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Essay about Schizophrenia in A Beautiful Mind - 912 Words | Bartleby
book report book Why do book reports strike terror in the hearts of most students? Simply, writing a book report is not easy. A book report challenges students to think and write critically about what they’ve read. In the schizophrenia and a beautiful early elementary grades, extra support is horse, given, often with book report worksheets that prompt students to write about a favorite character and other book details. But as children progress through upper elementary, middle, and high school, they are expected to write book reports independently. At Time4Writing, we work with students on an individual basis to develop their writing skills through online writing courses.
We hope this roadmap helps your child navigate writing a school book report with a minimum amount of terror! How to Write a Book Report. Before you write, read. There’s no substitute for reading the book. Choose a book you’ll enjoy—reading should be fun, not a chore! Read with a pen and and a beautiful mind essays paper at your side. Jotting down page numbers and notes about significant passages will be very useful when it comes time to write. Remember, unless your book is a personal copy, don’t write in the book itself.
Use a Book Report Outline. After reading the art analysis essay outline book, you are ready to schizophrenia and a essays start the writing process. When writing a book report, or when answering any writing prompt, you#8217;ll find writing easier if you follow the proven steps of the writing process: prewriting, writing, revising, editing, and publishing. In the essay first step, prewriting, you’ll plan what you want to say. An outline is a great prewriting tool for beautiful essays book reports. Start your book report outline with the following five ideas. The Rocking Horse Winner! Each idea should correspond to and a beautiful mind essays a paragraph: 2. Summary of Book. 3. Book Details: Characters. Art Analysis Essay Outline! 4. Book Details: Plot. 5. Evaluation and Conclusion.
In organizing your thoughts, jot down a few ideas for each of schizophrenia and a beautiful mind, these paragraphs. Reminder: Every grade level (and teacher) has different requirements for book report content. Effects Of Smoking! Review your teacher’s instructions before you create your book report outline. Most book reports begin with the basic information about the book: the book’s title, author, genre, and publication information (publisher, number of pages, and schizophrenia and a beautiful mind essays year published). Is Literature In Research! The opening paragraph is schizophrenia mind essays, also your opportunity to the rocking horse build interest by mentioning any unusual facts or circumstances about the schizophrenia and a essays writing of the book or noteworthy credentials of the outline author. Was the book a bestseller?
Is the author a well-known authority on the subject? Book reports are personal, too, so it’s perfectly acceptable to state why you chose to read it. In the body of the book report—paragraphs two, three, and four—you’ll describe what the book is about. This is your chance to show you’ve read and understood the beautiful mind book. Assuming you’ve read a fiction book, below are helpful writing tips: Summary: Start this paragraph by writing an wise shopper, overview of the story, including its setting, time period, main characters, and schizophrenia plot. Specify who tells the college service jmu story (point of schizophrenia beautiful, view) and essay horse the tone or atmosphere of the book. Is it a creepy tale of suspense or a lighthearted adventure? Character Details: In this paragraph, describe the main characters and identify the major conflict or problem the main characters are trying to solve. You can also write another paragraph about the other characters in schizophrenia and a, the book. Plot Details: In writing about the plot, you don’t need to tell every detail of the story. Instead, focus on the main sequence of events.
You can discuss plot highlights, from the rising action to the book’s climax and conflict resolution. Make sure you mention the author’s use of any literary devices you’ve been studying in essay service jmu, class. Book Reports on Non-fiction. If you are writing a book report on a biography or other factual text, you’ll want to devote the body of your book report to a description of the book’s subject and the author’s points of view. Use the chapter headings to help you present the author’s ideas and arguments in an orderly manner. As with a fictional plot, you don’t have to cover every argument made by the author. Instead, choose the main ideas and the ones most interesting to you. If you read a biography, write about some of the important events in the person’s life. Personal Evaluation and Conclusion.
You’ll like writing the final paragraph because it is here that you’ll be able to offer your own critique of the and a beautiful essays book. Be A Shopper! What are the book’s strengths and weaknesses? Did the book hold your interest? What did you learn from the schizophrenia and a beautiful mind book? If you read a work of fiction, how did the book affect you? If you read non-fiction, were you swayed by the author’s arguments?
Try to horse winner be balanced in and a mind, your opinions, and support your statements with examples from the book. Give your honest opinion of the book and whether or not you would recommend it to others. Revising, Editing, and Publishing. After you’ve drafted your book report, you’re ready to follow the art analysis essay next three steps of the and a beautiful mind writing process: revising, editing, and publishing. Begin revising by reading your book report aloud or to a friend for feedback.
As you edit, check your grammar and use of the correct guidelines for book quotes and writing the book title. Give enough time to revising and editing, and your published book report will be that much better. Book Reports: A Type of Expository Essay. A book report is usually written as an expository essay, although it can be written in other forms. In some cases, a teacher will ask students to the health effects take a point of view when writing a book report. Here is an example: “Explain why Hoot by Carl Hiiassen is the best American kid’s novel of the last decade.
Please use examples.” This type of writing prompt requires a persuasive style of writing. Teachers may also assign book reviews, which challenge students to persuade their classmates to read or not read a particular book. If writing a book review, don’t reveal the ending! Rely on schizophrenia beautiful mind Your Writing Training to Write Book Reports. Time4Writing#8217;s online writing classes and review methodology one-to-one, teacher-led instruction help in building students’ writing skills.
When students develop strong basic skills, they can succeed at any writing assignment, including a book report. Schizophrenia Essays! Time4Writing offers online writing courses for kids in elementary, middle school, and high school, and pairs each student with a certified teacher for personalized writing instruction. Time4Writing’s eight-week, online writing courses are highly effective in helping students develop their writing skills and building confidence. Macroeconomics! Find out schizophrenia and a beautiful mind, how Time4Writing#8217;s online writing classes can make a real difference in your child’s writing.
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A Beautiful Mind And The Illustration Of Schizophrenia - Essay - 1889
E. B. White, The Art of the Essay No. 1. E. B. White and his dog Minnie. If it happens that your parents concern themselves so little with the workings of boys’ minds as to christen you Elwyn Brooks White, no doubt you decide as early as possible to identify yourself as E.B. White. If it also happens that you attend Cornell, whose first president was Andrew D. White, then, following a variant of the principle that everybody named Rhodes winds up being nicknamed “Dusty,” you wind up being nicknamed “Andy.” And so it has come about schizophrenia and a beautiful essays that for fifty of his seventy years Elwyn Brooks White has been known to his readers as E.B. White and to his friends as Andy. Andy White.
Andy and Katharine White. Wise Shopper? The Whites. Andy and schizophrenia beautiful Katharine have been married for art analysis essay, forty years, and in that time they have been separated so rarely that I find it impossible to schizophrenia beautiful mind essays think of one without the other. On the essay occasions when they have been obliged to be apart, Andy’s conversation is so likely to center on and a Katharine that she becomes all the more present for being absent. The Whites have shared everything, from professional association on the same magazine to preoccupation with a joint ill health that many of their friends have been inclined to regard as imaginary.
Years ago, in service jmu, a Christmas doggerel, Edmund Wilson saluted them for possessing “ mens sana in corpore insano, ” and it was always wonderful to behold the intuitive seesaw adjustments by which one of them got well in time for the other to get sick. And A Mind Essays? What a mountain of good work they have accumulated in what is literature in research methodology, that fashion! Certainly they have been the strongest and most productive unhealthy couple that I have ever encountered, but I no longer dare to make fun of their ailments. Now that age is schizophrenia beautiful mind, bestowing on them a natural infirmity, they must be sorely tempted to say to jmu the rest of us, “You see? What did we tell you?” (“Sorely,” by schizophrenia and a beautiful mind the way, has been a favorite adverb of Andy’s- a word that brims with bodily woe and that yet hints at college jmu, the heroic: back of Andy, some dying knight out of schizophrenia and a beautiful, Malory lifts his gleaming sword against the dusk.) Andy White is small and wiry, with an unexpectedly large nose, speckled eyes, and an air of being just about to turn away, not on an errand of essay the rocking horse winner, any importance but as a means of remaining free to cut and run without the nuisance of schizophrenia and a mind essays, prolonged good-byes.
Crossing the threshold of essay service, his eighth decade, his person is uncannily boyish-seeming. Beautiful Mind? Though his hair is grey, I learn at this moment that I do not consent to the fact: away from him, I remember it as brown, therefore it is brown to me. The Health Of Smoking Essay? Andy can no more lose his youthfulness by the tiresome accident of growing old than he could ever have been Elwyn by the tiresome un-necessary accident of baptism; his youth and his “Andy”-ness are intrinsic and inexpungeable. Katharine White is a woman so good-looking that nobody has taken it amiss when her husband has described in print as beautiful, but her beauty has a touch of schizophrenia and a, blue-eyed augustness in it, and her manner is formal. It would never occur to me to go beyond calling her Katharine, and I have not found it surprising when her son, Roger Angell, an editor of The New Yorker , refers to her within the office precincts as “Mrs. White.” (Roger Angell is the son of her marriage to a distinguished New York attorney, Ernest Angell; she and essay jmu Andy have a son, Joe, who is a naval architect and whose boatyard is schizophrenia and a beautiful, a thriving enterprise in the Whites’ hometown of Brooklin, Maine.) At the risk of reducing a man’s life to a sort of Merck’s Manual, I may mention that Andy White’s personal physician, Dana Atchley- giving characteristically short shrift to a psychosomatic view of his old friend- has described him as having a Rolls Royce mind in a Model T body.
With Andy, this would pass for a compliment, because in the tyranny of his modesty he would always choose to be a Ford instead of a Rolls, but it would be closer to is literature review the truth to describe him as a Rolls Royce mind in a Rolls Royce body that unaccountably keeps bumping to a stop and humming to itself, not without infinite pleasure to schizophrenia and a essays others along the way. What he achieves must cost him a considerable effort and appears to cost him very little. Shopper Essay? His speaking voice, like his writing voice, is clear, resonant, and invincibly debonair. He wanders over the pastures of his Maine farm or, for that matter, along the labyrinthine corridors of and a mind essays, The New Yorker offices on West Forty-Third Street with the off-hand grace of a dancer making up a sequence of steps that the eye follows with delight and that defies any but his own notation. Clues to the bold and delicate nature of those steps are to what in research methodology be discovered in mind essays, every line he writes, but the man and his work are so nearly one that, try as we will, we cannot tell the be a shopper essay dancer from the dance. So many critics equate the success of and a beautiful mind, a writer with an unhappy childhood.
Can you say something of your own childhood in Mount Vernon? As a child, I was frightened but not unhappy. My parents were loving and kind. We were a large family (six children) and were a small kingdom unto ourselves. Nobody ever came to dinner. My father was formal, conservative, successful, hardworking, and worried. My mother was loving, hardworking, and retiring. We lived in a large house in a leafy suburb, where there were backyards and stables and grape arbors. I lacked for nothing except confidence. I suffered nothing except the routine terrors of childhood: fear of the dark, fear of the future, fear of the return to school after a summer on a lake in Maine, fear of making an appearance on a platform, fear of the lavatory in the rocking, the school basement where the slate urinals cascaded, fear that I was unknowing about things I should know about.
I was, as a child, allergic to pollens and dusts, and schizophrenia and a beautiful mind essays still am. College Essay? I was allergic to schizophrenia mind platforms, and the health essay still am. It may be, as some critics suggest, that it helps to have an unhappy childhood. If so, I have no knowledge of it. Perhaps it helps to have been scared or allergic to pollensI don’t know. At what age did you know you were going to follow a literary profession? Was there a particular incident, or moment? I never knew for sure that I would follow a literary profession. I was twenty-seven or twenty-eight before anything happened that gave me any assurance that I could make a go of writing.
I had done a great deal of writing, but I lacked confidence in my ability to put it to good use. I went abroad one summer and on my return to New York found an accumulation of mail at my apartment. I took the letters, unopened, and went to a Childs restaurant on Fourteenth Street, where I ordered dinner and began opening my mail. From one envelope, two or three checks dropped out, from The New Yorker . I suppose they totaled a little under a hundred dollars, but it looked like a fortune to me. I can still remember the feeling that “this was it”I was a pro at last. Beautiful Essays? It was a good feeling and I enjoyed the meal. What were those first pieces accepted by The New Yorker ? Did you send them in with a covering letter, or through an the health of smoking essay agent? They were short sketcheswhat Ross called “casuals.” One, I think, was a piece called “The Swell Steerage,” about the then new college cabin class on transatlantic ships. I never submitted a manuscript with a covering letter or through an agent.
I used to put my manuscript in schizophrenia and a beautiful mind essays, the mail, along with a stamped envelope for the rejection. This was a matter of high principle with me: I believed in the doctrine of immaculate rejection. I never used an application essay service jmu agent and did not like the looks of a manuscript after an schizophrenia essays agent got through prettying it up and macroeconomics putting it between covers with brass clips. (I now have an agent for such mysteries as movie rights and foreign translations.) A large part of schizophrenia and a beautiful mind, all early contributions to The New Yorker arrived uninvited and unexpected. They arrived in the mail or under the arm of people who walked in with them. O’Hara’s “Afternoon Delphians” is one example out of hundreds. For a number of years, The New Yorker published an average of fifty new writers a year. Magazines that refuse unsolicited manuscripts strike me as lazy, incurious, self-assured, and self-important. I’m speaking of magazines of general circulation.
There may be some justification for essay the rocking horse, a technical journal to limit its list of contributors to persons who are known to schizophrenia beautiful essays be qualified. But if I were a publisher, I wouldn’t want to put out a magazine that failed to examine everything that turned up. But did The New Yorker ever try to publish the emerging writers of the time: Hemingway, Faulkner, Dos Passos, Fitzgerald, Miller, Lawrence, Joyce, Wolfe, et al? The New Yorker had an interest in review in research methodology, publishing any writer that could turn in a good piece. It read everything submitted.
Hemingway, Faulkner, and the others were well established and well paid when The New Yorker came on the scene. The magazine would have been glad to publish them, but it didn’t have the money to pay them off, and for the most part they didn’t submit. They were selling to The Saturday Evening Post and other well-heeled publications, and in general were not inclined to and a mind contribute to be a wise shopper essay the small, new, impecunious weekly. And A Beautiful Mind? Also, some of be a, them, I would guess, did not feel sympathetic to The New Yorker ’s frivolity. Ross had no great urge to and a beautiful essays publish the big names; he was far more interested in art analysis, turning up new and yet undiscovered talent, the beautiful mind essays Helen Hokinsons and the health effects the James Thurbers. And A Beautiful Mind? We did publish some things by Wolfe“Only the Dead Know Brooklyn” was one. I believe we published something by Fitzgerald. But Ross didn’t waste much time trying to corral “emerged” writers. He was looking for the ones that were found by essay the rocking horse turning over a stone. What were the procedures in turning down a manuscript by a New Yorker regular? Was this done by Ross?
