentences, or the use of verb/noun agreement. Thus, to evaluate the content of an essay, AEE systems use an additional technique, such as those used by LSA to supplement their prediction weightings of dashboard, this variable. They base their evaluation of content on an analysis of keywords and synonyms or sets of keywords and synonyms in an essay and compare their Euclidean distance to the words on a master list.
On the basis of such an approach, the appropriacy of the factual content in an esssay is measured in terms of its similarity of lexical choices to a corpus at the expense of coherence and cohesion. The “meaningful factual content” carried by the AEE system is, therefore, independent of any factual accuracy. As a result, a “bad faith essay” can easily trick the system into assigning a high score for banning in schools essay, a mechanically written essay. Essays.ph. Such findings have resulted in resistance from writing instructors. The recent Handbook of automated essay evaluation (Shermis Burstein, 2013 Shermis, M. D. , Burstein, J. (Eds.). ( 2013 ). Handbook of banning books essay, automated essay evaluation . New York, NY : Routledge . [Google Scholar] ) showed the recent advances and continuing evolution in recent years and its awareness of the objections presented above.
A few of the questions they raised were: “Can systems be gamed? Does the essay use of banning in schools essay, AEE foster limited signaling effects by encouraging attention only to formal aspects of writing, excluding richer aspects of the writing construct? Does AEE subvert the writing act fundamentally by depriving the student of essay, a true ‘audience’?” (p. Banning Books Essay. 2). In the last 45-year period of AEE systems, validation research of automated scoring has provided many findings. Yang, Buckendahl, Juszkiewicz, and Bhola ( 2002 Yang, Y. , Buckendahl, C. W. Review. , Juszkiewicz, P. J. , Bhola, D. S. ( 2002 ). Banning Books In Schools. A review of strategies for validating computer-automated scoring . Applied Measurement in Education , 15, 391 – 412 . doi: 10.1207/S15324818AME1504_04 [Taylor Francis Online], [Web of Science #0174;] [Google Scholar] ) identified three broad approaches. First, much of the research on automated scoring systems has been devoted to demonstrating correlations or agreements between automated ratings and human ratings. The second group of essays.ph dashboard, studies has investigated the relationship between AEE ratings and external indicators, such as teachers’ judgments of student writing skills or other test results (Coniam, 2009 Coniam, D. Books In Schools Essay. ( 2009 ). Experimenting with a computer essay-scoring program based on ESL student writing scripts . ReCALL , 21, 259 – 279 . doi: 10.1017/S0958344009000147 [Crossref], [Web of Science #0174;] [Google Scholar] ; Vantage Learning, 2007 Vantage Learning. ( 2007 ). MY access!® efficacy report . Essay On Challenges Faced By Indian. New Hope, PA: Vantage Learning.
Retrieved from http://www.vantagelearning.com/school/research/myaccess.html [Google Scholar] ; Weigle, 2002 Weigle, S. C. ( 2002 ). Assessing writing . Cambridge, UK : Cambridge University Press . [Crossref] [Google Scholar] ). External factors that have been researched include multiple-choice tests, grades in courses dependent on writing, teachers’ ratings of student writing skills, and students’ self-evaluations (Ben-Simon Bennett, 2007 Ben-Simon, B. Banning In Schools Essay. , Bennett, R. E. ( 2007 ). Toward more substantively meaningful automated essay scoring. The Journal of by indian, Technology, Learning, and Assessment, 6 (1). Retrieved from banning in schools essay, http://ejournals.bc.edu/ojs/index.php/jtla/article/view/1631/1475 [Google Scholar] ). The third approach has explored the 200 persuasive essay topics scoring process and mental models used by AEE systems. Books. For example, one concern about AEE scoring is the weighting of length as a scoring trait because length was found to be a highly predictive feature in 200 persuasive essay e-rater (Chodorow Burstein, 2004 Chodorow, M. , Burstein, J. ( 2004 ). Beyond essay length: Evaluating e-rater®’s performance on banning in schools, TOEFL essays (Research Report No. 73). Princeton, NJ : Educational Testing Service . Literature On Ratio Analysis. [Google Scholar] ). In Jones’s ( 2006 Jones, E. ( 2006 ). ACCUPLACER’s essay-scoring technology: When reliability does not equal validity . Essay. In P. F. Ericsson , R. H. Effects Essay. Haswell (Eds.), Machine scoring of student essays: Truth and consequences ( pp. 79–92 ). Logan, UT : Utah State University Press . [Google Scholar] ) study scored by WritePlacer Plus , ACCUPLACER’s program using IntelliMetric as its automated scoring system, 85% of the variance in books essay ratings was accounted for by length. 21st Century. 1 1 In a recent competition, ETS invited people to write essays that could trick e-rater into banning essay assigning lower or higher ratings than deserved. Essay By Indian Farmers. The winner’s technique was simply to write a paragraph and repeat it 37 times. E-rater gave this essay the highest possible score of 6 while two human raters both scored it “1,” creating the essay maximum discrepancy of five points between automated and by indian, human scoring (Powers, Burstein, Chodorow, Fowles, Kukich, 2002 Powers, D. E. , Burstein, J. C. , Chodorow, M. , Fowles, M. E. , Kukich, K. ( 2002 ). Stumping e-rater : Challenging the books in schools essay validity of automated essay scoring . Computers in review Human Behavior , 18, 103 – 134 . doi: 10.1016/S0747-5632(01)00052-8 [Crossref], [Web of Science #0174;] [Google Scholar] ). View all notes. Xi ( 2010 Xi, X. ( 2010 ). Automated scoring and feedback systems: Where are we and where are we heading?
Language Testing , 27, 291 – 300 . doi: 10.1177/0265532210364643 [Crossref], [Web of Science #0174;] [Google Scholar] ) developed a list of validity questions related to automated scoring, in books the same way questions are asked in a validity argument (as proposed by Chapelle, Enright, Jamieson, 2008 Chapelle, C. , Enright, M. , Jamieson, J. (Eds.). ( 2008 ). 200 Persuasive. Building a validity argument for TOEFL . New York : Routledge/Taylor and Francis Group . [Google Scholar] ). These questions included underrepresentation or misrepresentation of books essay, constructs and writing tasks, validity and consistency of farmers, scoring, and whether test takers’ knowledge of the scoring algorithms would impact their writing. AEE systems and non-native student writers of English. Particularly relevant to this study is the performance of automated scoring systems on non-native (ESL and banning books, EFL) student essay responses. However, this dimension of AEE systems has received little attention (Coniam, 2009 Coniam, D. ( 2009 ). Experimenting with a computer essay-scoring program based on ESL student writing scripts . ReCALL , 21, 259 – 279 . doi: 10.1017/S0958344009000147 [Crossref], [Web of Science #0174;] [Google Scholar] ). Instead of building systems to directly target non-native English speaker responses, models for case, native speaker essays have been used for banning books in schools, comparisons with non-native counterparts. As Warschauer and Ware ( 2006 Warschauer, M. Farmers. , Ware, P. Books In Schools. ( 2006 ). Automated writing evaluation: Defining the classroom research agenda . Language Teaching Research , 10, 157 – 180 . doi: 10.1191/1362168806lr190oa [Crossref], [Web of Science #0174;] [Google Scholar] ) noted, none of the AEE systems were originally built for the EFL/ESL population, but their development gradually has accommodated the needs of this population. This is demonstrated in the various feedback options, including first language feedback now available for speakers of Spanish, Chinese, Japanese, and effects essay, Korean in MY Access . Yet questions still remain whether these accommodations, well intentioned as they are, really help EFL/ESL students improve their writing skills. Weigle ( 2013 Weigle, S. ( 2013 ). Banning Books In Schools. English as a second language writing and automated essay evaluation . In M. D. Shermis , J. Burstein (Eds.), Handbook of automated essay evaluation ( pp. 36–54 ). New York, NY : Routledge . [Google Scholar] ) also pointed out the need for “the applicability of automated essay scoring (AES) systems to non-native speakers (NNSs)” (p.
36). Essay On Challenges By Indian Farmers. Liu and Kunnan ( 2016 Liu, S. Banning In Schools Essay. , Kunnan, A. J. ( 2016 ). Investigating the applications of automated writing evaluation to Chinese undergraduate English majors: A case study of WritetoLearn . Case. CALICO Journal , 33, 71 – 91 . [Google Scholar] ) found that WriteToLearn with Chinese undergraduate study participants was consistent but highly severe compared to the four trained human raters in scoring essays but, more importantly, it failed to score seven essays. EFL teachers and independent researchers’ studies. A number of EFL researchers have recently reported results of their student writers’ reaction to MY Access and its instructional applications, including My Editor, MY Access ’ text analyzer and proofreading tool, and My Tutor , the writing instructional tool generating feedback. In Chen and Cheng’s ( 2006 Chen, C. E. , Cheng, W. ( 2006 , May ). The use of computer-based writing program: Facilitation or frustration? Paper presented at the 23rd International Conference on English Teaching and Learning , Republic of China . [Google Scholar] ) investigation of 68 students who reflected on their use of MY Access in their writing classes, students expressed concerns about two aspects: the unfairness of MY Access ’ grading and its inability to judge the content of essays. In addition, after the initial excitement, students started to feel the books in schools repetition and generality of the diagnostic feedback that they felt was not personalized enough to be useful for essay revision.
Fang’s ( 2010 Fang, Y. ( 2010 ). Review Analysis. Perceptions of the computer-assisted writing program among EFL college learners . Banning Books. Educational Technology Society , 13, 246 – 256 . [Web of Science #0174;] [Google Scholar] ) study focused on student perceptions about using different tools on 200 persuasive, MY Access among 45 junior college students. The students found MY Access a useful writing tool, especially its grammatical proofreading tool, My Editor , but they were not totally happy with its essay scoring system. Students also thought MY Access helped them more with locating and revising form than content. Banning Essay. Such results were reinforced by Dikli’s ( 2010 Dikli, S. ( 2010 ). Effects Essay. The nature of automated essay feedback . CALICO Journal , 28, 99 – 134 . Banning In Schools Essay. doi: 10.11139/cj.28.1.99-134 [Crossref] [Google Scholar] ) investigation into the nature of My Editor and My Tutor ’s feedback to essay, ESL student essays. This study found significant differences between MY Access and in schools essay, written teacher feedback as well as students’ more positive response to dashboard, the latter.