The manuscript of mind essays, a New Yorker regular was turned down in the same manner as was the manuscript of a New Yorker irregular. It was simply rejected, usually by the subeditor who was handling the art analysis essay outline author in question. Ross did not deal directly with writers and artists, except in the case of a few old friends from an earlier day. He wouldn’t even take on Woollcottregarded him as too difficult and fussy. Ross disliked rejecting pieces, and he disliked firing peoplehe ducked both tasks whenever he could. Did feuds threaten the magazine? Feuds did not threaten The New Yorker . The only feud I recall was the running battle between the and a beautiful mind editorial department and the advertising department. This was largely a one-sided affair, with the editorial department lobbing an occasional grenade into the enemy’s lines just on general principles, to help them remember to stay out of wise shopper essay, sight. Ross was determined not to allow his magazine to be swayed, in the slightest degree, by the boys in advertising.
As far as I know, he succeeded. When did you first move to New York, and what were some of the things you did before joining The New Yorker ? Were you ever a part of the Algonquin group? After I got out of schizophrenia mind, college, in 1921, I went to work in New York but did not live in essay horse winner, New York. I lived at home, with my father and mother in schizophrenia beautiful, Mount Vernon, and commuted to college essay service jmu work. I held three jobs in and a beautiful essays, about seven monthsfirst with the United Press, then with a public relations man named Wheat, then with the American Legion News Service.
I disliked them all, and in the spring of 1922 I headed west in a Model T Ford with a college mate, Howard Cushman, to seek my fortune and as a way of getting away from what I disliked. I landed in art analysis outline, Seattle six months later, worked there as a reporter on beautiful mind essays the Times for a year, was fired, shipped to Alaska aboard a freighter, and then returned to New York. It was on my return that I became an the health of smoking essay advertising manFrank Seaman Co., J. And A Mind? H. Essay The Rocking Winner? Newmark. In the schizophrenia and a mind mid-twenties, I moved into a two-room apartment at 112 West Thirteenth Street with three other fellows, college mates of mine at what is literature review in research, Cornell: Burke Dowling Adams, Gustave Stubbs Lobrano, and Mitchell T. Galbreath. Schizophrenia Beautiful? The rent was $110 a month. Split four ways it came to $27.50, which I could afford. My friends in those days were the fellows already mentioned. Also, Peter Vischer, Russell Lord, Joel Sayre, Frank Sullivan (he was older and be a wise more advanced but I met him and liked him), James Thurber, and others. I was never a part of the Algonquin group. After becoming connected with The New Yorker, I lunched once at the Round Table but didn’t care for it and was embarrassed in schizophrenia beautiful, the presence of the great. Essay? I never was well acquainted with Benchley or Broun or Dorothy Parker or Woollcott.
I did not know Don Marquis or Ring Lardner, both of whom I greatly admired. I was a younger man. Subscribe and save nearly 40%. Already a subscriber? Sign in and a beautiful essays, below. Last / Next Article. These Anemones, Their Song Is Made Up As They Float Along. Staff Picks: Fat Ladies, Flowers, and Faraway Lands. Staff Picks: Pranks, Prints, and review Penises. We reached the car, and I held the beautiful door open for him, but he didn't climb in right away.
He stood there rocking on review in research his crutch, gazing off at the sky and schizophrenia beautiful mind essays the fields and the fall trees starting to wise shopper essay go the color of sherbet#133; Back when my son Harry was little, I’d take him out early in the morning, usually with Miss Otis in tow, and walk over to Les Deux Gamins. Beautiful Mind Essays? One of those mornings, I got there around eight. They were still setting up inside, but the the health morning was mil Eudora Welty, The Art of Fiction No.
47. I met Eudora Welty in essays, her room at the Algonquin Hotel an be a wise shopper hour or so after her train had arrived in Penn Station. She had given me the wrong room number, so I first saw her peering out of her door as the elevator opened. Schizophrenia Mind? A tall, large-boned, gray-haired woman greeted me apologetically. She was admittedly nervous about being interviewed, particularly on a tape recorder. After describing her train rideshe won’t flyshe braced herself and asked if I wouldn’t begin the questioning. Once the interview got underway, she grew more at art analysis essay, ease. As she herself might say, she was “not unforthcoming.” She speaks deliberately with a deep Southern drawl, measuring her words. She is extremely private and won’t reveal anything personal about herself. You wrote somewhere that we should still tolerate Jane Austen’s kind of and a beautiful mind essays, family novel. Is Austen a kindred spirit?
Tolerate ? I should just think so! I love and admire all she does, and wise profoundly, but I don’t read her or anyone else for “kindredness.” The piece you’re referring to was written on schizophrenia and a beautiful assignment for Brief Lives , an anthology Louis Kronenberger was editing. Is Literature In Research Methodology? He did offer me either Jane Austen or Chekhov, and beautiful essays Chekhov I do dare to think is more “kindred.” I feel closer to him in spirit, but I couldn’t read Russian, which I felt whoever wrote about him should be able to do. Chekhov is one of usso close to today’s world, to art analysis essay my mind, and very close to schizophrenia and a beautiful mind essays the Southwhich Stark Young pointed out a long time ago. Why is Chekhov close to essay horse winner today’s South? He loved the singularity in people, the individuality.
He took for granted the sense of family. He had the sense of fate overtaking a way of life, and his Russian humor seems to me kin to the humor of a Southerner. And A Mind Essays? It’s the kind that lies mostly in character. You know, in Uncle Vanya and The Cherry Orchard , how people are always gathered together and talking and talking, no one’s really listening. College Application Essay Service Jmu? Yet there’s a great love and understanding that prevails through it, and a knowledge and acceptance of schizophrenia and a mind, each other’s idiosyncrasies, a tolerance of them, and also an acute enjoyment of the dramatic. The Health Effects Essay? Like in The Three Sisters , when the fire is schizophrenia and a beautiful mind essays, going on, how they talk right on through their exhaustion, and essay Vershinin says, “I feel a strange excitement in the air,” and laughs and schizophrenia and a beautiful essays sings and talks about the art analysis essay outline future. That kind of beautiful, responsiveness to the world, to whatever happens, out of their own deeps of character seems very southern to me. Anyway, I took a temperamental delight in Chekhov, and gradually the connection was borne in upon me.
Do you ever return to Virginia Woolf? Yes. She was the one who opened the door. College Application? When I read To the mind essays Lighthouse , I felt, Heavens, what is essay, this? I was so excited by and a mind essays the experience I couldn’t sleep or eat. I’ve read it many times since, though more often these days I go back to her diary.
Any day you open it to will be tragic, and be a wise yet all the and a beautiful essays marvelous things she says about her work, about working, leave you filled with joy that’s stronger than your misery for her. Remember“I’m not very far along, but I think I have my statues against art analysis essay, the sky”?* Isn’t that beautiful? About your own work, are you surprised that Losing Battles was on the best-seller lista first for you, I believe? It occurred to me right at first it must be a flukethat whoever had that place on the best-seller list had just got up and given me his seatlet the lady sit down, she’s tottering. Yet any reception would have surprised meor you could just as well say nothing would have surprised me, because I wasn’t thinking of how it would be received when I wrote it. I thought about the opinion of a handful of friends I would love to have love that book, but not about the public.
Do you write for your friends? At the time of writing, I don’t write for schizophrenia and a essays, my friends or myself, either; I write for it , for the pleasure of college application jmu, it . I believe if I stopped to wonder what So-and-so would think, or what I’d feel like if this were read by a stranger, I would be paralyzed. I care what my friends think, very deeplyand it’s only after they’ve read the finished thing that I really can rest, deep down. But in the writing, I have to just keep going straight through with only the thing in mind and what it dictates. It’s so much an inward thing that reading the proofs later can be a real shock. When I received them for my first bookno, I guess it was for Delta Wedding I thought, I didn’t write this. It was a page of dialogueI might as well have never seen it before. I wrote to and a beautiful mind my editor, John Woodburn, and told him something had happened to that page in the typesetting. He was kind, not even surprisedmaybe this happens to all writers. He called me up and read me from the manuscriptword for word what the proofs said.
Proofs don’t shock me any longer, yet there’s still a strange moment with every book when I move from the position of writer to outline the position of schizophrenia beautiful essays, reader, and outline I suddenly see my words with the eyes of the cold public. And A Mind Essays? It gives me a terrible sense of the health effects of smoking essay, exposure, as if I’d gotten sunburned. Do you make changes in schizophrenia beautiful, galleys? I correct or change words, but I can’t rewrite a scene or make a major change because there’s a sense then of art analysis essay, someone looking over my shoulder. It’s necessary, anyway, to trust that moment when you were sure at last you had done all you could, done your best for that time. When it’s finally in print, you’re deliveredyou don’t ever have to look at it again. It’s too late to worry about its failings.
I’ll have to apply any lessons this book has taught me toward writing the next one. Is Losing Battles a departure from and a beautiful mind, your previous fiction? I wanted to see if I could do something that was new for essay, me: translating every thought and feeling into action and speech, speech being another form of actionto bring the schizophrenia and a mind essays whole life of it off through the completed gesture, so to college application essay service jmu speak. I felt that I’d been writing too much by way of description, of introspection on the part of my characters. Schizophrenia Mind Essays? I tried to see if I could make everything shown, brought forth, without benefit of the author’s telling any more about shopper essay what was going on inside the beautiful essays characters’ minds and hearts.
For me, this makes almost certainly for comedywhich I love to write best of all. Now I see it might be a transition toward writing a play. Did you know what you were going to write before you put it on paper? Yes, it was there in my head, but events proliferated as I went along. For instance, I thought all the action in the novel would be contained in one day and night, but a folder started to the rocking horse fill up with things marked “Next A.M.” I didn’t foresee the stories that grew out of the schizophrenia and a beautiful essays storiesthat was one of the joys of working the review in research novel out. I thought the book would be short, and instead it was three or four times longer than my normal work. There’s no way of schizophrenia mind essays, estimating its original length because I had great chunks of things in paper clips, which weren’t numbered until they went to art analysis essay outline the printer.
And I must have thrown away at least as much as I kept in the book. Did you learn anything new about writing dialogue? I believe so. In its beginning, dialogue’s the easiest thing in mind, the world to write when you have a good ear, which I think I have. But as it goes on, it’s the most difficult, because it has so many ways to function. Sometimes I needed to the health of smoking make a speech do three or four or five things at oncereveal what the character said but also what he thought he said, what he hid, what others were going to think he meant, and what they misunderstood, and so forthall in his single speech. And the and a mind speech would have to keep the macroeconomics essence of this one character, his whole particular outlook in concentrated form. And A Mind Essays? This isn’t to say I succeeded. But I guess it explains why dialogue gives me my greatest pleasure in what review in research methodology, writing. I used to laugh out loud sometimes when I wrote itthe way P. G. Schizophrenia And A Mind Essays? Wodehouse is said to do. I’d think of some things my characters would say, and even if I couldn’t use it, I would write the scene out the health effects essay just to let them loose on beautiful essays somethingmy private show.
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A Beautiful Mind And The Illustration Of Schizophrenia - Essay - 1889
Henri Lefebvre and Marxism: A view from the Frankfurt School. interpretations of Marx. In recent years the literature that has appeared about, for, and against Marx and Marxism has increased to the point where it can hardly be surveyed. Yet it would be false to beautiful, conclude that the debate over matters of content has been advanced. To the extent that this literature does not speak the shopper, language of the Cold War and attempt to establish a dubious “counter-ideology,” it produces (as political science or Kremlinology) works full of information concerning the state of Soviet Marxist doctrines in terms of their dependence on current political trends. To the extent that Marxian theory itself still enters its field of vision, it is schizophrenia mind essays, dulled by the fact that people (generally following Karl Lowith) classify it in the historical tradition of Soren Kierkegaard and Friedrich Nietzsche, or else reduce it to an ahistorical interpretation of the problematic of alienation in the Economic and art analysis, Philosophical Manuscripts . On the other hand, the group of authors honestly interested in the further development of Marxian theory is exceptionally small. They are able to abstract from what still frequently passes for Marxism in the Eastern half of the world without denying the objective significance of the East-West conflict for schizophrenia beautiful mind, their thought. They have involved themselves intensively with texts of essay service, Hegel and Marx, which by no means have finally been disposed of, without falling into the and a beautiful mind, hair-splitting ontology — with its consecrated body of quotations — that is typical for the post-Stalinist period in Soviet philosophy. To this group belongs Henri Lefebvre (who has recently become known in Germany through his acute analysis of the health of smoking, Stalinism). 1 His writings are indispensable to those who aim at an adequate (and therefore critical) understanding of Marx within the limits of the beautiful essays, alternatives that have been institutionalized in the political arena: either calling dialectical materialism a “watertight worldview” (Robert Musil) or dismissing it out of college application service jmu, hand as a product of the schizophrenia mind essays, discredited nineteenth century.
If a publisher has decided to bring out an edition of Le materialisme dialectique , 2 a work that appeared over three decades ago, it is because it has scarcely lost its actuality — aside from a few points that needed correction. Effects Essay. The philosophical discussion of mind essays, Marxism that began directly after the First World War with Ernst Bloch’s Spirit of Utopia and Georg Lukacs’ History and Class Consciousness , and was especially furthered by Karl Korsch, Herbert Marcuse, Max Horkheimer, and Theodor Adorno, broke off with Hitler’s seizure of power. Therefore, works on Marx from the health of smoking that period, as well as those written in western Europe in the late thirties, are still of great importance to us: not least because those works approached problems in a way far more political and schizophrenia and a beautiful essays, closer to essay horse, reality than was possible for the new West German attempts at an interpretation of schizophrenia and a essays, Marx after 1945, which remained more or less academic. These were all essentially centered on the “young Marx” in whom the wise, authors (Thier, Popitz, Fromm) wanted to see an “existential thinker.” Since Lefebvre’s book also seems at and a essays first glance to belong to the existence-philosophical, moralizing, and essay horse, abstract anthropological school of interpretation, it seems necessary to beautiful essays, make the reader somewhat more conversant with Lefebvre’s intellectual development. 3 Only on that basis can the central concept of “alienation” in his Dialectical Materialism be understood and differentiated from interpretations using this concept in the health essay, a sense almost exactly opposed to the Marxian one. First, some dates in pre-World War II French philosophy.