The cutting edge work of AEE systems may yet be in providing diagnostic feedback to writers. Some error detection programs have been making improvements over the last few decades to banning essay, improve their specificity together with precision. Leacock and Chodorow ( 2003 Leacock, C. Essays.ph. , Chodorow, M. Books In Schools Essay. ( 2003 ). Automated grammatical error detection . Literature Review On Ratio. In M. D. Shermis , J. Banning Books In Schools. Burstein (Eds.), Automated essay scoring: A cross-disciplinary perspective ( pp. Literature On Ratio Analysis Essays. 195–208 ). Mahwah, NJ : Lawrence Erlbaum Associates . Banning In Schools. [Google Scholar] ) argued that the value of error diagnosis depends on how specific and informative it is. They take the position that generic responses, such as “something is wrong here,” are inferior to specific comments, such as “this is case studies, a subject-verb agreement error.” With the books essay latter kind of topics, feedback, students are provided more cues to improve their writing. Banning Books In Schools. Assessment of Lexical Knowledge is reported to achieve a precision level of 80% in pointing out errors. This still means that 20% errors flagged are actually well-formed constructions (Leacock Chodorow, 2003 Leacock, C. , Chodorow, M. ( 2003 ). Automated grammatical error detection . In M. D. Management Century Essay. Shermis , J. Burstein (Eds.), Automated essay scoring: A cross-disciplinary perspective ( pp.
195–208 ). Banning In Schools. Mahwah, NJ : Lawrence Erlbaum Associates . In The 21st Century. [Google Scholar] ). Books Essay. Their study also showed that the 21st essay four most predictive error types for student essays are agreement, ill-formed modals, ill-formed infinitive clauses, and ill-formed participles. MY Access has an error feedback tool called My Editor . It detects spelling, grammar, and punctuations errors. It also diagnoses vocabulary choice and sentential-level errors. As students click on in schools essay, My Editor when they work on dashboard, their drafts or revise an already submitted essay, a computer screen shows the banning essay students their essays with errors. Automated feedback can thus be used as an initial response to case studies, student writing. The possible quick generation of in schools essay, feedback to student essays also is better than the on ratio analysis notoriously time-consuming nature of writing instructors giving feedback, especially in large classes. Of course, the expectation is banning, that diagnostic feedback will help student writers, although the effects of not exercising written error feedback literature poses some concerns. Research in banning books in schools the area of written corrective feedback (WCF) has not been conclusive in what extent student writers benefit from WCF or even whether they benefit at essays.ph dashboard, all (see Ferris, 1999 Ferris, D. Books Essay. ( 1999 ). Essays.ph. The case for grammar correction in L2 writing classes: A response to Truscott (1996) . Journal of Second Language Writing , 8, 1 – 11 . doi: 10.1016/S1060-3743(99)80110-6 [Crossref] [Google Scholar] , 2004 Ferris, D. Banning In Schools Essay. ( 2004 ). The “grammar correction” debate in L2 writing: Where are we, and essay, where do we go from here? (and what do we do in the meantime…?) . Journal of Second Language Writing , 13, 49 – 62 . doi: 10.1016/j.jslw.2004.04.005 [Crossref], [Web of Science #0174;] [Google Scholar] , 2006 Ferris, D. ( 2006 ). Does error feedback help student writers? New evidence on books, the short- and long-term effects of written error correction . In K. Hyland , F. Topics. Hyland (Eds.), Feedback in second language writing: Contexts and issues ( pp. In Schools. 81–104 ). Cambridge, UK : Cambridge University Press . [Crossref] [Google Scholar] ; Shintani, Ellis, Suzuki, 2014 Shintani, N. , Ellis, R. On Challenges Faced Farmers. , Suzuki, W. ( 2014 ). Effects of written feedback and revision on learners’ accuracy in using two English grammatical structures . Language Learning , 64, 103 – 131 . doi: 10.1111/lang.2014.64.issue-1 [Crossref], [Web of Science #0174;] [Google Scholar] ). The picture is further complicated because most automated error feedback is in banning books in schools essay English, with a very limited range of first language options. On Challenges By Indian. This is in line with Dikli’s ( 2010 Dikli, S. ( 2010 ). Essay. The nature of automated essay feedback . CALICO Journal , 28, 99 – 134 . doi: 10.11139/cj.28.1.99-134 [Crossref] [Google Scholar] ) findings in her study, which suggested that systems need to improve their feedback to non-native essays by giving shorter and less redundant feedback using simpler language and adding feedback for off-topic or repetitive essays.
Xi ( 2010 Xi, X. ( 2010 ). Automated scoring and literature on ratio essays, feedback systems: Where are we and where are we heading? Language Testing , 27, 291 – 300 . doi: 10.1177/0265532210364643 [Crossref], [Web of Science #0174;] [Google Scholar] ) developed a list of validity questions related to automated feedback: whether automated feedback system accurately identifies writers’ errors, whether it can do this consistently, and banning in schools essay, whether the feedback is literature analysis essays, meaningful, and in schools, whether the feedback results in improved writing. Liu and Kunnan ( 2016 Liu, S. , Kunnan, A. J. ( 2016 ). Dashboard. Investigating the applications of automated writing evaluation to books, Chinese undergraduate English majors: A case study of WritetoLearn . CALICO Journal , 33, 71 – 91 . [Google Scholar] ) found in 200 persuasive their examination of WriteToLearn’s feedback, overall precision and recall of errors were only 49% and 18.7% respectively. These figures did not meet the minimum threshold of 90% precision (set by Burstein, Chodorow, Leacock, 2003 Burstein, J. , Chodorow, M. , Leacock, C. Essay. ( 2003 ). Criterion online essay evaluation: An application for effects of not, automated evaluation of student essays . Proceedings of the banning 15th Annual Conference on Innovative Applications of Artificial Intelligence , Acapulco, Mexico . [Google Scholar] ) for it to be considered a reliable error detecting tool. Furthermore, it had difficulty in identifying errors in the use of articles, prepositions, word choice, and 200 persuasive essay, expression. On the banning in schools essay basis of the issues raised in automated scoring and diagnostic feedback, we decided to examine the following research questions. What do the 21st agreement and strength of the relationship between human ratings and MY Access ’ scores reveal about MY Access ’ rating? How does MY Access address content as a scoring trait? How does it treat off-topic essays? How accurate is My Editor ’s feedback when compared to that of banning books, writing instructors? Data were collected from a total of 114 EFL and ESL student writers.
The participants contributed 147 essays from review essays, three prompts, 105 essays based on two prompts from the list of 90 preloaded prompts on MY Access! Home Edition and 42 essays based on one end-of-term essay prompt that was not a pre-loaded prompt. The sample included 97 Vietnamese EFL students and 17 ESL students in banning books the United States. The Vietnamese EFL students were either second- or third-year English majors at a university in central Vietnam pursuing a 4-year BA program. The 17 ESL students were level four and disaster studies, five (intermediate to advanced) students in an Intensive English Program (IEP) at a State University in books in schools California. The large majority of these ESL students were Asian, with Chinese as the 200 persuasive essay biggest group. Three prompts were used in banning in schools essay all. Management In The 21st Century Essay. Two prompts from MY Access were selected from a list of banning books, 90 pre-loaded prompts based on their genres: one informative and one argumentative. Prompt 1 was titled What have you learned?
Prompt 2 was titled Internet classrooms vs. Traditional classrooms . The third writing prompt was not on the list of 200 persuasive essay topics, 90 pre-loaded topics on books in schools essay, MY Access . On Challenges Farmers. It was an end-of-term exam prompt administered at the university in books in schools essay Vietnam. Prompt 3 was titled Milestones . Prompts 1 and dashboard, 2 as they appeared on banning books in schools, MY Access are presented in Appendix A and Prompt 3 is presented in Appendix B. Experimental prompts used by disaster studies, the researcher. A total of 42 end-of-term exam essays were submitted to three different MY Access prompts, two of which were pre-loaded topics on MY Access (one persuasive “Challenges of Parenthood” and one informative “Power sources in books in schools the Year 2050”) serving as “false” prompts for these essays, and the other was the teacher-created prompt (the real topic). 200 Persuasive. The researcher used the teacher-created topic function on MY Access to add the following end-of-term exam prompt: “What are the banning essay important milestones in a person’s life in your culture? Give the reasons why they are important.” These essays submitted to this newly created prompt in the system produced a set of 200 persuasive topics, 42 scores.
Afterward, these essays were submitted to the two false prompts, called the first and banning in schools, second experimental prompts. Management. These experimental prompts and the teacher-created topic are presented in books essay Appendix B. The two essay prompts from MY Access were administered as either homework practice or in-class essays, depending on the genres each class was working on in their curriculum and 200 persuasive, their class schedules. More specifically, the homework essays were keyed in books essay by the literature student writers and sent to the teachers in books in schools the Word file, which were then forwarded to the researcher. The in-class essays were handwritten and submitted to the teachers. Afterward, these essays were typed up and double-checked for fidelity to essays.ph, the original handwritten versions. The third group of essays written to the teacher-created prompt included student essays written in a 90-minute exam for the previous semester.
The variation in essay writing conditions among the participants does not interfere with the results of the study because MY Access is designed to banning, facilitate self-conducted writing practice, and timing or the resources students get access to essay, while writing are all acceptable, as long as the final essays are typed in and submitted online to books in schools essay, the system. The scoring of the 105 essays written to the two prompts from MY Access was based on a holistic rubric posted on effects exercising essay, MY Access website (see Appendix C). The rubric used was a 1–6 scoring scale with five major traits of books in schools, writing: Focus and Meaning, Content and on challenges by indian, Development, Organization, Language Use and Style, Mechanics and Conventions. Corresponding to essay, each score point was a brief description of each trait. For example, to achieve a “6,” an essay establishes and maintains “an insightful controlling or central idea and demonstrates a thorough understanding of the purpose and essay on challenges faced by indian farmers, audience [in terms of Focus and Meaning]” or “contains little or no errors in paragraphing, grammar and usage, punctuation, spelling, and books in schools essay, mechanics [in terms of Mechanics and Conventions].” On the literature analysis other hand, “1” indicated an essay that inadequately communicated the writer’s message and failed to support ideas with details and/or examples (in Content and Development). After the essays were put together, coded, and printed out, they were sent to two human raters for scoring.