About the year 1930, the philosophical aspect of Marxism began to arouse interest in France. At the and a mind essays, same time, a broad general receptivity toward Hegel, interwoven with attitudes toward Kierkegaard, was announced by Jean Wahl’s book, Le malheur de la conscience dans la philosophie de Hegel . Wahl is inclined to reduce the richness of Hegel’s work to jmu, the stage of the “unhappy consciousness.” With this emphasis on the romantic moment in Hegel, it becomes almost impossible to separate Hegel and schizophrenia and a beautiful mind, Kierkegaard. Subsequently, the appropriation of the idealist dialectic is shopper, paralleled by schizophrenia beautiful mind essays an interpretation of art analysis essay, Marx’s early writings in the light of Heidegger’s Being and Time . This process led to the birth of the French variety of existential ontology: to existentialism. Schizophrenia. It was completed between 1933 and 1938, years in wise essay, which Alexandre Kojeve gave his now famous lectures on the Phenomenology of Spirit 4 at the Ecole des Hautes Etudes before students such as Jean-Paul Sartre, Maurice Merleau-Ponty, Raymond Aron, and R. And A. P. The Health Of Smoking. Fessard. These lectures follow the same questionable lines as Wahl and see access to Hegel’s entire oeuvre in a single level of schizophrenia and a beautiful essays, consciousness. With Kojeve, it is the much-commented-on chapter “Dependence and essay, Independence of Self-Consciousness: Lordship and Bondage.” Although he wants his interpretation of Hegel to schizophrenia beautiful mind essays, be considered “Marxist,” he does not focus on Marx’s materialist “inversion” of the dialectic. Rather, as Fetscher emphasizes, Kojeve already sees in the phenomenological dialectic itself “all the the rocking horse winner, ultimate consequences of the Marxist philosophy of and a beautiful mind, history.” 5 Thus “motifs of thought” that first arose from Marx’s critique of Hegel are ascribed to Hegel. But even Marx’s position is not done justice, since Kojeve lags behind his claim that one should elevate oneself to the health essay, real history, that is, to the concrete forms of human relationships, which are determined differently at different moments in time. Instead, he is satisfied with the sterile definition of a Heideggerian “historicity of existence” that is supposedly present in the Phenomenology of Mind as an mind, “existential” 6 and wise shopper essay, radically “finite” 7 anthropology. According to Kojeve, the anthropological character of schizophrenia mind, Hegelian thought becomes understandable only on the basis of Heidegger’s emphasis on “ontological finitude,” although the anthropology of the health of smoking, Being and Time (which Kojeve asserts in opposition to Heidegger’s intention) adds nothing new to that developed by Hegel.
The supposedly broader “anthropological-ontological basis” 8 with which Kojeve wants to schizophrenia and a beautiful, dote dialectical materialism is more liable to reduce it to a doctrine of be a shopper essay, invariable structures. Not the least of the ways that this would develop is in strictly political terms. Insofar as Kojeve breaks the structural elements of the Master-Slave dialectic away from its specific historical background (which must always be thought of with it), he inflates labor and the struggle for life and death into eternal factors, a la social Darwinism. Stripped of every concrete determination, man appears as an essence “which is always conscious of his death, often freely assumes it and sometimes knowingly and freely chooses it”; Hegel’s “anthropological philosophy” is viewed as “ultimately one… of death.” 9 Anachronistically, and thus in schizophrenia essays, a way that falsifies Hegel, Kojeve equates the struggle for college jmu, “recognition” with a “fight for pure prestige.” 10 Human essence and knowledge constitutes itself with a decided “risk” of life. It is as if “self-conscious existence is possible only schizophrenia mind essays, where there are or — at least — where there have been bloody fights, wars for prestige.” 11 On the other hand, it matters little that he abstractly holds firm to the idea of the “realm of freedom” that Hegel anticipated and that has to be realized by Marxism. 12 It is a reconciled condition that does not occupy a situation, in which negativity (time and action in their present meanings) ceases, as do philosophy, revolutions and wars as well: his “political-existential” anthropology sharpened by “decisionism” bears fascistoid traces. 13 If one starts from the premise that the Hegel and Marx exegesis outlined here was dominant in the France of the thirties, it becomes clear that Lefebvre, even with all the unavoidable concessions to the spirit of the times, took a path all his own. Opposed to every ontology, to the late-bourgeois as well as to the Stalinist ones, he developed himself into a critical Marxist whose standards grew out of a materialist analysis of the course of history.
His academic teachers were hardly appropriate to lead his thought in this direction. In Aix-en-Provence he studied Augustine and Pascal 14 with the liberal Catholic Maurice Blondel, and at the Sorbonne he worked with Leon Brunschvig, the “intellectualiste” philosopher of in research, judgment who was an enemy of every dialectic. Schizophrenia Beautiful Essays. What made Lefebvre (by no means without conflict) turn to Marxism had little to what is literature review in research methodology, do with university philosophy. It was the political and social upheavals of the postwar period, and more particularly personal problems, psychoanalysis, and association with the literary and artistic avant-garde, the surrealist movement. 15 Lastly, it was the suspicion, which turned into a firm conviction, that philosophy as it had been handed down to us had demonstrated that it increasingly was less able to come to grips with, not to schizophrenia, mention master, the review methodology, problems posed by the historical situation of being and consciousness in society. At this point, the call of Marx and schizophrenia and a mind essays, Engels, in their early writings, for the “negation” of philosophy and the turn toward a praxis “which would realize philosophical insight,” seemed to offer itself to him.
A possibility seemed to wise shopper, open up, not only schizophrenia, of more or less articulately mirroring the fragmentation developing in modern existence — the way it happened in irrationalist ideologies — but of grasping it concretely, that is, as something which could be transcended. Thus, from the outset, Lefebvre’s Marxism is neither the positivistically limited one of the natural scientist who seeks to satisfy the needs of his world view, nor that of the what, practical politician to whom it is simply a means of rationalizing specific measures. Fetscher correctly indicates that fact, 10 but when he sees the specificity of Lefebvre’s view of Marx in anthropology , more discussion is required, so as to avoid the misunderstandings that lie close at hand in such an interpretation. First of schizophrenia beautiful, all, as critical theoreticians in essay the rocking horse, general have repeatedly emphasized, Marx is not concerned with a “philosophical anthropology” in and a essays, Scheler’s sense of static precepts concerning the “construction of the essay, essence of Man.” Such an mind essays, anthropology sets the impossible task of demonstrating the exact manner in the health of smoking, which “ all specific monopolies, achievements and works of and a mind essays, mankind proceed” from a “basic structure of the human being,” including history and society, which, characteristically enough, Scheler handles in the rigidified form of “historicity” and “sociality.” 17 However much anthropological writers have tried to incorporate change and becoming into the idea of human nature, the content of the history of art analysis outline, this idea must, nevertheless, remain external to these concepts, because the way they pose the question is based on a strictly conceived hierarchy. Marx is equally little concerned with probing the eternal structure of human labor in the manner of his fundamental-ontological interpreters who, like Kojeve, also want to end up with an anthropology that is basically foreign to history. What emerges in Marx as the generally valid structure of human labor is a concept fixed by thought, in which conditions common to all stages of production can be determined. “But,” says the Critique of Political Economy , “the so-called general conditions of all production are nothing but abstract moments with which no actual historical stage of schizophrenia beautiful essays, production can be grasped.” 18 This position by no means typifies only Marx’s economic analyses. Precisely those early writings, which are always quoted in order to art analysis essay outline, treat Marx as an ontologist, yield little for such an interpretation. Thus the schizophrenia and a essays, German Ideology stresses that by review in research presenting the practical life-processes of men (not of man ), independent philosophy loses its “medium of existence” and can be replaced at best by a “summing-up of the beautiful mind, most general results, abstractions which arise from the observation of the historical development of men.” 19 To that sentence, Marx and Engels unequivocally add: Viewed apart from real history, these abstractions have in themselves no value whatsoever.
They can only serve to facilitate the arrangement of historical material, to indicate the sequence of its separate strata. But they by no means afford a recipe or schema, as does philosophy, for the rocking, neatly trimming the epochs of history. 20. As if the authors of these sentences had never written them, the ontologizing interpreters of Marx resolutely make what are explicitly referred to as helpful concepts , the results of the analysis of materials, precede the materials as their constituent being. No differently did Nietzsche’s Gotzendammerung brand the ?????? ?????? [“proton pseudos” or primary lie — Eds.] of the schizophrenia and a beautiful essays, metaphysical enterprise. Under the guise of radicalizing historical consciousness, history is eliminated. What Is Literature Methodology. All that remains of it is that it exists: historicity.Lefebvre criticized both of these methodologically interrelated lines of interpretation, and and a, not least of all Kojeve’s “neo-Hegelian deviation,” 21 in which the “anthropological” and application, the “ontological” are linked. Schizophrenia Essays. He exposed the weaknesses of German existential philosophy (Jaspers), 22 no less than those of French existentialism and its Husserlian-Heideggerian roots. 23 This fundamental opposition is not weakened by the occasional resonances of an existential vocabulary in Lefebvre’s writings.
He does not infringe on its materialist character, yet for him Marxism is not a philosophy of being, but a philosophy of concept. The fact that in essay service, retrospect Lefebvre now terms his 1925 attitudes “existentialist” should not be understood in the sense of the term established later. Rather, it means that he and his friends, under the pressures of the conditions of the time and schizophrenia and a beautiful mind, the sterility of official philosophy, wrestled with problems which immediately affected their mental (and not only mental) existence. Day-to-day personal experience exposed the limits that were set by wise shopper essay the bourgeois world on the free development of human talents and needs, and showed the schizophrenia beautiful essays, extent to which modern society suffered from a fragmented self, which the young Hegel had already called the art analysis outline, “fountainhead of the needs of philosophy.” 24 Granted, the critique of this fragmentation that Lefebvre undertook during the years 1925-1929 did not yet fulfill the beautiful essays, criteria which he later developed in the idea of a “critique of everyday life.” To the extent that it does not disappear into the abstract immediacy of mere revolt, it remains caught in application essay service, just that scholastic philosophy of whose insufficiency, as we have said, no one was more conscious than Lefebvre himself. During those years, even he succumbed to the cult of the increasingly impoverished self — a “withdrawal neurosis,”25 which could grow to schizophrenia and a beautiful, the point at which the inner self is entirely cut off from the outer world and robbed of all content, is driven toward its own self-destruction at the same time that it claims to be concerned with human well-being. At the same time, Lefebvre’s withdrawal into pure interiority — more a symptom than a critique of macroeconomics, what exists — is streaked with the slowly dawning insight that the world does not exhaust itself in Bergson’s stream of consciousness, that what matters is finding one’s way back to objects: “ Retrouver l’objet .” 26. However, Lefebvre’s desire to escape from the schizophrenia and a beautiful mind, bind of cramped subjectivity and to attain a more concrete medium of thought was not realized immediately. When he adhered to art analysis, Communism in 1928, he saw less clearly than before. True, in 1930 he read Hegel, and Marx’s Capital . Beautiful Mind Essays. But at first, the books that were decisive, as for many Marxist neophytes, were Engels’ Anti-Duhring and Lenin’s Materialism and Empirio-Criticism — books which, because of college essay, their materialist overzealousness, teach a massive objectivism rather than a scientific objectivity thoroughly penetrated by concepts.
It is understandable that after adopting these dogmatic positions, Lefebvre also interpreted the later Engels’ statements on and a beautiful mind essays, previous philosophy (which are in macroeconomics, fact ambiguous) to mean that socialist theory, as a “positive science,” abjures all philosophy. Thus, materialism becomes synonymous with a strict renunciation of abstraction. When Lefebvre became aware of the contradiction contained in that position, namely that if one totally rejects abstraction (in particular, we must add, the theory of the equivalency of exchange, which is decisive for Marx), it is impossible to schizophrenia beautiful mind essays, justify the scientific use of application, concepts, then conflicts with the and a beautiful mind essays, Party became inevitable. Since the late twenties, the Party had been concerned with its “Bolshevization.” Under the pretense of adopting the Leninist organizational model, it was forming an apparatus to which, with Stalin’s increasing influence over the health effects, non-Russian Parties, every intellectual effort was ruthlessly subordinated. One must start from schizophrenia beautiful mind this fundamental process of transformation of the French Communist Party in order to judge adequately the works Lefebvre published between 1930 and 1940. They were against outline both modern authoritarian, irrational ideology 27 and against mind the attempts of Party Communists to either reduce Marx’s teachings to a narrowly conceived economistic theory, or to broaden them into a positive world view (“scientific ideology”) and an abstract methodology of the what is literature in research methodology, natural sciences. Lefebvre, similar to schizophrenia and a beautiful mind essays, Karl Korsch in that respect, is not merely concerned with “situating” Marxism within philosophy or within science, since Marxist speculative philosophy transcends the empiricism of the health effects of smoking, all the individual sciences. Lefebvre knows that the way philosophy and science merge into the specifically Marxist concept of a critique is schizophrenia and a, discontinuous and, therefore, it qualitatively changes them.
That this critique claims to be a science not only does not stand in opposition to philosophy, it rests precisely on a philosophical distinction: that between immediacy and reflection, appearance and essence. These are categories linked with the name of Hegel. Lefebvre explicitly rejoined Hegel’s dialectic when in the health effects, the early thirties he turned to questions of logic and beautiful mind, of (historical) method, to the problem of “real humanism” and to of smoking, the theory of ideological illusion. At that point, just as Lukacs had done previously in History and Class Consciousness , he came up against schizophrenia and a beautiful the problem of the objective meaning of the Hegelian method for the Marxist one. Essay. He recognizes that this problem can be approached adequately only schizophrenia and a beautiful mind, when the essay, historical character of the Marxist method, energetically stressed by Lukacs, is applied not only to its objects, but also to itself. In other words: neither for Marx nor for schizophrenia and a beautiful mind essays, us is this method a materialist corrective of Hegel that is given once and for all. Just as Marx (and this is not simply a philological question) evaluated his relation to Hegel quite differently at different stages of development, we must also reinterpret afresh the Hegel-Marx relation with respect to continuity and discreteness, and according to the state of in research methodology, history and the nature of our theoretical interests that are determined by schizophrenia and a beautiful mind it. Of Smoking. Thus something like a well-rounded “Marxist image of Hegel” is impossible for Lefebvre. 28.
He considers Hegel’s Logic and schizophrenia and a mind essays, Phenomenology from the viewpoint of a materialist philosophy of the rocking, history which, as a “science of human reality,” 29 takes up in their transitory, historically concrete determinations those questions that can be hypostasized from philosophical anthropology and the “existential” movement and applied as such to a man in general. And A Mind. Because Lefebvre also terms, the Marxist science of human reality a “general anthropology,” 30 it seems necessary to return to Fetscher’s statement concerning the basically anthropological character of his understanding of Marx, especially because we have tried to describe the way the anthropological-ontological interpretation of Marx deviates from the essay, position of both Marx and of Lefebvre. As we have said, Lefebvre’s concept of anthropology does not aim at and a beautiful mind essays a supratemporal substance; for him man is contained in what Marx calls “the world of men, state, society,” 31 that is, in an historical relationship that must, in application service jmu, turn, be examined in its present concrete form. The general human essence is whatever it is in its particular manifestation; this essence, however, presents itself at a particular stage of the conflict between man and nature. Perhaps one should say: at this stage, the stage of “prehistory,” it is what it is schizophrenia and a, not — an unfulfilled promise. In two respects, this radical historical and philosophical conception of essay macroeconomics, anthropology serves a polemical function for Lefebvre. First, he needs it to render conceivable the beautiful mind, work the concept has to do epistemologically, in terms of the “materiality” presupposed by dialectical materialism.
In addition, it is opposed to the gross reduction of the critique of political economy into economism. Marx stands in opposition to application service jmu, the metaphysical theses of the later Engels, canonized by Stalin and Soviet Marxism, that Nature as it existed before any human or social intervention, contains a dialectical movement; in opposition also to Lenin’s attempt to “define” matter as a reality independent of schizophrenia and a beautiful, consciousness and to view cognition as a copy of reality. For Marx the materialist, dialectical categories exist only as nodal points in historical praxis , that is, in a material reality that is what, continually being mediated through human actions that also belong to the material and objective world. Only this is and a beautiful mind essays, “negativity” — “a moving and producing principle.” 32 It was not Marx’s job to “fix” gnoseologically the materials worked by labor, and in which labor is incorporated: the specific determination of materials is the health essay, just as much a passing moment of the production process as is their very disappearance. Every mediating act reconstitutes in schizophrenia and a beautiful mind essays, a higher form the immediacy that it destroyed. The necessity, expressed for the first time by the early Lukacs, of limiting the the health essay, validity of the dialectic to the historical and social world 33 has since then become the unspoken presupposition of every serious interpretation of Marx. 34 Lefebvre could never be on good terms with a “materialism of the isolated object.” He always considered any concept of the schizophrenia and a mind essays, material world that did not include f its practical (or at least potentially practical) appropriations as a pure abstraction.
Since Marxism was taught in its Stalinized codification for essay, decades, thinkers such as Sartre, 35 for whom the sacrificium intellectus was too great, hesitated to schizophrenia and a mind, adopt it for an unnecessarily long time. The aspect of what Lefebvre calls anthropology, which is directed against economism, is also a critique of naive-realistic consciousness. Even Marx himself, and not just his vulgarizers, occasionally falls into the error of raising what he opposes to a methodological norm — the reification of human relationships. His presenting the primacy of a negative totality over individuals suddenly turns into a kind of in research methodology, taking sides in and a beautiful, favor of that totality. The reified power of the rocking winner, historical-economic processes, their objectively alienated aspect, swallows up the subjective human side, which is schizophrenia and a beautiful mind essays, then taken into consideration only wise shopper essay, under the heading of “ideological reflexes and echoes.” 36 The specifically social manifestations disappear into their economic essence. Lefebvre, not incorrectly, believes that he remains true to the idea of a critique of political economy when he underlines the irreducibility of human and social spheres to the economic one. And A Mind. 37 That idea consists of not capitulating to the “natural” objectivity of the historical process as a whole. Marxian dialectic derives its claim to a greater objectivity in comparison with classical economists precisely from the fact that it defetishizes the world of commodities; that is, it reveals the college application, subjective mediations of that world. Whereas by “ideology” Marx meant primarily the realm of phenomena of consciousness as split off from praxis , in today’s society the rigid differentiation between economic and noneconomic factors has become questionable. Today the apparatus, which, despite its centrifugal tendencies, functions more and more smoothly, is schizophrenia and a mind essays, already ideological. It is this apparatus that has not only shrunken human consciousness, even the unconscious, down to its mere mirror image, but also has atrophied its general modes of behavior, primarily in the area of the consumer.
The analysis of that area 38 should not be left to what review, operational social behaviorism. Henri Lefebvre and essays, Contemporary Interpretations of Marx For Lefebvre it is a section of wise essay, a comprehensive “theory of everyday life” 39 that attempts to enrich Marxism (frequently subjected to economistic simplifications) with a previously neglected sociological dimension. We now turn to Lefebvre’s extensive study of the concept of alienation, which made him famous to a degree matched by scarcely another philosopher. From what has been said of his use of the mind essays, term “anthropology,” it should be clear that for him (as little as for Marx), there is no question of review, rigidly fixing in a few formulae the relationship between society, the and a, individual and nature. Thus, alienation must be redefined according to the historical constellation in which those elements interact; namely from the point of view of its “ Aufhebung .” Lefebvre’s transition to what is literature review, socialism recapitulated the stages of Marx’s ‘‘self-understanding” to the extent that his categories, like those of Marx, become progressively more concrete. Lefebvre’s independent development into a Marxist theoretician began with his study of the 1844 Economic and Philosophical Manuscripts , discovered in 1931, which in spite of their abstractness already had substantially more content than the then “official” materialist ontology.
His study of the beautiful mind essays, Marx of the Paris period found expression in what is certainly Lefebvre’s most important book from the thirties: Dialectical Materialism , written in 1934-1935, published in 1938. The book had to have been rejected within the Party, if only because it appeared at the same time as the History of the shopper, Communist Party in mind, the Soviet Union , which contained the chapter written by Stalin, “On Dialectical and Historical Materialism.” During the period of what is literature review in research, Stalin’s rule, this was clearly an obligatory text and, correspondingly, was quoted often. Whereas for Marx, historical and dialectical materialism (though he never used the expressions) had an identical content, and whereas he always objected to the “abstract materialism of the and a beautiful essays, natural sciences… which excludes the historical process,” 41 with Stalin the theory (degraded to application essay service jmu, a “worldview”) was dogmatically divided into dialectical and historical materialism, the latter being simply a special case of the former, which had to do with the most general laws governing the development of matter. Schizophrenia Essays. Nature and history are both frozen into things in themselves: the constitutive role of human praxis for the changing “objectivity” (and, thus, the horse winner, cornerstone of Marxian dialectic) remained uncomprehended. It is understandable that Lefebvre’s book, which explicitly spelled out beautiful mind essays, this last point and only granted validity to that objectivity whose character as product is perceived clearly, had come into conflict with a doctrine that invokes an immediacy unpenetrated with reflection, yet which, nonetheless, still boasts of itself as being scientific. At a point when the Party glorified the seven miserable “basic characteristics” of the dialectic and art analysis, of materialism, which Stalin enumerated like a catalogue, as the high point of Marxist thought, such a view had to sow confusion since it destroyed the “clarity” that had been attained by the catalogers. In Dialectical Materialism , Lefebvre follows an eminently philosophical intention. Schizophrenia Beautiful Mind Essays. 42 In the application service, face of the institutionalized simplifications of the theory introduced by Stalinism and of its antagonism to humanity, he stresses the critical, humanistic impulse of the theory. The fact that his starting point is the and a beautiful, 1844 Manuscripts does not at essay outline all imply a devaluation of the economic problematic, as it does in the case of those interpreters for whom Marx’s work falls into “two parts which cannot be linked in any meaningful principled way.” 43 On the contrary, Lefebvre views Marx’s development as a unified process in schizophrenia and a beautiful mind essays, which the the health of smoking essay, theme of “alienated labor” as well as its ideological derivatives, are handled more and more concretely from stage to stage; from Marx’s book against Proudhon to the Theory of Surplus Value , there are no (economic in the more strict sense) texts that he does not cite.
The fact that he holds firmly to this unified point of view should be appraised all the more highly since he did not have available the Outline of the Critique of Political Economy , the 1857-1858 “rough draft” [ Rohentwurf ] for the Critique of Political Economy , which was published for schizophrenia and a mind, the first time in Moscow in 1939 and application jmu, 1941. Schizophrenia Mind Essays. 44 He could not see a text nearly a thousand pages thick, which, in terms of the history of Marx’s development, establishes the link between the 1844 Manuscripts and the developed materialist economics of the middle and mature Marx. The rough draft — still “philosophical” and already “economic” — is more appropriate than any other of Marx’s texts to place the discussion of the relationship of essay macroeconomics, Marxism to schizophrenia essays, Hegel’s philosophy on a broader footing, since Marx himself, in be a wise shopper essay, his forewords and postfaces, often expresses himself unclearly and gives only sparse results on and a beautiful mind essays, this score. It also speaks for Lefebvre that he saw that with the preparatory work to the 1859 Critique of Political Economy , Marx began a second, far more positive approach to Hegel. The dialectical method is necessary to really grasp as a system the structural relationships between the categories that bourgeois economists have presented merely as empirical results, to transcend them critically. 45 As Lefebvre shows, this method has to derive the alienation that at first appears only abstractly in the products and the activity of the essay macroeconomics, worker from the specifically social character that products and and a mind, activities assume in capitalism; that is, in a totality that is just as much an objective structure as it is essay macroeconomics, a movement that would not exist without the conscious will and purpose of men. Naturally the insight that through their activity men continually bring forth just those conditions to which they are subjected at first appears only to and a beautiful, the theoretical consciousness. In everyday praxis , on the other hand, “individuals are subsumed under social production, which exists as if it were a destiny outside them; but social production is the rocking, not subsumed under the individuals who manage it as their common property.” 46. All of Lefebvre’s work, including Dialectical Materialism , takes up the and a beautiful, task of revealing the illusory character of this social objectivity. Evolved through practice, it can only be dissolved through practice. But, Lefebvre might be asked, what about the possibility of the wise essay, dissolution [ Aufhebung ] of alienation, of a realization of the total man, if alienated conditions — which Marx still presupposes in The German Ideology — cease to be an “intolerable power against which men make a revolution”?
47 Even under the conditions of schizophrenia mind essays, effective competition, private interests were socially determined from the start and could be pursued only in a given framework. And yet the gap between the interior and the exterior remained based on competition, which presupposed a minimum of individual consistency. Today, in essay the rocking horse winner, the age of one-dimensional thought and schizophrenia and a beautiful, relations (H. Marcuse), the relatively spontaneous procedure of “introjecting” the exterior into the effects essay, interior through a self that can also oppose the exterior world is hardly possible any longer. Men identify themselves immediately with the mind, social whole, which tends to reduce all opposition to silence with its oppressive abundance of goods.
48 What becomes of the multiple subjective forms of art analysis outline, alienation (aesthetic, psychological), which Lefebvre has examined in all his books, and whose “positive” — that is, critical — side is only now coming to light, when society directly incorporates whole sectors of the superstructure into its political-economic process? Don’t they have to schizophrenia, disappear if the individual’s identification with the lifestyles imposed on is literature review, him reproduces itself mechanically? What epistemological value does the concept of alienation still possess when alienation has objectified itself as reality in schizophrenia and a beautiful mind, such a way that it deprives men of the possibility of revealing it as, in Hegel’s term, a “disappearing appearance”? Marx’s critical reformulation of macroeconomics, Feuerbach’s conception of alienation refers to The Phenomenology of Spirit , which implies, albeit idealistically, that man, essentially “self-consciousness,” has been capable of grasping his own torn and and a, shattered condition (and thus that of horse winner, his world) and “with this knowledge” has raised himself above this fragmentation. 49 But already in Hegel, self-consciousness can manage to schizophrenia and a mind, achieve this “only when revolting.” Though materialist theory does not share the Hegelian belief that a conflict which has become conscious is one which has been concretely mastered, it still presupposes that the be a wise essay, transition from the “class in itself” to the “class for schizophrenia mind essays, itself” first takes place in individual thought, and only then do “knowledge” and “action” become one in collective praxis . Marx’s pre-1848 revolutionary humanism assumes a fairly high (and increasing!) degree of independence of subjective forms of essay, reflection from the relationships supporting them: the real possibility of becoming enraged. The possibility of revolt is schizophrenia mind essays, minimized by the subsequent course of history — not by the developed critique of essay, political economy. The latter’s insistence on schizophrenia, the strict objectivity of the process as a whole signifies more a qualitatively new level of capitalism than a “scientific” detour away from the needs of the individual. Nietzsche underscores the essay macroeconomics, findings of Marx’s analysis of schizophrenia beautiful, commodities when, in The Will to Power , he makes the supposition that consciousness may well become more and more dispensable in the health of smoking essay, the future and is “perhaps destined to disappear and to make place for a full-fledged automatism.” 50 As opposed to and a beautiful essays, that notion, Lefebvre’s conception of alienation seems harmless, because it holds all too firmly to the continuity of the prerequisites of individualistic society, which were already becoming debatable in effects of smoking essay, the second half of the previous century. He overlooks the fact that theory must abstract from individuals to the extent that they become mere “personifications of economic categories.” 51. Thus, Lefebvre is one of the few authors who do not erect a Chinese wall between Marx’s youthful and his mature work, and schizophrenia and a essays, who examine both the “philosophical” motives of the economic writings as well as the “economic” motives of the philosophical works. He rightly sees that the appropriate path leading to art analysis essay outline, questions concerning the discipline of historical and dialectical materialism is to be found in the presentation of the history of its origins . Beautiful Mind. 52 This in turn is not separable from the history of the subject of its investigation: bourgeois society, a concretum in which every historical process is summed up.
Marx, who starts from the fact that “economics” must first be created “as a science in the German sense of the essay, term,” 53 describes his task in the following way: “The work in question…, is the critique of economic categories, or… the critical presentation of the system of bourgeois economics. It is at the same time the presentation of the system and through the presentation the critique of the system.’’ 54 Lefebvre’s writings do take the Marxian desideratum of the “presentation” of theory extremely seriously. Schizophrenia And A Mind. There are several reasons why he leaves open many problems when questions about developing the flow of the total capital of society according to its adequate “concept” come up; why he hesitates to express the systemic character of the world without reservations. For one thing, he lets himself be guided by the philosophical notion of the indissolubility of the universe into concepts that grasp it, apart from the college essay service, fact that every system tends to destroy the specific content of the individual being, which is what ultimately matters. For Marx, it is not primarily a question of the universe in a metaphysical sense, but of and a, a universe of facts that are mediated through the service, negative totality of society. Insofar as society is grounded in the abstract generality of exchange, and to that extent resembles an idealistic system, it remains linked to the natural form of human labor power and its products, that is, to and a beautiful essays, qualitatively determined use value.
For another thing, the system of economic categories Marx had in mind is by no means present in a single form in his writings: if it were, a self-contained presentation of the system would be possible without difficulty. Thus, the analysis of forms of commodities as value, capital, and outline, money, consists only in schizophrenia essays, fragmentary formulations. Third, and lastly — and this is the most important aspect — under current historical conditions, which are much different from those that Marx understood as capitalism, every systematic presentation of the critique of political economy must contain its own metacritique. However great the the rocking horse winner, objective difficulties in bringing the economic critique to the point required today, the existence of its object cannot be doubted. Now, as before, progress has the character of a “density” that “exists” outside man and that is as yet unmastered.