The raters were both non-native EFL instructors with MA degrees in TESOL with about 5 years of banning books, teaching experience at 21st century essay, the tertiary level in Vietnam. Prior to the actual scoring, the banning raters worked together to clarify the guidelines of the holistic scoring rubric posted on MY Access . They also went through some essays that had been rated by MY Access to dashboard, get an overview of how Intellimetric rated these essays based on the set of criteria in the rubric. After that, the raters piloted their ratings on a small set of four essays and analyzed the differences in banning in schools essay their ratings to resolve any problems regarding their interpretation of the rubric. The scoring rubrics were examined to see if there were high agreements between human ratings and MY Access ratings. Literature Review Analysis Essays. Double ratings from two trained EFL teachers were obtained and averaged for the set of banning, essays written to the two prompts on MY Access . An inter-rater agreement analysis (exact, adjacent, and discrepant) and correlation analyses were conducted. In addition, the effects of prompts and raters on ratings and the effect of faced, essay length on ratings were examined by essay, using ANOVA. Forty-two essays written for the end-of-term exam were collected. Because these essays were written to a topic other than the 90 ones pre-loaded on 200 persuasive essay topics, MY Access , they provided a tool to reveal the way IntelliMetric deals with content in assigning ratings. Pearson correlations were calculated between the ratings these essays received when they were submitted to banning in schools essay, the real topic (using the teacher-created function on essays.ph, MY Access ) and the ratings MY Access generated as these same essays were submitted to the two experimental (or false) topics on the system. In addition, with the help of the banning in schools corpus-based vocabulary tool Compleat Lexical Tutor (Lextutor at http://www.lextutor.ca/), which uses the one-million-word Brown corpus, quantitative statistics were generated for word frequencies and keywords used in the texts created from the essays. This analysis provided clues regarding how MY Access dealt with off-topic essays by examining data from the content analysis of the 42 end-of-term essays.
Two theoretical concepts termed precision and recall were examined for this question. Specifically, precision is the number of cases in which My Editor and the human annotator agree are errors divided by the total number of cases that My Editor flags as errors (Burstein et al ., 2003 Burstein, J. , Chodorow, M. , Leacock, C. ( 2003 ). Criterion online essay evaluation: An application for automated evaluation of case, student essays . Proceedings of the 15th Annual Conference on Innovative Applications of books in schools essay, Artificial Intelligence , Acapulco, Mexico . 200 Persuasive Essay Topics. [Google Scholar] ). Recall is the number of cases correctly identified by My Editor (the hits) divided by books in schools essay, the total human annotator-flagged cases. That is, the number of My Editor ’s hits divided by the total of hits and misses (i.e., cases identified by the human annotator but overlooked by My Editor ). In this analysis, 15 essays were randomly selected from the sample. The first EFL teacher annotated errors using the essays.ph same system of error tags adopted by books essay, My Editor . Century Essay. Error tagging was based on four major trait feedback categories: grammar, usage, mechanics, and style.
Only the first three traits were focused on. The trait of style was intentionally left out of this analysis because it constitutes an ambiguous aspect of writing (Burstein et al ., 2003 Burstein, J. , Chodorow, M. , Leacock, C. ( 2003 ). Criterion online essay evaluation: An application for automated evaluation of student essays . Proceedings of the 15th Annual Conference on Innovative Applications of Artificial Intelligence , Acapulco, Mexico . [Google Scholar] ). For the books essay purpose of this basically quantitative analysis, judgments about good or bad writing style may be too subjective to be suitable. Errors identified were tallied for the calculation of precision and recall . Before the actual coding of errors took place, the human annotator underwent a self-training process to familiarize herself with MY Access ’ error tagging system. She submitted 10 essays from the collected data (other than the 15 essays in the subsample) to MY Access to have a thorough look at the feedback generated by My Editor . 200 Persuasive. Through this, a list of error tags were noted down, including 16 categories: spelling, capitalisation, article, preposition, run-on sentence, fragment, consistency, contraction, punctuation, subject-verb agreement, word form, mass and count nouns, wrong word choice, confused word, comparative, and essay, superlative. The actual error annotation was done with constant reference to in the 21st essay, reliable sources of grammar and English language use, some of which include Raymond Murphy’s ( 1994 Murphy, R. ( 1994 ). English grammar in use: A self-study reference and practice book for intermediate students ( 2nd ed .). Cambridge, UK : Cambridge University Press . [Google Scholar] ) English Grammar in Use , Michael Swan’s ( 2005 Swan, M. ( 2005 ). Practical English usage ( 3rd ed .).
Oxford, UK : Oxford University Press [Google Scholar] ) Practical English Usage , and John Eastwood’s ( 1999 Eastwood, J. ( 1999 ). Oxford practice grammar ( 2nd ed .). Banning Books In Schools. Oxford, UK : Oxford University Press . Essay. [Google Scholar] ) Oxford Practice Grammar . Research question 1: MY Access ’s rubrics for scoring essays. Descriptive statistics of human ratings and MY Access ratings. Descriptive statistics for banning, the three sets of ratings by human Ratings 1 and 2 and MY Access are shown in Table 1. Essays.ph Dashboard. The results show very similar mean ratings from the two human raters, while MY Access appears to be more generous. Automated Essay Evaluation for English Language Learners:A Case Study of banning books in schools, MY Access. Table 1. Descriptives ( N = 105). In general, ratings from the two human raters, their averaged ratings, and MY Access ratings met the necessary assumptions regarding normal distribution, linearity, and range on the 1–6 scale. Therefore, correlations, ANOVA, and simple linear regression could be calculated. Table 2 reports the essays.ph exact and adjacent agreement percentages (Attali Burstein, 2006 Attali, Y. , Burstein, J. Banning Books In Schools. ( 2006 ). Disaster Case. Automated essay scoring with e-rater® v.2 . Journal of Technology, Learning, and Assessment , 4(3). Retrieved from http://ejournals.bc.edu/ojs/index.php/jtla/article/view/1650/1492 [Google Scholar] ; Chodorow Burstein, 2004 Chodorow, M. , Burstein, J. ( 2004 ). Beyond essay length: Evaluating e-rater®’s performance on TOEFL essays (Research Report No. 73).
Princeton, NJ : Educational Testing Service . Banning Books. [Google Scholar] ) between the two human ratings and between the averaged human ratings with MY Access ratings. Essay On Challenges By Indian Farmers. Generally, there was better agreement between the two human ratings than their agreement with MY Access . Books. An exact plus adjacent agreement statistic of 71.4% and a disparate statistic of 28.6 % between human and MY Access scoring are not very convincing results. Automated Essay Evaluation for English Language Learners:A Case Study of farmers, MY Access. Table 2. Human inter-rater and rater- MY Access agreement ( N = 105). Correlations between human ratings and MY Access’s scoring. Pearson correlation coefficients were calculated between the essay two human ratings and between the human ratings and MY Access ratings. Table 3 shows a fairly strong correlation between Human Rater 1 and Rater 2 ( r = .783, p .05), but the correlations between Human Rater 1 and MY Access ( r = .672, p .05) and Human Rater 2 and MY Access ( r = .629, p .05) were both moderate. Furthermore, correlation between Averaged human Rater 1 and Rater 2 ratings and MY Access ’ ratings was also moderate ( r = .688, p .05). Automated Essay Evaluation for English Language Learners:A Case Study of MY Access. Table 3. Correlations between two human ratings and MY Access ratings.
Difference between human ratings’ average and MY Access ratings. A paired-samples t- test was computed to compare the faced means of human ratings’ average and MY Access ratings. The mean of the averaged human ratings’ was 3.76 (SD = 1.18), and the mean of MY Access ratings was 4.09 (SD = 1.19). The t -test showed that there is a statistically significant mean difference between the human ratings and MY Access : ( t (104) = ?3.538, p .05). The effects of prompts and books essay, raters on ratings. A 2 ? 3 mixed-design ANOVA was calculated to examine the effects of the prompts (Prompt 1 and Prompt 2) and disaster case, ratings (Rater 1, Rater 2, and MY Access ) on ratings. The dependent variables (Rater 1, Rater 2, and MY Access ratings) in the ANOVA test met the assumptions of being normally distributed and measured on an interval scale.
The main effect for rater ( F (2,103) = 7.516, p .01) and the main effect for prompt ( F (1,103) = 18.912, p .01) were statistically significant but the prompt x rater interaction ( F (2,206) = 1.259, p .01) was not significant. Essay length as a predictive feature. A simple linear regression was calculated predicting essay ratings assigned by both human raters and banning books, MY Access based on essay length (i.e., the essay by indian number of words in each essay). A significant regression was found ( F (1,103) = 118.002, p .05) with an R 2 of .534. The predicted score of an banning books in schools essay (assigned by the human raters) is equal to 1.302 + .008 (length) points when length is measured in number of words. Essay ratings increased .008 point for each extra word. A simple linear regression was then calculated predicting MY Access ratings based on essay length. A significant regression was found ( F (1,103) = 116.719, p .05), with an R 2 of .531. The predicted score of an essay (assigned by MY Access ) is equal to disaster case studies, 1.610 + .008 (length) points when length is measured in books in schools number of words. Essay ratings increased .008 point for century, each extra word. As can be seen in the results above, about banning in schools, 53% of the variance in both the literature on ratio analysis averaged human ratings and MY Access ratings could be accounted for by essay length.
Therefore, length was found to be an equally strong predictor of the ratings assigned by both MY Access and the human raters. Research question 2: Content in MY Access ’s scoring models. Descriptive statistics of the three sets of ratings submitted to three MY Access prompts. As shown in books Table 4, the mean score of the 42 essays was highest when they were submitted to the teacher-created prompt. This set of on ratio analysis, score is termed the real score, followed by banning, the mean score as the same essays were submitted to the first experimental prompt, then to the second experimental prompt. Informed by prior research on by indian, other automated scoring programs and a strong feeling that essays written to teacher-created topics on MY Access cannot be “comprehended” by the system, the researcher played a trick to confirm her doubts. Forty-two essays were submitted to three different prompts in MY Access and the results are presented here. Experimental topic 1: Challenges of parenthood.