Only in beautiful essays, this way can we explain why for Lefebvre (similarly to essay the rocking horse, Bloch, we may add) the critical meditation on science, to schizophrenia mind essays, which Marxism once imagined to the rocking winner, have raised itself, returns to utopia. It is as if reality refused itself to critical thought to such a degree that it can only stand in a negative relation to it. And A Beautiful Mind Essays. An historically unambiguous mediation between the bad that exists and the better that is possible is not present. It is not by accident that Lefebvre has recourse to the romantic-sounding concept of “total man,” as it was used by is literature in research methodology the young Marx at a time when he had not yet theoretically mastered the content of history. Today, when it appears that we are no longer masters of this content, that concept is again necessary in order not to fall into sheer historicism, in order to hold firm to schizophrenia and a beautiful mind, the telos of a rationally installed humanity. Translated by John Heckman. 1 Henri Lefebvre, Probleme des Marxismus, heute (Frankfurt-am-Main: Suhrkamp Verlag, 1965). 2 Dialectical Materialism , edited by Grossman (London: Cape, 1968). Macroeconomics. [Schmidt’s essay originally appeared as an beautiful essays, “Afterword” to the German edition of this work.]
3 He describes its stages exhaustively in the second volume of his extraordinary, part essayistic, part lyrical, part autobiographical work, La somme et le reste (Paris: 1959), under the title “L’itineraire,” pp. 357-559 (Cf. also Lefebvre’s self-presentation in the anthology Les philosophes francais d’aujourd’hui [Paris: 1963], pp. 282-300.) A preliminary summary is offered in be a shopper, Iring Fetscher’s essay, although it is more than a decade old, „Der Marxismus im Spiegel der franzosischen Philosophie“, in: Marxismusstudien , Schriften der Studiengemeinschaft der Evangelischen Akademien, vol. 3 (Tubingen, 1954), cf. And A Mind Essays. especially pp. College Application Essay Service Jmu. 175-182. On Lefebvre’s position after his exclusion from the Party, cf. And A Mind. my postscript to Probleme des Marxismus, heute, op. cit ., pp. What Methodology. 135-145. Also instructive is Gianni Barba’s essay, „Bibliographische Notizen zum Werk von Henri Lefebvre“, in: Neue Kritik (August 1965), Heft 31: 24-28. 4 Introduction a la lecture de Hegel edited by R. Queneau (Paris: 1947). An abridged version exists in English: Introduction to the Reading of Hegel , edited by Allan Bloom (N.Y.: Basic Books, 1969). In addition to Kojeve, Jean Hyppolite is especially responsible for schizophrenia beautiful essays, the reception — mediated through existentialism — of Hegel into French consciousness.
Even Sartre’s Being and essay macroeconomics, Nothingness is unthinkable without Hegel’s Logic . On French Hegelianism in general, cf. Iring Fetscher, „Hegel in Frankreich“, in Antares , vol. 1, no. 3 (1952). 5 Fetscher, Der Marxismus im Spiegel der franzosischen Philosophie , p. 183. 6 Kojeve, Introduction to the Reading of Hegel , p 219. 8 Kojeve, Hegel Versuch einer Vergegenwartigung seines Denkens (German translation of the above), Editor’s preface, p. 9. 10 Introduction to Hegel , p. 41. 13 This critical characterization of Kojeve in no way detracts from his great services in the Marxist reinterpretation of Hegel (especially the Phenomenology of Spirit ) in this century.
However — and it is this point that we are criticizing — Kojeve’s thought is prejudiced by the fact that he understands Hegel and schizophrenia beautiful, Marx in essay outline, terms of and a mind, Heidegger’s Being and Time , which, among other things, results in his falling back to the position of an ahistorical Feuerbachianism, which Marx left early in shopper essay, his career. And A Essays. In that he isolates and hypostatizes categories like “struggle,” “war,” and “prestige,” he comes close to essay, that which, under the beautiful, rubric “political anthropology,” belongs in the European prehistory of right-wing authoritarian thought. The Rocking Horse Winner. Hence, the expression “fascistoid.” (Author’s note for the American edition.) 14 Pascal’s relation to beautiful mind essays, Jansenism is the subject of his doctoral thesis. Later Lefebvre devoted a two-volume study to Pascal which is of great methodological interest: Pascal (Paris: 1949 and 1954). 15 In 1925, during the heroic phase of the rocking winner, surrealism, when Breton was attempting a sort of “popular front” between Left intellectuals and organizations friendly to and a essays, the Communists, Lefebvre — who then, along with Georges Politzer, Norbert Guterman, Georges Friedmann, and Pierre Morhange, belonged to essay winner, the group Philosophies (which was as yet by no means Marxist-materialist oriented) — came into contact with the Centrale surrealiste . A contact which without doubt furthered Lefebvre’s politicization and broke off only in 1929, when he fully adhered to and a beautiful, Communism with Morhange and Politzer (who in the meantime had become editor of the journal L’Esprit ). Cf. Maurice Nadeau, History of Surrealism (N.Y.: Macmillan, 1965), pp. 155, 161. 16 Der Marxismus im Spiegel der franzosischen Philosophie , cf. p. 176. 17 Max Scheler, „Die Sonderstellung des Menschen“, in Mensch und Erde (Darmstadt: 1927), p. 246. On the essay macroeconomics, materialist critique of the modern inclination to constitute something like a “unified portrayal of beautiful essays, man,” see Max Horkheimer’s seminal essay, „Bemerkungen zur philosophischen Anthropologie“, in: Zeitschrift fur Sozialforschung , IV, Jg, Heft 1 (Paris: 1935). p. 1-25.
18 Critique of college application, Political Economy (Berlin: 1951), p. 242. 19 German Ideology (N.Y.: International Publishers, 1947), p. And A Beautiful Essays. 15. 21 Quoted by Fetscher, Der Marxismus im Spiegel der franzosischen Philosophie , p. 189. 22 On Lefebvre’s critique of Jaspers, see Rencontres internationales de Geneve, 1948 (Paris/Neufchatel: 1949). 23 In a book which is no longer completely acknowledged by its author, because of its all-to-self-consciously Marxist tenor, but which is nonetheless important: L’existentialisme (Paris: 1946). 24 „Differenz des Fichteschen und des Schellingschen Systems der Philosophie“, in macroeconomics, Samtliche Werke , vol. 1, Glockner (Stuttgart: 1958) p. 44. 27 See his studies, Le nationalisme contre les nations (Paris, 1937); Hitler au pouvoir.
Bilan de cinq annees de fascisme en Allemagne (Paris: 1938); Nietzsche (Paris, 1939), a book with a differentiated argument which denounces both the schizophrenia and a beautiful mind, National Socialist’s misuse of Nietzsche’s philosophy and, equally, those motives in Nietzsche’s thought which tend toward such a misuse. 28 Nothing is more revelatory for the boundless dogmatism of the Stalinist era than Zhdanov’s position in the 1947 philosophical discussion, in which he dismissed the “debate on Hegel” as a “rebirth of scholasticism” with the words: “The problem of Hegel has long been resolved. There is no occasion to essay outline, take it up again.” In Uber Kunst und Wissenschaft (Berlin: 1951), p. 104. 29 La somme et le reste , vol. 1, p. 87. 31 „Kritik der Hegeischen Rechtsphilosophie“, in Marx/Engels, Die heilige Familie (Berlin: 1955), p. 11. 32 Marx, „Kritik der Hegeischen Dialektik und Philosophie uberhaupt“, in Ibid ., p. Schizophrenia And A. 80.
33 Even here a dialectic structure cannot be ascribed to it en bloc . See Alfred Schmidt, „Zum Verhaltnis von Geschichte und Natur im dialektischen Materialismus“, in Existentialismus und Marxismus (Frankfurt-am-Main: Suhrkamp Verlag, 1965), pp. 103-155. 34 Ernst Bloch may applaud Engels’ recognition of the dialectic of nature, but the effects of smoking essay, concept of nature and schizophrenia mind essays, matter developed in Das Prinzip Hoffnung is not so much a refinement of Engels, but something much different: a mystical-teleological cosmology. 35 Sartre’s astounding turning-point in Critique de la raison dialectique (Paris: 1960), owes extraordinarily much to Lefebvre. When Sartre grasps the categories of his “phenomenological ontology” concretely and historically, he explodes them He is concerned with grounding “Marxist knowledge,” in opposition to college application service jmu, Hegel’s absolute knowledge, in schizophrenia and a beautiful mind, a “historical and structural anthropology” (cf. p. 108), for which “human existence” (now viewed through its strict economic determination) is inseparably linked with the wise, “understanding of the human.” 37 Here he refers to Lenin, who in his 1894 polemic against schizophrenia and a beautiful mind the “populists” already stressed that historical materialism constitutes not only the winner, preconditions of a critical economics, but also of schizophrenia beautiful mind essays, sociology. Cf. Essay Horse. Werke , vol. And A Mind Essays. 1 (Berlin: 1963), pp. 129-131. 38 It is available in essay, a highly advanced form in schizophrenia beautiful mind essays, the studies of Adorno, Horkheimer, and Marcuse, who have furthered critical and also psychoanalytical insights.
They have attempted to satisfy the demands of a “dialectical anthropology” by making the society whole, in which everything individual is imprisoned, transparent even within the what review in research methodology, most private experience. 39 It is based on the concept of alienation developed by Lefebvre in schizophrenia and a beautiful mind, the thirties and it is presented in the work Critique de la vie quotidienne (Paris: 1947). The second edition, of which two volumes have appeared so far (Paris: 1958 and 1962), is more important methodologically. 40 This had been preceded by a series of important publications, written in collaboration with N. Outline. Guterman. Lefebvre published the first translation of the 1844 Manuscripts in the periodical Avant-Poste in 1933. In 1934, the introduction to the Morceaux choisis de Karl Marx contained the elements of a theory of consciousness that tried to go beyond the summary thesis that consciousness is a “reflex” of being. This theory was more closely argued, especially with reference to the situation of the Popular Front at beautiful essays that time, in the 1936 book, La conscience mystifiee . In the same year as Dialectical Materialism , there appeared the college service, Morceaux choisis de Hegel and a text which had been completely unknown in France until then, Cahiers de Lenine sur la dialectique de Hegel . This last text had a long introduction in which Lefebvre — in opposition to orthodoxy — called attention to the objective meaning of Hegelian philosophy for Marxism and, in particular, attempted to show that a conception of Lenin centering on and a beautiful essays, Materialism and Empirio-Criticism , of 1908, is unreliable.
Both publications found almost no echo in the health essay, the Party. In 1940, the Cahiers as well as Dialectical Materialism were placed on schizophrenia and a essays, the Otto list of essay outline, books forbidden and to be destroyed by the German occupation authority. 41 Das Kapital , vol. 1 (Berlin: 1955), p. Beautiful Mind Essays. 389. 42 In many respects he sees the of smoking essay, problem “Marxism and philosophy” differently today. Although in the thirties he had already disputed the view that dialectical materialism was a philosophy in the traditional sense, that is, a metaphysical system, he still held firm to the view that it is still a philosophy : one which is free from the limits of previous philosophies. The Marxist idea of the “ Aufhebung ” of philosophy did not seem to offer any special problem. In view of the beautiful mind, fact that the “revolutionizing praxis’ ’ into which philosophy was supposed to be dissolved, never occurred, Lefebvre today sees himself forced to college application jmu, pose anew the question of the schizophrenia and a beautiful essays, meaning of philosophy. In the apparent failure of Stalinized Marxism, he thus no longer sees merely a deviation from authentic “Marxist philosophy.” That concept itself has in the meantime become suspect to him. The crisis of Marxism is college service jmu, symptomatic of a crisis of philosophy in general. It should be reflected on by means of a “metaphilosophy.”
43 Beginnings of it are found in La somme et le reste , vol. Schizophrenia And A Beautiful Mind Essays. I, pp. Art Analysis Essay Outline. 48 and 68; especially in parts VI and VII of the second volume, “What Is the philosopher?” and “Is There a Philosophy?” cf. Schizophrenia And A Beautiful Mind. pp. Application Essay Jmu. 659-761. Cf. also the larger book which has appeared in the meantime, Metaphilosophie (Paris: 1965). 44 Ralf Dahrendorf, Marx in Perspektiv (Hannover: 1952), p. 165. 44. Since published in schizophrenia, a single volume by Dietz, Berlin, 1953. [Known better in essay, English as the Grundrisse — Ed.].
45 Caught as he was in the then obligatory, yet objectively senseless, division of Marxism into historical and dialectical materialism, Lefebvre sees the origins of the latter only at this point. The general development of Marx and Engels up to Poverty of Philosophy (1847) is supposed to be one toward “historical materialism” and to consist in a principled rejection of the Hegelian dialectic. A thesis which Lefebvre’s book, however much its structure was determined by schizophrenia and a beautiful it, refutes. 46 Marx, Grundrisse der Kritik der politischen Okonomie , p. 76. 48 Cf. Art Analysis. Herbert Marcuse, One-Dimensional Man (Boston: Beacon Press, 1964), p. 9ff. 49 Phenomenology of Spirit , p. 548. 50 WW , vol. 16 (Leipzig: 1922), Aph. 523.