When the essays answering the books essay teacher-created topic on “Important milestones in your culture” were submitted to the first experimental prompt “The challenges of essays.ph, (teenage) parenthood,” only 11 essays (26%) were flagged as off-topic while 27 received the feedback “great job”; the remaining four were given “1 s” due to “major syntax problems” (“great job” and “major syntax probems” are generic diagnostic feedback phrases used by MY Access to describe essays earning high overall score and books, those having poor grammar use, respectively). When the two prompts were compared, the real topic and on challenges faced by indian, the first experimental one, there was possible overlapping content in student essay responses. Books Essay. An examination of the 42 essays showed that 24 essays mentioned “becoming a parent” or at least “becoming a parent after getting married” as one of the most important milestones in their culture. Furthermore, most of the essays frequently referred to words like grandparents, parents, adulthood/adult, married , and essay, teenage/teenager . Below is the list of banning books essay, word frequency derived from the submission of all the essays (making a 15580-word text) to the corpus-based Compleat Lexical Tutor ( Lextutor ) that counts words in texts and lists their keywords based on the obtained word frequencies. It then compares these keywords, which are the words in 200 persuasive the texts that are far more frequent, proportionally, than they are in a general reference corpus. Lextutor uses the essay Brown corpus, whose one million words comprise 500 texts of 2000 words on a broad range of topics. Case Studies. Figure 2 lists the 30 most frequent words for this 15580-word text, with those most likely to appear frequently in essays written to banning in schools, the first experimental prompt in bold.
To interpret the number preceding each word listed in Figure 1 and 2, it is literature review on ratio, instructive to consider the explanation cited from Lextutor : The number accompanying each word represents the number of times more frequent the word is in your text than it is in the Brown corpus. For example, the first item in the output 1364.00 milestone is calculated on the basis that milestone has 4 natural occurrences in the Brown’s 1 million words, but 85 occurrences in your 15580-word text. These 85 occurrences are proportionally a lot more than the 4 occurrences in the Brown. Taken as a proportion of 1,000,000 words, these 85 occurrences represent 85/15580 ? 1,000,000 = 5456 virtual occurrences. Banning Books. These 5456 occurrences are 1364.00 times more numerous than the 4 occurrences in Brown. [www.lextutor.ca/keywords/freak.pl] Automated Essay Evaluation for essay, English Language Learners:A Case Study of MY Access. Figure 1. Most frequently used words in the combined text of banning in schools essay, 42 essays. Figure 1. Most frequently used words in the combined text of 42 essays. Automated Essay Evaluation for English Language Learners:A Case Study of MY Access.
Figure 2. Most frequently used words in the combined text of 11 off-topic essays. Figure 2. Most frequently used words in the combined text of 11 off-topic essays. Judging from the corpus comparison and the possible overlapping content areas between these two prompts, MY Access ’s failure to recognize the off-topicness of 31 of the 200 persuasive topics 42 essays seems predictable. The 11 essays flagged as off-topic were then put together in a subtext of 3,969 words and banning books in schools, submitted to Lextutor for the frequency list. Again, the essays.ph dashboard 30 most frequent words in this subtext are shown in Figure 2. What can be seen from the comparison of the two lists is that words more relevant to books in schools, the expected content area of becoming parents during the teenage years have disappeared, including babies, grandparents, spouse, parents, eighteen , and century, happiness . Table 5 presents a few of the mismatches between human ratings and MY Access ratings for books essay, off-topic essays. The ratings assigned by MY Access are much higher for of not, all off-topic essays.
Automated Essay Evaluation for English Language Learners:A Case Study of MY Access. Table 4. Essay. Descriptives of ratings for same submissions to three MY Access prompts ( N = 42). Automated Essay Evaluation for English Language Learners:A Case Study of MY Access. Table 5. Mismatched ratings of off-topic essays. Experimental topic 2: Power sources in the year 2050. When the essay by indian farmers same set of essays was submitted to the second experimental prompt about “Power sources in the Year 2050,” a totally irrelevant focus compared to the real topic, 40 essays were flagged as “off-topic”; only banning books essay two received 1 s due to “major syntax problems.” In contrast, none of the submissions to the teacher-created (real) topic “Important milestones in your culture” was flagged as “off-topic,” with 36 receiving “great job,” and six given 1 s due to “major syntax problems.” My Editor ’s error feedback: Accuracy. Table 6 presents precision and recall measures of the topics human annotator and My Editor ’s error feedback. Automated Essay Evaluation for English Language Learners:A Case Study of in schools essay, MY Access.
Table 6. Human annotator and My Editor ’s error feedback results. In this subsample of 15 essays, students made far more mistakes with articles (124 errors) than with any other error type. Punctuations and run-on sentences were next on the list. Subject-verb agreement was the fourth problematic area that needed attention. The number of the errors found in essays.ph each of the in schools other types ranged from review on ratio, 0 to 36. Of the total number of errors in banning each error type identified by the human annotator, My Editor demonstrated quite an uneven performance.
My Editor was most precise in its identification of 200 persuasive essay topics, open or closed spelling errors, although in banning in schools this subsample, it corrected only two cases ( part time to part-time and 200 persuasive topics, everyday to every day ), both of which matched the human annotator. However, the banning in schools system also missed a lot of essay on challenges faced farmers, open/closed spelling cases that needed corrections with the recall of only 28.6%, which means it missed 71.4% of the total human-flagged cases. My Editor also did well with article errors, with the precision of essay, 96.9%. However, similar to open/closed spelling errors, the system missed 75% errors of this type the human annotator identified. Capitalization and run-on sentences were the two error types that showed a similar pattern in essays.ph dashboard My Editor ’s performance: a precision of around 80% accompanied by in schools essay, the missing level of about 50% of all the cases flagged by the human annotator. Spelling and consistency, which combined the two subtypes of dashboard, verb group consistency and noun phrase consistency errors, exhibited the in schools smallest number of literature, cases overlooked by My Editor with recall values of 76.9 and 70.2, respectively. Banning Books Essay. Of all the cases tagged by My Editor in these two types, around 80% were precise diagnoses.
In addition, My Editor failed to dashboard, read the essays at the sentence and discourse level. It was least precise with its diagnosis of confused words errors with precision of only 28.6% and recall of 11.1%. This means that of all errors in this category flagged by My Editor , only 28.6% were really errors; the rest were false positives. It also missed almost 89% cases of this type compared to the human annotator. Overall, My Editor was 73% precise in books in schools essay flagging errors of the management 21st century 16 error types designated for this analysis and covered 39.6% of all the errors the human annotator flagged.
In other words, it missed 60.4% errors that should be attended to according to the human judgment. Researchers on books essay, error feedback tools maintain that they would choose to err on the side of precision over recall (Burstein et al ., 2003 Burstein, J. , Chodorow, M. Effects Exercising. , Leacock, C. Books Essay. ( 2003 ). Management In The Century. Criterion online essay evaluation: An application for automated evaluation of student essays . Proceedings of the 15th Annual Conference on Innovative Applications of Artificial Intelligence , Acapulco, Mexico . Banning Books. [Google Scholar] ; Chodorow, Gamon, Tetreault, 2010 Chodorow, M. Literature On Ratio Analysis Essays. , Gamon, M. , Tetreault, J. ( 2010 ). The utility of article and preposition error correction systems for English language learners: Feedback and assessment . Banning Books Essay. Language Testing , 27, 419 – 436 . doi: 10.1177/0265532210364391 [Crossref], [Web of Science #0174;] [Google Scholar] ), which “means that we [they] would rather miss an error than tell the student that a well-formed construction is ill-formed” (Burstein et al ., 2003 Burstein, J. , Chodorow, M. , Leacock, C. ( 2003 ). Criterion online essay evaluation: An application for automated evaluation of student essays . Proceedings of the 15th Annual Conference on Innovative Applications of Artificial Intelligence , Acapulco, Mexico . [Google Scholar] , p. 6). Management Century Essay. In studying Criterion , Burstein et al . ( 2003 Burstein, J. , Chodorow, M. , Leacock, C. Banning Books Essay. ( 2003 ). Effects Of Not. Criterion online essay evaluation: An application for banning books in schools, automated evaluation of student essays . Proceedings of the 15th Annual Conference on Innovative Applications of Artificial Intelligence , Acapulco, Mexico . [Google Scholar] ) set the minimum threshold of 90% precision for the tool to in the 21st century essay, be useful for students. If My Editor is judged by these criteria, it falls short. My Editor ’s feedback offers suggestions for possible errors rather than dictating corrections to the writers.
Students can click on banning books, any error tagged by My Editor , and a smaller screen pops up to explain the problem. After the brief diagnosis, there are some suggestions that students can choose from. The screen also demonstrates the rule that explains more generally how My Editor identifies and deals with that error type (e.g., spelling, preposition, etc.). General examples and ways to correct the errors in the examples are also provided. With this diagnosis-suggestions-example-rule approach, students can learn to judge for essays.ph dashboard, themselves if they have really made a mistake and choose among the given correction options.
However, certain gaps in MY Editor ’s feedback can be addressed to better accommodate the ESL/EFL learners’ needs. What was noticeable about My Editor ’s feedback about noun phrase consistency was its double flagging of the same errors: It is banning books essay, sure that there are many Mass vs. count errors conflict Noun phrase consistency errors. The word conflict in the above sentence should agree in number with its plural determiner many . Therefore, labeling it as noun phrase consistency (implying inconsistent number agreement) is the best way to draw the faced by indian farmers student’s attention to his/her mistake. However, the books in schools essay first label mass vs. count errors on the same word suggesting “if the sentence requires a singular noun, consider [much] or [many a] instead of ‘many’” goes against faced by indian, the second suggestion of books essay, consistency. Such conflicting comments can confuse the student who may think that they need to fix two errors. Double flagging also occurred among Subject-Verb Agreement errors. For example, in the next sentence, “Argument Subject-verb agreement errors take Subject-verb agreement errors place,” it is suggested that argument be changed to disaster, arguments to agree with the banning books in schools essay plural verb form take , while in the second place, it is suggested that take (which should be grammatically correct now after the change of the essays.ph dashboard subject noun) be changed to takes to agree with the original subject noun argument . Along with articles, the banning essay English tense-aspect system is problematic for EFL learners, especially those from Asian first language backgrounds.
Yet My Editor does not seem to be programmed to deal with tense and aspect errors, except for its two rare attempts at diagnosing cases related to tense errors, both of which failed. The first one was a false positive where the system traced back to the preposition at in the phrase at childhood and in the essay, assumed that at refers to the past. In Schools. It thus suggested the studies inappropriate use of could have become . Here is MY Access ’s annotation. At childhood, we are taught carefully by parents, teachers. We are take Verb group consistency errors care of or bring up carefully from books essay, many peoples around. That is on ratio analysis, a good environment so that The child can become Incorrect use of past tense a good person at banning, first life. The second attempt successfully located the error and offered a usable suggestion, but its flagging term was misleading for management century, the student as this error is not about tense: Besides, students haven’t Verb tense, instead of ‘have not’, consider using the banning books in schools essay more standard [do not have] to pay for buying books, textbooks are in the Internet too. Except for these two cases, nowhere else in all the essays could feedback be found about inconsistent or wrong tense usage. In essay ESL2-14, the use of tenses was a major issue, but MY Access overlooked them. Essays.ph. The adverbial phrase in the past is clear evidence of past tense.
My Editor did not identify the error. In the past, all the students have to take the traditional classroom. Many students sit in the classroom. There is blackboard Missing articles, computer, desks and in schools essay, chairs. All the students take the dashboard class in the classroom like that . (From Essay ESL2-14) These gaps in My Editor ’s feedback can be attributed to its inability to banning books in schools, handle information across sentences at the discourse level. 200 Persuasive Essay. As long as words or phrases were grammatically correct, meaning and banning books, content were ignored. In the management in the century first research question, the books essay exact plus adjacent agreement between human ratings and MY Access were moderate (71.4%) and the correlations between human ratings and 200 persuasive, MY Access were also moderate (r = .688). But the difference between the averaged human rater score and banning, MY Access was found to be statistically significant.
These findings do not provide adequate support for any implicit claims of MY Access that it can score essays like human raters. In addition, a feature shared by human and automated scoring is 200 persuasive, that 53% of the variance in both ratings could be accounted for by the length of the books essay essays. Overall, the agreement and correlational findings in this study were not very different from faced farmers, those found in earlier studies of e-rater and IEA systems. But Vantage Learning’s ( MY Access’s developer) findings of .93 correlation and 76% exact agreement and 99% for adjacent agreement were not found in this study. Thus, the high agreements and correlation indices found in studies conducted by MY Access developers (Attali Burstein, 2006 Attali, Y. , Burstein, J. ( 2006 ). Automated essay scoring with e-rater® v.2 . Journal of Technology, Learning, and Assessment , 4(3). Retrieved from http://ejournals.bc.edu/ojs/index.php/jtla/article/view/1650/1492 [Google Scholar] ; Vantage Learning, 2006 Vantage Learning. ( 2006 ). Research summary: Intellimetric scoring accuracy across genres and grade levels . Retrieved from http://www.vantagelearning.com/docs/intellimetric/IM_ResearchSummary_IntelliMetric_Accuracy_Across_Genre_and_Grade_Levels.pdf [Google Scholar] , as cited in Liu Kunnan, 2016 Liu, S. , Kunnan, A. J. ( 2016 ). Investigating the applications of automated writing evaluation to essay, Chinese undergraduate English majors: A case study of WritetoLearn . CALICO Journal , 33, 71 – 91 . Essays.ph Dashboard. [Google Scholar] ) could not be confirmed. In the second research question of how MY Access dealt with content, the results show that My Access scores off-topic essays more generously because it is unable to systematically flag the essays as off-topic. It is obvious MY Access “read” the essays in mathematical models of books in schools essay, syntax, lexis, mechanics, and discourse. This is a real problem because the ability to identify off-topic essays is by indian, a capability that trained human raters are expected to have and any AEE system that is developed to either supplement or replace human raters must have.
With cutting-edge developments in the field of computational linguistics and corpus linguistics, it is hoped that off-topic essays can be identified in the future in the same way human readers can by reading and judging essays for their overall meaning and other features, such as persuasiveness and voice. The third research question examined MY Access ’s automated feedback in accuracy and potential gaps compared to human annotators of errors in the essays. Its instructional tool, called My Editor , is uneven in its ability to detect errors correctly and provide appropriate corrective feedback. Specifically, its accuracy in many grammatical areas is low and uneven. Furthermore, its standard as a useful error feedback tool is too low by the 90% standard set up by banning essay, researchers such as Burstein et al . ( 2003 Burstein, J. Exercising. , Chodorow, M. , Leacock, C. ( 2003 ). Criterion online essay evaluation: An application for automated evaluation of student essays . In Schools Essay. Proceedings of the 15th Annual Conference on Innovative Applications of Artificial Intelligence , Acapulco, Mexico . Effects. [Google Scholar] ). Books. My Editor ’s plausible four-step sequence (clarification-suggestions-example-rule) in generating error feedback is supposed to disaster studies, turn errors into books essay learning opportunities not only by scaffolding students’ judgments about possible errors in their essays but also by providing them with linguistic knowledge as they work their way through the feedback. However, this approach presents two possible problems. First, the metalanguage used to describe the errors, offer suggestions, and state the rules may challenge ESL/EFL students’ comprehension due to their limited knowledge of the target language. Second, such an approach does not discriminate between error types. For example, the way article errors are dealt with should not be identical to disaster case, the way spelling errors are treated. While the former constitutes a highly problematic area for EFL/ESL students and books in schools essay, thus cannot be simply pointed out without clarification, the latter is usually straightforward and only needs flagging for literature on ratio essays, students to easily correct themselves. Thus, the banning in schools meaningfulness of error feedback has to be addressed in AEE systems.
Furthermore, prioritization of errors is necessary in effects essay the feedback system (e.g., syntactic errors vs. In Schools Essay. usage errors vs. discourse coherence errors); this prioritization needs to match the priorities of writing for 200 persuasive topics, a particular purpose and proficiency level. We conducted this study from the banning books in schools essay perspective of EFL writing instruction. Studies. The findings of the study point to two practical implications for EFL teachers who may use AEE. First, the diagnostic feedback MY Access generated was not individualized, simple, and accurate enough for home tutoring purposes, although it would serve as a good companion to writing instructors to offer instant and intial diagnostic feedback. Books In Schools Essay. At the same time, as Whithaus ( 2006 Whithaus, C. ( 2006 ). Always already: Automated essay scoring and grammar-checkers in college writing courses . In P. F. Ericsson , R. H. Haswell (Eds.), Machine scoring of student essays: Truth and disaster case, consequences ( pp. 166–176 ). Books In Schools Essay. Logan, UT : Utah State University Press . [Google Scholar] ) puts it, “When software is used as a tool for assessment, response, or revision, it is not necessarily opposed to effective composition pedagogies” (p. 170). Essay Topics. The optimum choice could be a combined pedagogy where the writing instructor acts as the banning books in schools essay facilitator between students and AEE systems prior to and while using it in the writing class. Second, the effects of not essay question of how AEE systems should be incorporated in EFL writing instructors’ lesson plans is banning in schools, partially answered.
It is worth stressing that at this moment in the development of the AEE, it would be unwise to paddle against the current by on challenges faced, refusing AEE systems as part of instruction. In the United States, AEE systems have been making a presence at different educational levels from middle schools to banning books in schools essay, tertiary institutions to assess writing in placement or practice tests. Similarly, EFL writing classes can benefit from case, helpful features of AEE systems, such as its instant scoring and feedback, which make regular practice possible without adding to the workload of books in schools essay, classroom instructors. Studies. But for this to happen, AEE systems have to offer a more conducive computer-mediated and Web-based environment where teaching and learning take place. Beyond this study, there are some positives to using AEE systems. First, providing scores and feedback instantly (even if it is on word and in schools essay, sentence-level errors) can clearly reduce the on challenges faced by indian farmers burden of writing instructors’ grading work so that they can deal with other critical aspects of writing after the AEE feedback and possible revisions. Banning. Second, offering automated feedback without the dashboard instructor could be useful in contexts where loss of face is a major consideration for students.
To illustrate, some students might be willing to accept repeated error correction and books, low grades from an AEE system instead of receiving similar criticisms from an instructor. But many persistent questions remain: Would AEE systems be more suitable for formative and in-class writing assessments? Could AEE systems be used for other types of writing tasks, such as short answer or descriptive responses? Could AEE systems cause unintended consequences, such as changes in students’ writing strategies? Could AEE systems evaluate writing styles or approaches from students around the world without bias to any sub-groups? Could AEE systems become transparent enough to allow assessment professionals to examine the essay on challenges faced farmers suitability of the systems for banning, use in by indian their own contexts? These questions need to be pursued.
This research was funded by books in schools, The Fulbright Vietnamese Student Program. Prompts used in essays.ph the study (from MY Access ) Prompt 1 (Informative) What Have You Learned? Although school may not always be fun, it’s essential for our education and development. School teaches us really important lessons that will help us later in life. What is the most important thing you have learned in school so far?
Write a multi-paragraph essay in which you discuss one thing school has taught you and its importance to your life and banning books, your future. Use specific examples and 200 persuasive essay topics, details to books in schools, support your response. Prompt 2 (Argumentative) Internet Classrooms vs. Traditional Classrooms.
With advancements in technology, some students have chosen to 200 persuasive topics, complete their schoolwork through the Internet, rather than in traditional classrooms. Those who support a traditional classroom approach to learning argue that it provides more of an opportunity for banning essay, students to interact with the teacher and other students. Those who feel that learning over the Internet is better argue that it allows students to learn anytime and farmers, anywhere they choose. Do you feel education is better provided in banning traditional classrooms or when offered over by indian, the Internet? Write an essay to be read by a classroom teacher in which you persuade the reader that either traditional classroom education or Internet-based learning is better. Experimental and real prompts used in banning in schools the study. Experimental Prompt 1: (Persuasive) Challenges of essays.ph, Parenthood.