52 A procedure he uses not only in Dialectical Materialism , but also in the two important books Pour connaitre la pensee de Karl Marx (Paris: 1948), and Pour connaitre la pensee de Lenine (Paris: 1957). 53 Marx to Lassalle, Letter of November 12, 1858, in schizophrenia and a mind essays, Marx/Engels, Werke , Vol. 29 (Berlin: 1963), p. 567. 54 Marx to Lassalle, Letter of February 22, 1858, in what is literature in research methodology, ibid ., p. 550. 3 thoughts on “ Henri Lefebvre and Marxism: A view from the Frankfurt School ” Ross, I am a little surprised you think this philosophical and logical bumbler, Lefebvre, is worth bothering with — but, then again, given your penchant for promoting this stuff, maybe not. Like so many other fans of this Hermetic theory (i.e., Dialectical Materialism [DM]), Lefebvre had a tenuous grasp of schizophrenia mind, Formal Logic:
“Formal Logic asserts: ‘A is wise, A’. Dialectical Logic is not saying ‘A is not-A’…. It says: A is and a, indeed A, but A is also not-A precisely so far as the proposition ‘A is essay the rocking horse winner, A’ is not a tautology but has real content. A tree is a tree only by being such and such a tree, by bearing leaves. And A Mind Essays. blossom and fruit, by passing through and preserving within itself those moments of its becoming….” [Lefebvre (1968), ‘Dialectical Materialism’, p.41.] Lefebvre, again, just like other DM-fans, offers evidence from not one single logic text (other than perhaps that misnamed book inflicted on be a wise shopper essay, humanity by Hegel) in support of these odd ideas. However, I have shown how syntactically and semantically inept claims like these are over at Wikipedia: But in much more detail here: “Our world, like a charnel-house, lies strewn with the detritus of dead epochs.” ? Le Corbusier, Urbanisme (1925)
event (22) panel (22) guest post (246) images (55) interviews (26) media (379) images (298) PDFs (45) videos (13) modernity (198) news (61) PDFs (7) translations (161) writings (571) articles (267) essays (69) fragments (60) poetry (3) reviews (59) book reviews (38) event reviews (12) movie reviews (5) music reviews (2) short stories (3) write-ups (139) sartesian on Georg Lukacs, philosopher of Bolshevism Communist Reading List (Ultra-Left) – Eden Sauvage on Marx and Wertkritik Tyler on “Decolonial” dead-end: Houria Bouteldja and the new indigenism beyond Left and Right norberto larios on , « : 101 » (1925-33) — Along with fully searchable, downloadable PDFs of the original Russian texts smolny57 on Georg Lukacs, philosopher of Bolshevism tabneto on Georg Lukacs, philosopher of Bolshevism daFunkDealer on Open-source Marxism 2016: Fresh batch of “pirate scab” PDFs Georg Lukacs, philosopher of Bolshevism | The Charnel-House on Young Lukacs Carolyn Sortor on Fredric Jameson after the postmodern International Psychoanalysis Blog Archive The Trotskyists on New York Trotskyism in the 1930s Tribute to Graham Greene | shadowplay on Graham Greene’s infamous review of Wee Willie Winkie (1937), starring Shirley Temple Gelena Tompson on Ivan Kudriashev’s interplanetary-dynamic abstractions (1917-1928) Science fiction and the slaughterbench of history. This blog is intended to serve as a place where I can share my work and thoughts online. On the one hand, it will provide a convenient place for me to store an and a beautiful, online portfolio for future reference. At the same time, I am interested in connecting and engaging with others who are interested in the health of smoking essay, the subjects it covers. Disclaimer: Needless to beautiful, say, all of the be a, opinions expressed on and a beautiful mind, my blog are mine alone, unless otherwise indicated. They do not necessarily reflect the views of any other group or organization. No one else is responsible for them.
That being said, any comments, questions, and criticisms are welcome. The twin fires of war and revolution have devastated both our souls and our cities. College Application Essay Service Jmu. The palaces of yesterday’s grandeur stand as burnt-out skeletons. The ruined cities await new builders[…] To you who accept the legacy of Russia, to you who will (I believe!) tomorrow become masters of the whole world, I address the question: with what fantastic structures will you cover the fires of yesterday?” ? Vladimir Maiakovskii, “An Open Letter to the Workers” (1918) “Utopia transforms itself into actuality. The fairy tale becomes a reality. The contours of socialism will become overgrown with iron flesh, filled with electric blood, and begin to dwell full of life. The speed of socialist building outstrips the most audacious daring.
In this lies the distinctive character and essence of the epoch.” ? I. Schizophrenia And A. Chernia,“The Cities of Socialism” (1929) “The idea of the conquest of the what is literature review in research, substructure, the beautiful essays, earthbound, can be extended even further and calls for the conquest of gravity as such . It demands floating structures, a physical-dynamic architecture.” ? El Lissitzky, The Reconstruction of Architecture in the Soviet Union (1929)
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A Comprehensive Guide to APA Citations and Format. This page will provide you with an overview of APA citation format. Included is information about schizophrenia and a APA referencing, various citation formats and examples for the health effects of smoking, each source type, and other helpful information related to APA. Essays. If you’re looking for the health effects essay, MLA format, check out schizophrenia mind essays, Citation Machine’s MLA Guide. Also, visit Citation Machine’s homepage to use the APA formatter, which is an APA citation generator. See more across the site. Being Responsible While Researching. When you’re writing a research paper or creating a research project, you will probably use another individual’s work to help develop your own project. A good researcher or scholar uses another individual’s work in a responsible way. This involves indicating that the work of other individuals is essay service, included in your project, which is one way to prevent plagiarism. Schizophrenia Beautiful Essays. The word plagiarism is derived from the latin word, plagiare, which means to kidnap.
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When including a quote, paraphrased information, images, or any other piece of information from another’s work, you need to show where you found it by including a citation. And A. This APA format guide explains how to make citations in APA style. The Health Effects Of Smoking Essay. There are two types of schizophrenia and a beautiful mind, APA citations. The first type of citation, which is essay service jmu, called in-text, or parenthetical citations, are included when you’re adding text, word for word, from another individual’s work into your own project. If you don’t use the information from another source word for word in your assignment, but you paraphrase it in your own words, you also need to add an in-text citation. The other type of APA format citations, which are called reference citations, are found at the end of your research project, usually on the last page.
Included on this reference list page are the full citations for any in-text citations found in the body of the project, as well as full citations for any other sources you used to help develop your research. These citations are listed in alphabetical order, one after the other. The two types of citations, in-text and reference citations, look very different. In-text citations include three items: the last name(s) of the author, the and a beautiful year the source was published, and the page or location of the information. Reference citations include more information such as the name of the author(s), the essay year the source was published, the title of the source, and the URL or page range. Why is it Important to schizophrenia essays Include APA Citations? Including APA citations into your research projects is a very important component of the research process. When you include citations, you’re being a responsible researcher. You’re showing readers that you were able to find valuable, high-quality information from other sources, place them into your project where appropriate, all while acknowledging those original authors.
The American Psychological Association, also called APA, is an organization created for individuals in the psychology field. With close to 116,000 members, they provide education opportunities, funding, guidance, and research information for wise, everything psychology related. APA also has numerous high-quality databases, peer-reviewed journals, and books that revolve around mental health. The American Psychological Association is also credited with creating APA Style, which is a popular way to create citations. This citation format is used by individuals not only in the psychology field, but many other subject areas as well. Education, economics, business, and social sciences also use APA style quite frequently. Click here for more information. APA created APA style format in 1929 in order to form a standard way for researchers in the science fields to document their sources.
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Books have a certain APA format, websites have a different format, periodicals have a different format, and so on. Scroll down to find the proper format for the source you’re trying to cite. If you would like to cite your sources automatically, Citation Machine’s APA generator is a helpful APA reference generator that will make the citation process easier for you. Schizophrenia And A Mind. In-text, or parenthetical citations, are included in is literature, research projects in three instances: When using a direct quote, paraphrasing information, or simply referring to a piece of and a, information from horse winner, another source. Quite often, researchers and and a beautiful mind, scholars use a small amount of text, word for word, from another source and include it in their own research projects. This is done for many reasons. Sometimes, another author’s words are so eloquently written that there isn’t a better way to rephrase it yourself. Other times, the author’s words can help prove a point or establish an understanding for something in your research project. When using another author’s exact words in what review in research methodology, your research project, include an beautiful essays in-text citation directly following it. Effects Of Smoking. In addition to using the exact words from another source and placing them into your project, in-text citations are also added anytime you paraphrase information. Paraphrasing is when you take information from another source and rephrase it, in schizophrenia beautiful essays, your own words.
When simply referring to another piece of the health essay, information from mind essays, another source, also include an in-text citation directly following it. In text APA citations are found after a direct quote, paraphrased information, or reference. The Health Essay. They are formatted like this: Exact text, paraphrased information, or reference (Author’s Last Name, Year published, page number or paragraph number * ) * Only include the page or paragraph number when using a direct quote or paraphrase. This information is included in and a beautiful mind essays, order to help the essay reader locate the exact text themselves. Schizophrenia And A Beautiful Mind. It is not necessary to include this information when you’re simply referring to another source. Here’s are some examples of in-text APA citations: “Well, you’re about to enter the land of the the health of smoking essay free and schizophrenia mind, the brave. And I don’t know how you got that stamp on your passport.
The priest must know someone” (Toibi?n, 2009, p. 52). College Essay Service. Student teachers who use technology in schizophrenia, their lessons tend to continue using technology tools throughout their teaching careers (Kent Giles, 2017). If including the wise shopper essay author’s names in the sentence, only schizophrenia beautiful mind, include the year in the in-text APA citation. According to essay macroeconomics a study done by Kent and Giles (2017), student teachers who use technology in their lessons tend to schizophrenia and a essays continue using technology tools throughout their teaching careers. Essay Horse Winner. The full references, or citations, for these sources can be found on the last part of a research project, the “Reference List.” While this guide’s intent is to help you understand and develop citations on your own, there are many APA formatter tools, including a free APA citation generator, available on Citation Machine. Beautiful Mind Essays. Try our APA citation machine which is found on our homepage.
Click here to learn more about crediting work. APA Reference List Citation Components. As stated above, reference list citations are the essay full citations for all of the in-text citations found in schizophrenia and a, the body of a research project. These full citations are listed in alphabetical order by the rocking horse winner the author’s last names. Schizophrenia And A Beautiful Mind. They have a hanging indent, meaning that the second line of text is indented in half an inch. See examples below to see what a hanging indent looks like. The format for APA reference citations varies based on the source type, but some APA citations use this general format: Author’s Last name, First initial. Wise. (Date published). Title . Retrieved from URL. Learn more about each component of the reference citation and how to format it in the sections that follow.
The names of authors are written in beautiful mind essays, reverse order. Include the initials for the first and middle names. End this information with a period. When two or more authors work together on a source, write them in the order in college essay, which they appear on the source, using this format: Last name, F. M., Last name, F. M., Last name, F. M., Last name, F. M., Last name, F. M. Kent, A. G., Giles, R. M. Thorpe, A., Lukes, R., Bever, D. J, He, Y. If there are 8 or more authors listed on a source, only and a, include the first 6 authors, add three ellipses, and then add the last author’s name. Be A. Roberts, A., Johnson, M. C., Klein, J., Cheng, E. V., Sherman, A., Levin, K. K. , . Lopez, G. S. If you plan on using Citation Machine’s APA formatter, which is an APA citation generator, the names of the authors will format properly for you. Directly after the author’s name is the date the source was published.
Include the full date for newspapers, the month and year for magazine articles, and only the year for journals and all other sources. If no date is found on the source, include the initials, n.d. for “no date.” Narducci, M. (2017, May 19). City renames part of 11th Street Ed Snider Way to honor Flyers founder. The Philadelphia Inquirer . If using our APA citation maker, Citation Machine’s APA generator will add the correct date format for you automatically. When writing out titles for and a mind, books, articles, chapters, or other nonperiodical sources, only capitalize the first word of the title and the first word of the subtitle. Names of people, places, organizations, and other proper nouns also have the first letter capitalized. For books and reports, italicize the essay macroeconomics title in an APA citation. Schizophrenia And A Beautiful Essays. Strange case of be a wise shopper, Dr. And A Mind. Jekyll and Mr.
Hyde. Roots: The saga of an American family. For articles and chapters in APA referencing, do not italicize the title. Wake up the nation: Public libraries, policy making, and outline, political discourse. For newspapers, magazines, journals, newsletters, and other periodicals, capitalize the first letter in each word and italicize the title. The Seattle Times.
A common question is whether to underline your title or place it in italics or quotation marks. In APA, titles are never underlined or placed in quotation marks. They are either placed in italics or not. Here’s a good general rule for APA: When a source sits alone and is not part of beautiful mind essays, a larger whole, place the application essay service jmu title in italics. If the source does not sit alone and is part of a larger whole, do not place it in italics. Books, movies, journals, and television shows are placed in italics since they stand alone. Songs on an album, episodes of television shows, chapters in and a beautiful mind, books, and articles in macroeconomics, journals are not placed in italics since they are smaller pieces of larger wholes. Citation Machine’s APA citation generator formats the title in your citations automatically by following proper APA bibliography guidelines.
Additional Information about the Title. If you feel as though it would be helpful to the reader to schizophrenia and a beautiful essays include additional information about the of smoking source type, include this information in brackets immediately following the title. Beautiful. Use a brief descriptive term and capitalize the first letter. Kennedy, K., Molen, G. R. Shopper. (Producer), Spielberg, S. (Director). And A Beautiful Mind Essays. (1993). What Is Literature Review Methodology. Jurassic Park [Motion picture]. USA: Universal. Schizophrenia And A. Besides [Motion picture], other common notations include: [Letter to is literature in research the editor] [Television series episode] If you are using Citation Machine’s APA formatter, additional information about the title is automatically added for you. The APA citation generator will add this information based on the source form that you choose. Schizophrenia And A Mind. Information About the Publication.
For books and essay the rocking winner, reports, include the city and state, or the city and country, of the publisher’s location. Instead of typing out the entire state name, use the proper two-letter abbreviation from the United States Postal Service. Schizophrenia And A. Type out the entire country name when including areas outside of the United States. After typing the location, add a colon, and continue with the name of the publisher. It is not necessary to include the entire name of the publisher. It is essay, acceptable to use a brief, intelligible form. However, if Books or Press are part of the publisher’s names, keep these words in the citation. Other common terms, such as Inc., Co., Publishers, and others can be omitted.
For newspapers, journals, magazines, and other periodicals, include the volume and schizophrenia and a, issue number after the title in an APA citation. The volume number is listed first, by itself, in italics. Essay. The issue number is in parentheses immediately after it, not italicized. Giannoukos, G., Besas, G., Hictour, V., Georgas, T. (2016, May). A study on the role of computers in adult education. Educational Research and Reviews, 11 (9), 907-923. Retrieved from http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/ERR2016.2688. If the publisher is a college or university, and the location name matches part of the school’s information, exclude the publisher information from the citation. After including the location and publisher information, end this section of the citation with a period. And A Beautiful Mind Essays. London, England: Pearson.
New York, NY: Perseus Books. Our APA generator is an APA reference generator that will automatically format your publication information in your citations for be a wise, you. Visit Citation Machine’s homepage to learn more. For online sources, the URL or DOI (Direct Object Identifier) are included at the end of a citation. DOI numbers are often created by publishers for journal articles and other periodical sources. Essays. They were created in response to the problem of broken or outdated links and URLs. When a journal article is assigned a DOI number, it is the health effects of smoking, static, and mind, will never change. Because of its permanent characteristic, DOIs are the preferred type of electronic information to include in APA citations. When a DOI number is not available, include the source’s URL. For DOIs, include the number in this format: For URLs, only essay horse winner, include the information about the homepage and write it in this format:
Retrieved from http:// Other APA referencing information about electronic sources: - If the URL is longer than a line, break it up before a punctuation mark. - Do not place a period at the end of the citation. - It is not necessary to include retrieval dates, unless the source changes often over time. - It is not necessary to include the names of databases. When using Citation Machine’s APA formatter, if your source was found online, the online publication information will be replaced by the DOI. Our APA citation machine will properly cite your online sources for you, automatically. Click here for more information about the basics of APA. APA Citation Examples for Sources. Author Last name, F. I. And A. (Year Published). Title of work . Location: Publisher. Dickens, C. (1942). Great expectations . Application Essay. New York, NY: Dodd, Mead. Print Books with Two or More Authors. Last name, First initial., Last name, First initial, Last name, First initial. (Date).
Title . Location: Publisher. Goldin, C. D., Katz, L. F. And A Beautiful Essays. (2008). The race between education and technology . Cambridge, MA: Belknap Press of horse winner, Harvard University Press. Matthews, G., Smith, Y., Knowles, G. (2009). Beautiful Mind Essays. Disaster management in archives, libraries and museums . Farnham, England: Ashgate.
When citing a chapter in an edited book, use the wise shopper essay following format: Structure for and a beautiful, Chapters in Edited Books in Print: Last name of chapter author, First initial. Middle initial. (Year published). Essay Macroeconomics. Chapter title. In First initial. Last name of Editor (Ed.), Book Title (pp. xx-xx). Publishing City, State: Publisher. APA reference Example for Chapters in beautiful mind, Edited Books in Print: De Abreu, B.S. (2001). The role of wise shopper essay, media literacy education within social networking and the library. Beautiful Essays. In D.E. Agosto J. Abbas (Eds.), Teens, libraries, and social networking (pp. 39-48).
Santa Barbara, CA: ABC-CLIO. APA reference Structure for Chapters in Edited Books, found Online: Last name of chapter author, First initial. (Year published). Chapter title. In First initial. Last name of Editor (Ed.), Book title [E-reader version, if used] (pp. xx-xx). http://dx.doi.org/xxxxx or Retrieved from application essay service, http://xxxx. Example for Chapters in Edited Books, found Online: Lobo, R. F. (2003). Introduction to the structural chemistry of zeolites. In S. Auerbach, K. Carrado, P. Dutta (Eds.), Handbook of zeolite science and technology (pp. Schizophrenia Beautiful Mind. 65-89). Retrieved from https://books.google.com. Essay. If you’re still unsure about how to and a mind essays cite a chapter in a book, use Citation Machine’s APA formatter.
Your citations will automatically format properly when using the generator. Author Last Name, F. I. Wise. (Year Published). Title of work [E-reader Version]. http://dx.doi.org/xxxx or Retrieved from http://xxxx. Auster, P. (2007). And A Beautiful Essays. The Brooklyn follies [Nook version]. Retrieved from http://www.barnesandnoble.com/ Only the first letter of the first word and any proper nouns in the title should be capitalized in an APA citation. A DOI (digital object identifier) is basically a number that links a source to its location on the Internet. This number isn’t always provided, but if it is, it’s very important to include it in of smoking, your APA referencing citation. Author Last Name, F. I. Schizophrenia Beautiful Mind. (Year Published). Title of work . College Application. http://dx.doi.org/xxxx or Retrieved from http://xxxx. Baloh, P., Burke, M. E. (2007).
Attaining organizational innovations. To cite your e-books automatically, use the “Book” form on Citation Machine’s APA generator, click on “Manual entry mode,” and click the “E-book” tab. Our APA citation maker will format your citation properly following APA bibliography guidelines. Author Last name, F. I. (Year Published). Title of schizophrenia and a mind essays, article.
Title of Periodical, Volume (Issue), page range. Gleditsch, N. P., Pinker, S., Thayer, B. A., Levy, J. S., Thompson, W. Art Analysis. R. (2013). The forum: The decline of schizophrenia and a beautiful, war. Is Literature In Research. International Studies Review , 15 (3), 396-419. If your source is and a beautiful mind essays, found online, but there is no DOI provided, you can include the URL instead. A DOI (digital object identifier) is basically a number that links a source to its location on the Internet. This number isn’t always provided, but if it is, you should include it in your citation rather than including a URL. Unlike previous editions of APA, the 6th edition does not require including a retrieval date or date accessed for online sources. A retrieval date is only necessary if the source is likely to change (ex.
Wikipedia). Instead, ‘Retrieved from’ is used. Author Last name, F. I. (Year Published). Title of article. Title of essay, Periodical, Volume (Issue), page range. Beautiful Mind Essays. Sahin, N. T., Pinker, S., Cash, S. S., Schomer, D., Halgren, E. (2009). Sequential processing of lexical, grammatical, and essay the rocking winner, phonological information within Broca’s area. Science, 326 (5951), 445-449. http://dx.doi.org/xxxxx. If you need additional help citing your journal articles, our APA reference generator is an APA citation maker that will cite your sources automatically for you. Page numbers: If article is only one page long, use ‘p.’ For any article longer than one page, use ‘pp.’ If an article appears is on non-sequential pages, separate each page number with a comma. Example: pp.
D4, D5, D7-D8 APA referencing does NOT require you to include the date of access for electronic sources. Author, F. And A Mind Essays. I. (Year, Month Day Published). Title of article. Essay. Title of Newspaper , page range. Frost, L. (2006, September 14). And A Mind Essays. First passengers ride monster jet. The Salt Lake Tribune , A2. You may be wondering what to do if you find your newspaper article on a database.
Author, F. I. (Year, Month Date Published). Title of article . Title of Newspaper. Retrieved from newspaper homepage URL. Whiteside, K. (2004, August 31). Art Analysis Essay. College athletes want cut of action. USA Today . Retrieved http://www.usatoday.com. Author Last Name, F. I. (Year, Month Published).
Title of article. Title of schizophrenia beautiful, Magazine, Volume (Issue), page range. Quammen, D. Essay Outline. (2008, December). The man who wasn’t Darwin. National Geographic Magazine, 214 (6), 106. Author Last Name, F. I. (Year, Month Date Published). Article title. Beautiful Essays. Retrieved from URL. Example of an APA format website: Austerlitz, S. (2015, March 3). How long can a spinoff like ‘Better Call Saul’ last? Retrieved from http://fivethirtyeight.com/features/how-long-can-a-spinoff-like-better-call-saul-last/ Last name, First initial. (Year, Month, Date of macroeconomics, blog post).
Title of blog post [Blog post]. Retrieved from URL of blog post. McClintock Miller, S. Schizophrenia And A Mind. (2014, January 28). EasyBib joins the Rainbow Loom project as we dive into research with the third graders [Blog post]. Retrieved from http://vanmeterlibraryvoice.blogspot.com. On our APA citation machine form for blogs, you have the the rocking horse winner option to choose from and a beautiful essays, standard, audio, and video blogs. Citation Machine’s APA generator will automatically cite your blog sources for you. Writer Last Name, F. I. The Health Essay. (Writer), Director Last Name, F. I. (Director). (Year aired). Title of episode [Television or Radio series episode].
In Producer Last Name, F. I. (Executive producer), TV or Radio series name . City, State of original channel: Channel. Lin, K. (Writer), Coles, J. D. (Director). (2014). Schizophrenia Mind Essays. Chapter 18 [Television series episode]. In Bays, C. (Executive producer), House of cards . Washington, D.C.: Netflix. If using Citation Machine’s APA generator,television and radio broadcasts use the is literature in research methodology same form. Producer Last Name, F. I. (Producer), Director Last Name, F. I. (Director). (Year Released). Title of film [Motion picture].
Country of schizophrenia, origin: Studio. Bender, L. (Producer), Tarantino, Q. (Director). Winner. (1994). Pulp fiction [Motion Picture]. And A Mind Essays. United States: Miramax. There is the option to essay automatically cite films found online, in film, and on a database when using Citation Machine’s APA citation builder. Beautiful. It is highly recommended not to essay use personal (unpublished) interviews in your reference list. Instead, this type of source should be formatted as an in-text or parenthetical citation. However, here is an schizophrenia beautiful example of an in-text citation for a personal interview in APA: Structure: (Interviewee F .I., Last Name, personal communication, Date Interviewed) Example: (D.
Halsey, personal communication, December 12, 2011) Published Interviews should be cited accordingly if they appear as journal articles, newspaper articles, television programs, radio programs, or films. If your instructor requires a citation in the reference list, use the following structure: Author Last Name, F. I. (Year, Month Date Interviewed). Interview type [email, phone, personal interview, personal interview with [third party FI Last Name]. Halsey, D. (2011, December 12). The Rocking Horse. Personal Interview. If you are planning on using Citation Machine’s APA formatter, a note is displayed above the form stating that personal interviews are not typically cited in text. Our APA format generator creates in-text citations and full reference citations for you. Songs Musical Recordings found Online. *Note: If the name of the songwriter is the schizophrenia beautiful mind essays same as the name of the recording artist, leave out the bracketed information located after the name of the song.
Last name, First initial. Middle initial. of songwriter. (Year created). Song title [Recorded by First initial. Middle initial. Last name of the performer’s name or the essay the rocking horse winner name of the band]. On Album Title [Medium]. Retrieved from URL. Hedfors, A., Ingrosso, S., Angello, S. (2012). Greyhound [Recorded by schizophrenia and a beautiful mind Swedish House Mafia].
On Until Now [Audio file]. Retrieved from https://open.spotify.com/track/0VffaI2jwQknRrxpECYHsF. If using our APA citation machine, choose the form titled, “Music/Audio,” to automatically cite your songs and musical recordings. Our APA citation maker is an APA format generator that is free and easy to use. Doctoral Dissertations found on a Database: Last name, First initial. College. Middle initial. (Year published). Title of dissertation or thesis (Doctoral dissertation or Master’s thesis). Retrieved from and a mind, Name of database. Essay. (Accession or Order No. xxxxxxx). English, L. S. (2014).
The influences of community college library characteristics on institutional graduation rates: A national study (Doctoral dissertation). Retrieved from American Doctoral Dissertations. (37CDD15DF659E63F). On our APA citation machine, there is a form for dissertations that will cite this source type for beautiful mind essays, you. Last name, First initial. (Producer). (Year, Month Day). Title of be a wise essay, podcast [Audio podcast]. Retrieved from URL.
Goodwin, G. (Producer). (2016, February 11). History extra [Audio podcast]. Retrieved from http://www.historyextra.com/podcasts. Schizophrenia Essays. If using Citation Machine’s APA format generator, choose the “Blog/Podcast,” form to cite your podcasts automatically. Last name, First initial. [YouTube username]. (Year, Month, Day of posting). Title of YouTube video [Video file]. Retrieved from URL. Be A Essay. Damien, M. [Marcelo Damien]. (2014, April 10). Tiesto @ Ultra Buenos Aires 2014 (full set) [Video file]. Retrieved from https://youtu.be/mr4TDnR0ScM. If using our APA citation machine, choose the form titled, “Film” to automatically cite your YouTube videos.
Looking for a source type that is not on this guide? Here is another useful link to schizophrenia essays follow. An APA annotated bibliography is a bibliography that includes the full reference citations in addition to a small paragraph containing your evaluation about each source. When creating your citations, there is a field at the bottom of each form to add your own annotations. Looking to create an APA format title page? Head to Citation Machine’s homepage and choose “Title Page” at the top of the essay screen. A written work or composition found in print, or digitally as an e-book. Can be non-fiction or fiction.
A popular work published periodically (weekly, monthly etc.) focusing on a specific interest or subject. A periodical publication containing current events, news, interviews and opinion articles. A collection of pages that provides information about a certain topic. A scholarly work published periodically, containing highly specified research. A motion picture or movie.
Can be a fictional movie, documentary or even YouTube videos. Essays. Copyright © 2000 - 2017 by essay jmu Citation Machine™, a Chegg Service. Citation Machine™ uses the 7th ed. of MLA, 6th ed. of APA, and 16th ed. of beautiful essays, Chicago (8th ed. Turabian).
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Direct Seeding Literature Review Essay. The world’s total forest area is just over 4 billion hectares, which corresponds to an average of 0.6 ha per capita (Figure 1). The five most forest-rich countries (the Russian Federation, Brazil, Canada, the United States of schizophrenia beautiful mind, America and China) account for more than half of the total forest area. Deforestation – mainly the conversion of is literature review, tropical forest to beautiful mind, agricultural land – shows signs of decreasing in several countries. Around 13 million hectares of forest were converted to other uses or lost through natural causes each year in the last decade. Essay Horse? At a regional level, South America suffered the and a beautiful essays largest net loss of forests between 2000 and 2010 – about 4.0 million hectares per year – followed by Africa, which lost3.4 million hectares annually (Figure 5). Oceania also reported a net loss of forest (about 700 000 ha per year over the period 2000–2010), mainly due to large losses of forests in Australia, where severe drought and forest fires have exacerbated the loss of forest since 2000. Asia, which had a net loss of forest of shopper essay, some 600 000 ha annually in the 1990s.
Need of Forest Restoration: Within the last ten years, tropical rainforests have been destroyed at an annual rate of 0.8% of beautiful, area (Whitemore, 1997). So this things brings to human being to what is literature review in research methodology, think about the forest restoration. Forest restoration is defined as “actions to re-instate ecological processes, which accelerate recovery of forest structure, ecological functioning and beautiful essays, biodiversity levels towards those typical of climax forest” Various forest restoration methods have been developed, for instance, the accelerated natural regeneration ( ANR) (Jansen and Pfeifer , 1989), The Framework Species method(Goosem Tucker, 1995) and The Maximum Species Diversity method. The ANR method is Effective where natural regeneration is already underway. Eliminates nursery and the health, tree planting costs. Relatively cheap – Capitalizes on “free” ecological services US$ 1,400/ha. The Framework Species method is suitable where native vegetation is close by. Its only need a single planting and it is self sustaining.
In the Maximum Species Diversity method a large percentage of species are from the mature phase and primary promoters are avoided. The major disadvantage of this method slower growth rate and and a essays, post planting management is required. Now a days there is some evidence that , reforestation plays a key role in the long term of restoration of what is literature review in research, landscape functioning, as well as social and economic development. Schizophrenia And A Mind Essays? Reforestation can catalyses and induce succession of forest ecosystems using native species (Parrotta, 2000). What Is Literature Review? Direct Seeding: An ancient method of establishing trees is by sowing seeds directly where the future trees are required.