Many people believe that being a parent today is one of the most difficult jobs you can have. Banning Essay. Some teens believe that they are old enough to face the challenges of parenthood; others do not. Essays.ph Dashboard. State your position on the issue and provide reasons for your decision. Discuss the factors you took into consideration in making your decision. Experimental Prompt 2: (Informative)
Power Sources in the Year 2050. Picture yourself living in the year 2050. Power sources operating in your house have changed. Describe the new power sources used to make your home run more efficiently. Explain how these power sources are different from what we use in our homes today. Write about the benefits and disadvantages of this new technology and banning, how it will affect future generations. Real prompt: (Teacher-created topic function on MY Access ) What are the essay important milestones in a person’s life in your culture?
Give the reasons why they are important. MY Access’ s 6-point Holistic Rubric. Automated Essay Evaluation for English Language Learners:A Case Study of banning in schools essay, MY Access. Table 1. Descriptives ( N = 105). Note . H1 = Human Rating 1, H2 = Human Rating 2, AVE = Averaged ratings of Human Raters 1 and 2, MA = MY Access ratings. Table 2. Human inter-rater and rater- MY Access agreement ( N = 105). Note . In The Essay. Exact agreement: the proportion of times Rater 1 ratings exactly matched Rater 2 ratings, or those of MY Access exactly matched the averaged human ratings; adjacent agreement: the proportion of banning books, times Rater 1 ratings were within one point of Rater 2 ratings, or those of MY Access were within one point of the averaged human ratings; if two scores assigned to the same essay were more than one point apart, they were considered disparate ratings. Table 3. Correlations between two human ratings and MY Access ratings. Note . H1 = Rater 1’s ratings, H2 = Rater 2’s ratings, AVE = Averaged human ratings, MA = MY Access ratings. *Correlations are significant at the .01 level (2-tailed). Table 4. Descriptives of ratings for same submissions to three MY Access prompts ( N = 42). Note . REALSCORE = ratings for submissions to the teacher-created (real) prompt.
Experimental1 = ratings for the first experimental prompt, Experimental2 = ratings for the second experimental prompt. Table 5. Mismatched ratings of off-topic essays. HR 1 = Human Rater 1 score, HR 2 = Human Rater 2 score. Table 6. Human annotator and My Editor ’s error feedback results. Note. Precision = Hits divided by management 21st essay, My Editor’s total (example: 2 ? 2 = 100); Recall = Hits divided by banning books in schools, human annotator’s total (example: 2 ? 7 = 28.6)
Establishes and maintains an insightful controlling or central idea and demonstrates a thorough understanding of the dashboard purpose and banning in schools essay, audience. Develops ideas fully and artfully with a wide variety of details. Demonstrates a logical, cohesive organizational structure and sequence with an effective use of transitions. Provides precise descriptive language use, artful word choice, a defined voice, and well-structured and varied sentence types. Contains little or no errors in paragraphing, grammar and usage, punctuation, spelling, and mechanics. Establishes and case, maintains a clear controlling or central idea and banning in schools essay, demonstrates a basic understanding of the purpose and literature on ratio, audience. Develops ideas fully and banning books essay, clearly with extensive detail. Demonstrates a logical organizational structure and sequence with consistent use of transitions. Provides precise language use, appropriate word choice, some evidence of voice, and 200 persuasive, well-structured sentences with some variety.
Contains few errors in paragraphing, grammar and usage, punctuation, spelling, and mechanics. Establishes a controlling or central idea and demonstrates some understanding of the purpose and audience. Develops ideas adequately using sufficient appropriate details. Demonstrates an books appropriate organizational structure and sequence; however, may lack transitions or be inconsistent. Provides appropriate language use, word choice, control of voice, and essentially correct sentences with some variety.
Contains occasional errors in paragraphing, grammar and usage, punctuation, spelling, and mechanics, but the errors do not make comprehension difficult. Establishes a controlling or central idea but demonstrates little understanding of the purpose and essays.ph, audience. Develops ideas briefly and inconsistently. Demonstrates an attempt at an organizational structure and sequence, but lacks transitions, and may not be unified or consistent throughout. Contains simple language use, word choice, an banning in schools awareness of voice, and relies on simple sentences. Contains errors in paragraphing, grammar and usage, punctuation, spelling, and mechanics. Suggests a controlling or central idea but demonstrates minimal understanding of the purpose and audience. Develops ideas incompletely or inadequately using few, if any, details and/or examples. Suggests but does not maintain a basic organizational structure and sequence. Contains unclear or inappropriate language usage, word choice, and few, if any, sentence types. Contains serious errors in literature review analysis essays paragraphing, grammar and usage, punctuation, spelling, and mechanics (errors may make comprehension difficult).
Fails to establish a controlling or central idea or show understanding of the books essay purpose and disaster case studies, audience. Fails to support ideas with details and/or examples. Shows no evidence of a unified structure, and no evidence of transitional devices. Demonstrates unclear or incoherent language use and banning essay, major errors in sentence structure, word choice and usage. Major errors in management in the 21st essay paragraphing, grammar and banning in schools essay, usage, punctuation, spelling, and mechanics significantly interfere with the communication of the message. 1 In a recent competition, ETS invited people to management in the century essay, write essays that could trick e-rater into assigning lower or higher ratings than deserved. Banning Books In Schools Essay. The winner’s technique was simply to on challenges faced farmers, write a paragraph and repeat it 37 times.
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Resume Writing | The 10 Commandments. Follow these 10 commandments of resume writing to ensure that your resume is professional and banning, effective. Management Essay! Click on any of the commandments to banning essay skip to them directly. 1. Disaster! You will write more than one resume, targeting each one at a specific audience. This is the golden rule of resume writing. You must tailor each resume for every position that you are applying for . Books Essay! For instance, let’s assume you’re applying to become a waiter, a secretary, a construction worker, or a salesperson. Literature Review On Ratio Essays! (Note: Click those links to view a WELL TARGETED resume sample). Each of these positions will need a different resume because they require different skill sets. If you have minimal work experience, you’ll need to highlight different aspects of books essay your job responsibilities to essay faced farmers appeal to each individual hiring manager. For instance, a hiring manager for a construction company may be more interested in how much you can lift, how reliable you are, and whether you can learn new skills quickly . A hiring manager at an office may want to in schools know what software you can use, what tricks you use to be efficient, and whether you have writing skills.
To figure out what skills the disaster case studies hiring manager is looking for, read the job description they wrote CAREFULLY. They’ve probably listed all of the specialized skills you need to banning essay perform well. Essay On Challenges Faced Farmers! Simply include those specific skills on your resume (if you have those skills) and you’re set. You’ll need to get creative with your work experience and books in schools essay, demonstrate how the skills you currently have are transferrable into an unrelated position. Essay By Indian Farmers! In this way, you can write a tailored resume. (NOTE: The Applicant Tracking System (ATS), which is software that can read your resume, will also reject your resume if it seems irrelevant to the job you applied for . This is another major reason you should tailor your resume.) 2. You will write descriptive bullet points that begin with action verbs.
Writing in complete sentences will force you to be descriptive . Books In Schools! The worst resumes are filled with boring, bland, 2-4 word descriptions like, “Cleaned tables,” “Wrote reports,” or “Dealt with customers.” Each sentence should begin with an action verb, preferably one that best describes the your responsibility. Some action verbs are better than others. Use this epic list to find just the right action verb for your bullet point! For instance, the verb phrase “Managed 6 employees” is better than “Told 6 employees what to do”.
Here are some other excellent verbs you can use: Use Verbs Like These To Start Your Bullet Points. Managed Trained Saved Developed Created Sold Arranged Prepared Assisted. Basically, if it’s a verb and it sounds good, use it. On the other hand… Don’t Use These Words to Start Your Bullet Points. Pronouns (I, you, we, us) Adverbs (Quickly, smartly, intelligently, efficiently) Adjectives (Massive, huge, small, smart, quick, efficient, intelligent)
3. You will quantify your resume to faced by indian the best of books essay your ability, adding numbers to describe your experience. Adding numbers to your resume makes them more descriptive and specific, which will catch the hiring manager’s attention. Essay By Indian Farmers! Numbers also allow you to show off your achievements and abilities that others may not have. The rule of thumb here is this: if the duty you performed can be described in numbers, do so. Browse these perfectly quantified resumes for in schools essay a taste of how your resume should look:
Quantified Resume Example 1. Quantified Resume Example 2. Quantified Resume Example 3. Still not sure what we mean, or how to 200 persuasive topics do it? In the following examples, we’ve written each job description twice to books essay show an unquantified resume description versus a quantified one. Wrote reports for the direct manager, summarizing incoming data and suggesting courses of management in the action. Wrote three 1,000-word reports per books essay, week for the direct manager, summarizing incoming data and essay faced, suggesting courses of action.
Served food and drink and took orders in banning books in schools a fast paced restaurant. Served in case studies a 300-seat restaurant, handling up to 5 tables at a time in a fast-paced restaurant. Upsold wine by using knowledge of wine and entrees to entice customers into purchases. Upsold $250 in wine daily on average by leveraging knowledge of hundreds of wine brands and matching them with entrees to banning in schools entice customers into bigger purchases. Managed and trained new employees to successfully open a new branch of our office while maintaining company standards. Managed and on challenges faced by indian farmers, trained 6 employees , successfully opening a new branch of in schools essay our office while maintaining company standards. Other items that can be quantified include: Customer satisfaction ratings Number of customers served daily The size of your company/ establishment Total yearly/monthly/daily sales How much you outperformed your co-workers by effects essay, How much money you saved the company. Using action verbs and essay, quantifying will make your resume “Achievement Oriented.” The above two commandments have only analysis essays been a taste — we have an in depth about how to write an achievement oriented resume here.
4. You will not include a section about your hobbies and interests. Including a section about your hobbies and interests is widely regarded as a newbie mistake . The company is interested in what skills you have that can help them earn more money, not whether you can juggle or swallow swords (unless you are applying to a circus, then these skills should definitely be on your resume.) For more detail, check out this guide about how to put skills on your resume. If your hobbies, interests, and side projects do coincide with what the essay company is looking for literature review on ratio , then you should include them in your Additional Skills or Qualifications Summary section. 5. You will not leave any glaring gaps in employment history. If you have periods of time where you were not working professionally, avoid revealing those gaps on your resume at all costs . There are a number of ways that you can accomplish this. The first is with resume formatting. The first format you can use is called a Functional Resume , which leaves off work dates altogether in favor of simply listing your most relevant qualifications. The other format you can use is in schools essay, called a Combination Resume , which splits your resume into two sections.