In many circumstances, this method is superior to the traditional method of planting nursery-raised plants. In several tropical countries, the demand for reforestation is often not met due to limited resources. Supplementing traditional planting with direct seeding can enable these countries to increase reforestation. Direct seeding is a regeneration method of sowing seeds directly where the future trees are required, whether it is for forest plantations, shelterbelts or in agroforestry. Beautiful Mind Essays? In this way the laborious task of raising nursery plants and transplanting them to the planting site is omitted. Direct seeding offers various interesting possibilities e.g. the ability to rapidly increase the area being forested or the effects essay ability to essays, provide rural people with an the health, inexpensive method to schizophrenia and a beautiful mind, obtain benefits from trees. History of Direct Seeding: Direct seeding has over essay service jmu, the last 50 years gained in importance, especially in North America and China where large areas have been direct seeded from helicopters or aero planes. And A Beautiful? Direct seeding from the air has been widely used in horse China where more than 15 million ha have been reforested between 1956 and 1985 (Xinhua Jingchun, 1988). In the developed countries more than 1?2 million ha were reported to be direct seeded in 1974 or about 20 % of the area being planted (Appleroth, 1975).
Direct seeding in the tropics is less reported compared with the subtropics (Australia and USA) or the temperate regions (USA, Canada and Scandinavia). Trials have been carried out and beautiful mind essays, reported from various tropical countries for example Indonesia, Philippines, India, Central America, Northern Australia and the Sahel in horse Africa. And A Beautiful Essays? Direct seeding in the tropics has been carried out essay outline many times without the results ever being published. In the dry tropics traditional forestry is limited and most trees are raised in and a beautiful connection with agriculture. Here, direct seeding already plays an important role, this could increase in the future by macroeconomics, being implemented in afforestation and in establishment of beautiful, shelterbelts. In the humid tropics it appears that direct seeding is less common, probably due to many tree species having recalcitrant seeds and competition with weeds being fiercer. Nevertheless direct seeding has the ability to be a essay, contribute significantly to tropical forestry in the future, probably not as the main regeneration method but as a method that under certain circumstances is superior to other methods. The following will describe various scenarios where direct seeding is employed in the tropics. Advantages of Direct Seeding: Most forest restoration projects involve planting nursery raised tree seedlings,, but this is most labor and capital intensive method of forest restoration.
Seed collection, raising seedlings in schizophrenia beautiful mind essays a nursery, planting and essay, maintaining planted saplings until they can establish and become independent all require substantial labor inputs (Hardwick et al., 2000). Furthermore root deformities caused by transplanting techniques can reduce sapling survival in the field ( Zangkum, 19980). The Potential advantages of direct seeding over schizophrenia and a beautiful, other plantation establishment techniques include cost savings associated with nursery care and planting as well as the possibility that trees established by this means may develop more naturally or quickly, than would transplanted seedlings or cuttings( Engel Parrotta,2001). The Eden Project in Niger is recommending direct seeding as an appropriate method of establishing trees where water is scarce (Eden Foundation, 2000). It is claimed that nursery plant use precious irrigation water, whereas direct seeding carried out prior to or during the rainy season does not need irrigation. They further maintain that plantation established by direct seeding tend to produce extensive root system, whereas the above ground shoots grow more slowly. In contrast seedlings in nurseries tend to produce large shoots and have to be irrigated or they they will suffer high mortality, whereas plants that established through direct seeding are more likely to be able to reach moisture remaining in the soil after rainy season.(Oschner,2001). This was quantified by Samba (1992) who sowed the seeds of Faidherbia albida at the same time as planting as planting nursery raised plants. Four months after sowing direct seeded plants were about twice as tall and had a mean dry root mass 25 times higher than that of the nursery raised plants.
The disadvantages of Direct Seeding: The significant disadvantages of direct seeding that can outweigh these advantages include low germination survival percentages, seedling mortality associated with weed competition and also poor weather condition (Evans, 1982). Steven stated that the results of direct seeding are affected by a number of factors including species, soil conditions, site preparation and techniques for seed germination. Garwood (1989) pointed out that seed destructed by animals also plays a key role in reducing seed germination. Direct Seeding in different purposes: Direct deeding can used for many purposes like for plantation, restoration, in mine spoils rehabilitation, in agro forestry. Negreros et al., 2003 worked in art analysis outline Mexico to restore the area by Mahogany seeds. Because this is very valuable for timber.
He found that Burying Mahogany seeds were clearly better than sowing them on the soil surface and it yields double comapared to sowing method. For restoration purposes by direct seeding method, Tunjai and Elliott (2011) found that seed trait is very important to achieve the goal of forest restoration by this method. They said Large or intermediate sized seeds, Round or oval seeds, Medium or low moisture content seeds showed good establishment when they sowed in the field for beautiful forest restoration purposes. Essay Service? For mine site rehabilitation Parrotta and schizophrenia and a beautiful essays, Knowles(2001) found that In term of horse, species richness, densities and life span over 40 years Direct seeding got the most priority. They experimented with four forest restoration techniques and direct seeding showed the schizophrenia and a beautiful essays good result for rehabilitation mine site in Brazil. Factors effecting seed germination when applied by direct seeding: Seed germination is the activation of the metabolic machinery of the embryo, leading to the emergence of review in research, a new seedling ( Poulsen and Stubsgaard, 1995).
Seeds of schizophrenia beautiful mind, some species do not germinate due to hard seeed coats hindering intake of water ( Baskin Baskin, 1998). Seed treatments can be applied to break dormancy and be a essay, improve the seed coat permeability. For germination to be initiated three conditions must be fulfilled: first seeds must be viable that the embryo must be alive and capable of germination. Schizophrenia And A Beautiful Mind? Second, the seed must be subjected to a proper environmental conditions, available water, proper temperatures, a supply of oxygen and what methodology, sometimes light. Third dormancy must be overcome. ( Poulsen and Stubsgaard, 1995).However seed treatments can be applied to break dormancy and improve seed coat permeability such as scarification, soaking in and a essays water or boiling in hot water or hot sand.( Hardwick Elliott,1992). Problems with weeds: Studies conducted by Sun, Dickson and Bragg ( 1995) in Australia, found that the survival and early growth of Alphitonia petriei through direct seeding are largely affected by weed competition and site conditions. The death of application service, germinated seedlings, a few weeks after germination in the plots where weeds remained undisturbed through out the experiment, was mot likely due to the effects of competition for light from the existing weeds. Results from both the glasshouse and field experiments also indicate that weed compition severely limited the and a mind early growth of Alphitonia. Frequent weeding is necessary during the early growth phase.(Engel Parrotta 2001). Problems with predation:
Seed predation can be severe and looses up to 100% have been reported. (Crawley, 1992). Seed predation has identified as one of the essay service jmu biotic barriers to schizophrenia beautiful mind essays, natural forest regeneration in the abandoned Amazon pasture derived from what is literature in research, rainforest ( Nepstad et al., 1991). And A Beautiful Essays? Garwood (1989) pointed out that seed destructed by essay service, animals also play vital roles in reducing seed germination. However Crouch And Radwan (1975) recommending seed coating and beautiful mind essays, pelleting against seed predators. But little is known about this technique in tropical situation. The study of Woods and Elliott (2004) was designed based on the premise that scarifying seeds before sowing them in the fields cleared of is literature in research, weeds would shorten seed dormancy to decrease the mind essays time available for seed predation to occur and that burial conceals seeds from essay jmu, potential predator. They found that ants were the only predator observed. Seeds buried or covered by mulch were better able to escape seed predation by ants or other types of predation. The results from Sun et al., 1995 showed that compacted and eroded soils are inhospitable to mind, the establishment of A. petriei seedlings. So,at this point site preparation is necessary to essay the rocking, overcome this problem. Points to achieve succession of using direct seeding:
Sun et al.1995 conclude that weed control and maintenance of schizophrenia and a mind, nutrient levels are essential for success. Engel and Parrotta (2001) suggested that what is required is a more systematic screening of potential species and their response to direct seeding under field conditions and college application jmu, evaluation of coast associated with plantation establishment and schizophrenia mind essays, aftercare. Seed quality is college application service also other concern, using fresh seeds collected from several parent trees growing on sites where soil and and a beautiful essays, climatic conditions are similar to those being reforested and planting should be carried on high rainfall. Woods and Elliott suggested that seeds should be sown in tha field immediately after fruit collection if possible. In order to college application essay jmu, minimize seed storage, species selected for dirct seeding should fruit at mind essays the beginning of the rainy season when direct seeding is most likely to be successful. Areas where direct Seeding could get an importence: Many tropical species have recalcitrant seeds, e.g. most trees in the dipterocarp family. This means that the seeds deteriorate rapidly after collection and can only be stored for college application a short period. If transport and and a mind essays, temporary storage can be reduced to a minimum by essay, processing the seedlot at the collection site before direct seeding the seeds at schizophrenia and a beautiful mind the planned site, the whole operation may be done in essay fewer days compared to a solution with a central processing centre and a nursery. This solution should result in a seedlot with better germination and possibly a higher overall percentage of established plants.
In areas with seasonal rains, recalcitrant seeds are adapted to ripen at the start of the rainy season and germinate soon after dispersal from the mother plant. Time for direct seeding will thus naturally be at the beginning of the wet season, just after collection of the seeds, where the rains will provide a good start for the seedlings. In contrast, nursery stock has to be planted out a year after seed collection at and a mind the onset of the next rainy season or alternatively at a time where drought can hinder the growth and survival of the seedlings. Many species will reach a fair size after a year in the nursery, resulting in more costly transport and planting of nursery stock compared to essay, direct seeding. In Southeast Asia large areas of and a essays, former rain forest lands have been turned into imperata (Imperata cylindrica) grassland, due to failure of reforestation. In Indonesia alone the latest estimate of Imperata grasslands is 8,6 million ha (Garrity et al.
1997). In these areas it is difficult for trees to establish naturally due to annual fires. Direct seeding in connection with constructing fire-belts could perhaps offer an essay, alternative method to reforest these areas. In a trial in Jamaica a variety of trees was successfully established on grassland (Roshetko et al. 1991, 1991). It was concluded that trees can be established by direct seeding even with heavy grass competition, providing that monthly weeding is carried out until trees reach a competitive size. In a Nigerian trial Gliricidia sepium was both planted and direct seeded in Panicum maximum pastures after mechanical seedbed preparation (Cobbina 1994).
Although planting showed better results, direct seeding could still offer a worthwhile alternative if expenses are taken into schizophrenia and a essays, account. In order to compete with the imperata grass it would be sensible to start the reforestation with fast growing exotic tree species for example Acacia spp., Leucaena, Cajanus cajan or Sesbania spp. In order to art analysis essay, obtain more valuable forest products planting or direct seeding of and a beautiful essays, native primary forest species such as dipterocarps could be carried out at a later stage when the essay the rocking horse winner grasses have been outcompeted. Otsamo (2000) reported that native trees can be establish in the understorey of fast growing plantation species; he found 63 tree species in plantations on Borneo, which was established on former Imperata grasslands. Costs and benefits:
Angel and Parrotta (2001) reported that the establishment and and a beautiful essays, maintenance cost of direct seeding of five species in Brazil during the 2 years study period averaged 747-912 US $ per hectare. This cost compare favorably with those for outline plantation establishment and maintenance at this site using nursery grown seedlings of native tree species in other plantation treatments include in and a essays same project , which averaged1200- 1500 US $.(Unpublished data).Therefore direct seeding in this project can reduce about 63% compared with the plantation using nursery grown seedlings. Appelroth, S.E. (1975). Work study aspects of planting and direct seeding in. forestry.
In Symposium Stand Establishment; Proceedings, p. 202-269. Engel, V. L. and J. Parrotta, 2001. An evaluation of direct seeding for reforestation of degraded lands in what central Sao Paulo state, Brazil. Forest Ecology an Management 152:169-181. Garwood, N.C.1989. Tropical soil seed banks. In: M.A. Leck, V.T. Parker and R.L. Schizophrenia Mind Essays? Simpson (Eds.).
Ecology of what is literature review in research, soil seed banks. Academic press Newyork, 149-210. Schizophrenia And A Beautiful Essays? Goosem, S. and N.I.I. Tucker.1995. Repairing the shopper rainforest. Theory and practice of rainforest re establishment. Wet tropics management authority. Cairns, Queensland, Australia.72 pp.
Hardwick K (1999) Tree colonization of abandoned agricultural clearings in seasonal tropical montane forest in nothern Thailand. In, vol. Doctor of and a mind essays, Philosophy. University of Wales, Bangor,p 168. Jansen, C.L. and S. Pfeifer.1989. Assisted natural regeneration: a new reforestation approach. USAID report prepared for the development of environment and natural resources. College Application Essay Service Jmu? Government of the Philippines 22pp. Negreros CP, Hall RB (1996) First-year results of schizophrenia and a, partial overstory removal and direct seeding of mahogany (Swietenia macrophylla) in the rocking horse winner Quintana Roo, Mexico. Journal of Sustainable Forestry 3:65-76 Negreros, C. Beautiful Essays? P. and R. What Is Literature Review In Research Methodology? B. Hall, 1996.
First-year results of partial overstory removal and direct seeding of mahogany (Swietenia macrophylla) in Quintana Roo, Mexico. Journal of beautiful, Sustainable Forestry 3:65-76 Oschner, P. Essay? 2001. Direct seeding in the tropics. IUFRO Joint symposium on tree seed technology. Physiology and tropical Silviculture, College of and a mind essays, forestry Natural Resources, University of the Philippines, Los banos. Parrotta JA, Knowles OH (2001) Restoring tropical forests on lands mined for bauxite: Examples from the Brazilian Amazon.
Ecological Engineering 17:219-239 Tunjai P (2011) Direct seeding for restoring tropical lowland forest ecosystems in southern Thailand. Review In Research? In, vol. Doctor of Philosophy. Walailak University, Nakhon Si Thammarat, p 192 Woods K, Elliott S (2004) Direct seeding for forest restoration on abandoned agricultural land in northern Thailand. Whitmore, T. Mind? C. 1997. Tropical rainforest disturbance disapperance and species loss.In: W.F. Laurance And R.O. Art Analysis Outline? bierregaard Jr. (eds.0 . Tropical forest remmnants:Ecology management and Conservation of schizophrenia and a, fragmant. communities.(pp.3-12). Journal of Tropical Forest Science 16:248-259.
Xinhua, C. and the rocking horse, Z. Jingchun. 1988. Schizophrenia And A Beautiful Mind Essays? Sowing from the air: China’s experience. Tigerpaper vol. XV: No. The Rocking Horse Winner? 1. FAO forest news. Zangkum, S. 1998.
Growing tree seedlings to restore forests: effects of container type and schizophrenia and a beautiful mind essays, media on seedling growth and what is literature review in research, morphology. MSc thesis, Chiang Mai Univerity, Chiang Mai. University/College: University of Chicago. Type of paper: Thesis/Dissertation Chapter. Date: 23 December 2016. Let us write you a custom essay sample on Direct Seeding Literature Review.
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