In one section, your work experience will still be written in reverse-chronological order. Effects Of Not Exercising Essay! Then, once you reach your gaps in work experience, you again simply list your qualifications and ignore dates altogether. Finally, you can leave months off of your resume entirely . If you worked from June 1, 2013, to essay February 1, 2014 – simply leave off writing June and February, which will show that you worked from 2013-2014. Management 21st! If pressed in banning books essay your interview, tell the effects of not essay truth. The point is to books essay get your foot in essays.ph dashboard the door. 6. In Schools! You will pay attention to of not exercising essay professionalism. This mainly concerns your contact details section. Don’t include your nickname . Essay! We once received a resume from Joey “The Hammer” Perkins. In The Century Essay! It was ineffective. Don’t include a picture of yourself on your resume. If you are an actor, then you will need to banning books in schools include a professional headshot.
For all other industries, including a picture of oneself is considered extremely unprofessional. Don’t label your saved document “I hate resumes” , which we have also seen. It seems that sometimes people forget that the other party will see the file name. Use a professional email address. For instance, [emailprotected] is review essays, hilarious, but we’re afraid it doesn’t exactly smack of professionalism.
Make sure you resume is in schools essay, saved with your full name and century, the word “resume” . Example: “Joe Brown Resume” Include the position you’re applying for if you know it. Example: “Joe Brown Resume – Waiter” Be 100% sure that your contact details are correct. Not being able to contact you for books in schools essay an interview is the height of unprofessionalism. 7. You will format your resume so that it is essays.ph, aesthetically pleasing and legible. Follow these 10 simple rules to make an aesthetically pleasing resume.
Or, simply download some of the best resume templates on the web from our website for banning books free. DO NOT use font below size 10 DO NOT use crazy font styles DO NOT write a “Wall of Text” (no spacing, too much text, too much information) DO NOT use bright colors that are difficult to disaster case studies read DO NOT include images. DO leave spaces between your work experiences to make reading easier DO bold your headers DO italicize sub-headers DO create columns to banning in schools essay save space and 21st century essay, use more of the page DO use bullet points to list job descriptions. 8. Banning! You will not lie on your resume. Getting caught for resume fraud will follow you for the rest of essays.ph dashboard your career . It’s tempting to embellish or outright lie on your resume, as you can get higher paying jobs and well salaried positions by banning essay, claiming credentials or skills that you do not have. In all likelihood, you will get caught , because it will be obvious that you do not know how to competently do your work properly. (That is, unless you are Frank Abagnale, the studies fraudster portrayed in the blockbuster movie Catch Me If You Can ). Many people are tempted to lie on their resume because they falsely believe that their work experience and education histories are insufficient . Books! In reality, many companies are willing to take risks on employees that have the basic skills and attitude to do the job. For instance, if a company says in the job description that they require 2-3 years of experience in a position, that number actually represents their ideal candidate, not a hard and essay on challenges farmers, fast rule . 9. In Schools! You will not repeat any bullet points.
Your resume should be formatted with your most recent work experience towards the top, and effects of not essay, least recent towards the bottom (reverse chronological.) That means any bullet points towards the top means that you know how to do that job responsibility already. There’s no point in repeating it again towards the bottom . It’s redundant, and banning in schools, unnecessarily lengthens your resume. 10. Essays.ph Dashboard! You will not make any grammar or spelling errors. Even a stellar resume is easily destroyed by books in schools, simple grammar and spelling mistakes. Because it’s such an management in the century important document, mistakes immediately set off red flags in essay the hiring manager’s view . The thinking is, if you can’t take the time to correct basic mistakes, then you might also be a low quality worker.
Take these steps to disaster make sure your resume is error free: Run spell check Have two friends or family members look over it Look over it yourself. i took 3 years off between jobs to care for an elderly parent. how do i show that on books in schools essay, my resume? do i list 2000 – 2003 as Homecare for parent? exactly how i format that? thank you. Hello lifestudent, We’re happy to help. Generally, if you have gaps in your employment history because of personal reasons you don’t have explain them on your resume, only include experiences that will be seen as a “positive” to the employer. The exception would be if you are applying for 200 persuasive essay topics a medical or caretaker position, something that would see value in your three-years of homecare, then it would be beneficial to include. Banning In Schools Essay! Let us know if you have any other questions! Hi Resume Genius, I am a fresh graduate who only have one-year experience as a research assistant.
Currently I intend to apply for a counselor’s assistant position but I am afraid that I could not show much skills and literature essays, experiences with my former job on the resume. Should I mention my other experiences during my time in university such as having an banning books in schools internship or joining a research project for management undergraduate? If I should, is it good for me to banning books in schools essay write a qualifications summary or not? Thank you very much for your help. Hi Cecilia, We’re happy to help. Having only one experience may appear a little weak, so adding other relevant experiences such as your internship and research project might be a great idea if they are relevant to the position and/or illustrate useful skills you acquired. Remember to list bullet points that are targeted to the position you’re applying to, keeping them concise and targeted. By listing internships, research projects and work experience you will appear a more balanced and review on ratio analysis essays, knowledgeable applicant. Banning Books In Schools Essay! Let us know if you have any other questions! I have two questions. First, should a college degree be listed if it does not apply to the position applied for, and in the century, second, what exactly is books in schools essay, a “wall of text”?
Hi Jeannine, We’re happy to help! Yes you will want to include your highest educational experience on your resume even if it is essays.ph dashboard, not directly related to banning the position you are applying to. Most employers just want to see you are capable of graduating and dashboard, evaluate your performance. There are rarer instances when education sections aren’t necessary, for executive level candidates for example, or for highly skilled manual laborers, but in most cases it should be included. A wall of banning books text is like a block of text. 200 Persuasive Essay! They usually consist of banning in schools multiple sentences, or a few run-on sentences and are aesthetically unappealing, resulting in literature review on ratio the reader more often than not skipping past them. Keep your sentences and bullet points short, concise and to the point to retain the banning reader’s attention. Hope that helps! Let us know if you have any other questions. Hi.
Is it ok not to effects of not include in my resume my first job which lasted for about 1 1/2 months only? It’s perfectly fine to leave out your first job if it wasn’t very long. We often advise people to leave jobs that occurred over 10 years ago off their resume as they usually aren’t very applicable to applicants current career paths. Let us know if you have any other questions! Great article, thanks for banning in schools essay the genius useful tips. Thank you Mohamad! We are glad that you like it. Very useful!
Appreciated. Thanks Seyed! Glad we could help! Thanks for your help! Thanks for d useful tips. this is essay by indian, a big help for me, thank u so much. As to number 2, it is very difficult to write a “complete sentence” with no subject.
Just sayin’. We admit it. You got us! What we meant to in schools say is that bullet points should be descriptive and in the 21st century, begin with action verbs. We’ve made the changes above. Thanks for the feedback. Share Resume Writing | The 10 Commandments Our code geeks and banning essay, HR experts are proud to introduce our new Free Resume Builder software to help you land more interviews in today’s competitive job market.
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Banning Books in Schools Essay -- Censorship In Public Schools
An Argumentative Essay about Technology: Writing Tips and Sample. Endless essays, and one more essay to do for tomorrow! Do you recognize yourself in this sentence? Probably you do, since you#8217;re searching for help with your essay writing. Fortunately, you are at the right place. EssayShark.com is always ready to books, help college students with all their written assignments.
Term or research papers, book or movie reviews, lab reports, essays, PowerPoint presentations, even resumes – we do all these types of writing at the best prices. Essay writing is management in the century probably the most popular written assignment students have to do while studying at banning books in schools school or college. Motivational essays, argumentative essays, persuasive essays, simple essays and many other kinds of 200 persuasive topics, essays are one of the most difficult tasks for students to do. That is why we understand why you are here looking for help with your argumentative essay about technology. Books In Schools Essay? We will give you some guidelines to make the writing of your argumentative essay about technology easier for you. An Argumentative Essay about Technology: Writing Guidelines. When you write your argumentative essay remember that it#8217;s not the same as a persuasive one. Your task here is not to convince your readers that you are right, but to show them you have significant arguments to support your main thought. The readers may agree or disagree with you – it is up to disaster case, them to decide. Keep in mind that you have to present both the positive and negative sides of the problem. Instead of saying “I think technology has changed the modern life of people significantly” it is better to state your thesis as, “Technology has changed the modern life of people significantly”.
In the body paragraphs of books, your argumentative essay about technology use as many arguments as you need. If you lack of your own arguments, look through the Internet websites – there will be a lot of material on the subject. One more important thing to remember: don#8217;t present your personal opinion as a fact. It#8217;s a very common mistake made by those who write an argumentative essay for the first time. Of Not Exercising? If there is no evidence for banning the fact, then it#8217;s not a fact! Of course, your own position should be given, but in the conclusion, not in the body paragraphs. Your readers may agree or disagree with you, but it#8217;s not your aim to persuade them. Besides, don#8217;t forget to summarize all the main ideas of your essay and literature review on ratio analysis restate your thesis when writing your conclusion.
An Argumentative Essay about Technology Sample. The Importance of Usage of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (Drones) in Commerce. Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) become more popular every day. Essay? No one doubts that their usage can bring a lot of benefits in various spheres. The focus of the article would be on positive effects of drones’ acceptance in business. Adoption of this technology leads industries to an entirely new level of production. It is crucial for entities to realize the potential and advantages of in the 21st essay, usage of books in schools essay, UAVs ASAP. The historical context can explain the mega-trends in the issue of UAVs.
First drones were designed and used primarily for military purposes since 1950’s and even earlier. For instance, the U.S. and France worked on the development of unmanned airplanes during the World War I. Then army started to exercising, use drones for delivering messages, intelligence and bombing attacks (Calder). Such vehicles can perform dozens of missions without risking a life of banning essay, pilots. Moreover, drones became smaller and more maneuver. They complete actions that were impossible before.
Besides the army, UAVs become more commonly used for civilian purposes. Drones with artificial intelligence can provide surveillance videos and aerial data from different places and heights. Furthermore, they can make a report on any activity from the air. It opens new horizons in essay building industry. Companies can use drones for banning books making aerial pictures and analyzing data about the constructing process. Effects Of Not? The start up Kespry already uses UAVs for books in schools earthworks projects, mine planning. It also assists insurance firms.
The drones inspect roofs and dashboard make the banning essay necessary reports for companies (#8220;Kespry#8221;). Robots support the customers with real time data. Deere Company involved drones in its operations, and now the studies outcomes bring a lot of benefits. Its customers can use industrial drones for getting very accurate topographic data in minutes (#8220;Kespry#8221;). Banning Books In Schools? Another business sphere that needs unmanned aerial vehicles is an agriculture industry. UAVs can monitor the disaster crops automatically. They determine the places where the fertilizer must be added. Drones take geo-tagged images and give real-time feed backs for farmers.
UAVs in Japan are used since the mid-1980s to dust crops. The drones monitor the lands in books in schools much shorter time and provide online data, so the customers can even see some fields or gardens on of not, the Internet (#8220;The National#8221;). UAVs are also very effective for security aims. Large shopping malls can use them for banning essay finding thieves. Management Century Essay? Japanese company Secom created a drone which automatically follows the intruder and can send the information for security or police. Automated capturing provides opportunities in other spheres too. Banning Books Essay? Inspecting the cell towers can become less risky, as the individuals don’t need to access towers personally. All can do the drones.
Automated UAVs are necessary for inspecting wind blades too. They eliminate risks and quickly detect problems (#8220;Forbes#8221;). The next sphere which needs drones is logistics. Drones can become the 200 persuasive topics best couriers as they don’t get into the traffic jams. The retail industry can dramatically change in the few years.
The technical giants such as Amazon, Alphabet, and banning in schools others start to test various delivery services. For instance, the first pizza drone delivery was in Whangaparaoa, New Zealand in November 2016 (Meola). The Amazon corporation plans to revolutionize its delivery services. The goal is a shipment of goods in 30 minutes through their Prime program. Such improvement brings benefits both for the company and its customers. Estimations show that Amazon spent roughly $5.75 on the average delivery of a package in 2016.
The drone delivery would cost less than $1 per shipment (Meola). Business firms will save money on logistics, and the customers would receive their items more quickly. Although drone delivery seems very attractive, it has a lot of issues with implementation. Review On Ratio Essays? In the U.S. all the in schools aircraft is regulated by on ratio analysis essays the Federal Aviation Administration. It controls the safety in the air. Its line-of-sight rule requires that owners must be able to see their drones when flying them. The drone technology is evolving, and the UAVs must become safe in books in schools essay the air. So the FAA should create new drone rules. So the obstacle is in the legal and regulatory environment.
Furthermore, the disaster case studies capacities of drones are small. Drones can usually deliver just one package that weighs less than 5 pounds. After the delivery, it has to books in schools essay, go back to the home base and be recharged (Wang, Dan et al.). It has a lot of drawbacks comparing with delivery trucks. Nowadays the best usage of drones is presented in the areas where there are no roads.
The drone start-up Matternet has created a drone delivery network in African country Lesotho. Transportation of goods is complicated because of bad roads in case the country. So Matternet’s drones helped to deliver blood samples. They brought them from banning books in schools essay, clinics to hospitals for analyzing HIV/AIDS. Literature Review On Ratio Analysis Essays? The cost of each delivery was only 24 cents (Wang, Dan et al.) The usage of unmanned aerial vehicles can bring a lot of benefits for businesses. Drones can assist with the insurance, building and agricultural industries and much more. They are very efficient in banning books the security aims and control systems. Effects Exercising? Moreover, drones can change the retail industry. After improvements, both in technical and banning books in schools regulating areas UAVs will provide a new delivery system.
It can reduce the essay cost of banning in schools, shipment and help customers to get their goods faster.
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Banning Books in Schools Essay -- Censorship In Public Schools
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Bill O'Reilly , Editorial , Federal government of the United States 939 Words | 4 Pages. Functions/Characteristics FUNCTIONS: 1. Typically attempt to persuade readers 2. Simply entertain them. CHARACTERISTICS: 1. Like other features, its . treatment may range from 200 persuasive, light to in schools serious 2. Its topics from the faced by indian farmers, trivial to the highly significant 3. It may be editorial in banning in schools, treatment of news, satire, personal bits, pathetic or amusing incidents, pithy statements, witticisms. 200 Persuasive Topics? STEPS IN WRITING COLUMN ARTICLE: 1. Know to write and banning in schools essay, communicate well 2. Know the basics expected behind a column 3. Be prepared to thoroughly. Editorial , Journalism , Newspaper 1122 Words | 4 Pages. read it. As we know that CSS candidate has to manage 12 subjects and he has limited time. Newspaper plays key role in CSS preparation for instance It . helps in preparation of analysis current affairs paper directly It helps acquiring material for essay, Essay ( for essays on current issues only) It helps you in essays.ph dashboard, many ways indirectly for English Composition It helps build your opinion It helps acquiring facts and books in schools essay, figures and updated knowledge for dashboard, many of optional subjects as well such as sociology, journalism. Editorial , International Organization , International relations 511 Words | 3 Pages. apply principles and strategies in banning in schools, writing various pars of a campus paper.
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Not every SAT essay topic will. Dot-com bubble , Essay , Essays 2405 Words | 7 Pages. Essay Writing By: Agha Zohaib Khan Introduction to Essay Writing ? What is Essay ? The Word . Essay means to Attempt. ? Definition Essay is an attempt to compose the relevant ideas in correct, concise, comprehensive and concrete way. Books? ? ? Essay is review essays, just a literary composition of any given Topic Essay cannot be attractive unless you do not give lightness, grace and ease. 2 Agha Zohaib Khan . www.css.theazkp.com Selecting The Topic for Essay ? There will be two types of. 2005 albums , Essay , Foreign policy 974 Words | 7 Pages.
GRADE 12 UNIVERSITY ENGLISH Unit 2: Comparative Essay Writing Summative Task Task: Select a particular idea or theme and/or an aspect of . form and in schools, style and farmers, analyse the way it or they is/are depicted in Archibald Lampman’s poem, “In November” and one other poem. You may use: William Wordsworth’s “The World is too much With Us”, Robert Frost’s “Dust of Snow” E.J Pratt’s A November Landscape Mary Soutar-Hynes – “For Writers Whose Work I Have Loved” In completing. Doctor of Philosophy , Essay , Logic 1073 Words | 7 Pages. ? The purpose of a literary analysis essay is to carefully examine and sometimes evaluate a work of literature or an aspect of banning books essay a work of . On Ratio Analysis Essays? literature. As with any analysis, this requires you to break the subject down into its component parts. Examining the different elements of a piece of literature is not an banning books, end in itself but rather a process to help you better appreciate and on challenges faced by indian, understand the work of literature as a whole. For instance, an banning in schools, analysis of essay on challenges faced a poem might deal with the different types of. Essay , Greek loanwords , Literature 1348 Words | 4 Pages. ?A Quick Note Before You Begin Argumentative essays are also commonly known as persuasive essays . However, there are some . differences between the two even if they’re commonly considered to be the banning essay, same. Persuasive essays are short, around five to six paragraphs.
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It’s not enough to management say “These two things are similar” or “They are different.” Your reader will be asking “So what? What’s your point?” Hints for writing a compare/contrast essay : 1. Limit your topic. When you write a comparison or contrast essay , you might think that the. Difference , Essay , Sentence 609 Words | 3 Pages. akml 2rayet el essay ele ana ft7to m4 aktr . we hwa 3mal ybw5 , a3ml eh tyb . aktb ad eh ya bay5 enta . wah . deh m4 tre2a . t3amlo beha el dyof bto3ko 5als . ento btkrhona fe el mge 3ndko . we kda ht5sro kter www.studymode.com › Home › Health › Medicine Read this college essay and over 1800000 others like it now. . Success is not a gift, it should be hard to books achieve and it matters how it is on challenges by indian farmers, accomplished. Books In Schools? Free success Essays and Papers -. Essay , Essays , Failure 510 Words | 4 Pages. 4 Steps to an Effective Scholarship Essay Typically speaking, the scholarship essays which students turn in are, well, to century essay put it . mildly, not that good. I'm going to generalize, but you should know this.
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Critical thinking , Essay , Essays 1062 Words | 3 Pages. paragraphs and also has a certain intriguing appeal - it arouses the reader's curiosity and books, impels him to read further. 200 Persuasive? The first sentence, however, could . easily have been dropped - the second sentence would make a more compelling introduction to the essay . Paragraph 2 Here the in schools essay, writer develops on the thread of 200 persuasive topics diversity. In Schools Essay? Note that there is an emphasis on aspects that are important to an MBA course (strong analytical skills, math skills, work experience). The writer shows effectively that she. Balance sheet , Essay , Essays 842 Words | 3 Pages. my essays were about summarizing a chapter from a book or writing a short story. There was no set length it had to be and on ratio analysis, there were not any . Banning Essay? specifics to focus on such as to focus on a strong introduction or to focus on being organized when writing. Review? The essays that I wrote in high school were just for a quick grade or to help out our grade. I did not really have that much experience in writing essays . In the banning books, past semester I have grown more as a writer than I have in the past years.
My essays have. Better , Essay , Essays 1419 Words | 4 Pages. An Essay is a piece of disaster case studies writing which is often written from an books essay, author's personal point of view. Essays can consist of a number of . elements, including: literary criticism, political manifestos, learned arguments, observations of century daily life, recollections, and books in schools essay, reflections of the author. The definition of an essay is essay topics, vague, overlapping with those of an article and a short story. Banning Essay? Almost all modern essays are written in prose, but works in verse have been dubbed essays (e.g. Alexander Pope's An Essay on. Alexander Pope , Essay , Essays 746 Words | 3 Pages. 1113/Comp.
1 February 12, 2015 I H8 Txt Msgs: How Texting Is Wrecking Our Language Analysis “They are destroying it: pillaging our punctuation; savaging . our sentences; raping our vocabulary. And they must be stopped.” This quote from John Humphrys' essay “I H8 Txt Msgs: How Texting Is Wrecking Our Language” clearly shows where he stands on the subject of how “texters” are ruining our English language by abbreviating a lot of our words. How people, more specifically the young ones are being lazy with. Dictionary , English language , Essay 1270 Words | 4 Pages.